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For those familiar with the history of Danish Silent Film Lady of the Camellias, (Kameliadamen, Camille) adapted from the novel by Dumas, was filmed by Viggo Larsen, who starred in front of the camera as well as creating from behind it, as he was often won't to do, the film also starring Oda Alstrup, Robert Storm Petersen and Helga Tonnesen. It was produced by Nordisk Film and Ole Olsen and it's cinematographer was Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen.





The Divine Bernhardt that was immortalized as a model for Alphonse Mucha exists, the plays that Louis Mercanton adapted for the screen, Jeanne Dore (1915, three reels), starring Madame Tissot with actress Sarah Bernhardt and shown in the United States by Bluebird Photoplays, and Adrienne Lecouvveur (1913, two/three reels), do not, and belong to the province of Film Preservation, if not Lost Films, Found Magazines, a vital part of From Stage to Screen, the transition of the proscenium arc to visual planes achieved by film editing and composition having been relegated to desuetude. By all accounts there still is a copy of Sarah Bernhardt performing Camille on film.



Camille (J. Gordon Edwards, 1917) starring Theda Bara is, like The Divine Woman (Victor Seastrom), a lost silent film, there being no surviving copies of it. Motography not I coincidentally revealed, "Theda Bara in a sumptuous picturization of Camille is the latest announcement of William Fox to the public...Theda Bara as the unhappy Parisian girl who sacrifices herself on the altar of convention, has surpassed all her previous work. This production...Parisian life is followed in every detail so that the atmosphere of the story fits admirably with the acting in it." Surepetitiously, Motion Picture News used the exact same wording, it concluding with, The tears it caused were genuine and the emotions it stirred were deep."



It was a year during which Goldwyn Pictures had spotlighted Mary Garden in Thais, Jane Cowl in The Spreading Dawn(Basil King) and Mae Marsh in Sunshine Alley. Metro Pictures Corporation touted Ethel Barrymore in The Lifted Veil.







Using a still where the two lovers were in embrace on a couch, reminiscent of John Gilbert and Greta Garboin Flesh and the Devil, captioned with "Armand pours out his love to the adored Camille, Picture Play magazine during 1927 introduced the film starring Norma Talmadge and Gilbert Roland as "the latest screen version of the Dumas' masterpiece." Motion Picture magazine noted that it was a film in which Norma Talmadge would wear her hair bobbed, the studio having reported to the magazine that it would be an adaptation located in the then present day Paris of Gerturde Stien, Fitzgerald and Hemmingway and that the cast of the film would also include Lilyan Tashman.





The 1915 screen version of Camille was scripted by Frances Marion. the five reel film starred Clara Kimbal Young under the direction of Albert Cappellani.

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Victor Seastrom insert Greta Garbo banner
Sat, August 22, 2015 - 11:17 AM permalink
The photo caption beneath Einar Hanson's photograph Picture Play Magazine read, "Einar Hanson, who, made his debut in Corinne Griffith's Into her Kingdom is romantic adventurous, much more like a Latin than Scandinavian." In the article Two Gentlemen from Sweden, Myrtle Gebhardt relates about having dinner with him, her having at first hoped to interview Lars Hanson and Einar Hanson together in the same room. "For it appeared that Einar was working not for Metro, but for First National...Two evenings later I ringed spaghetti around my fork in a nook of an Italian cafe with Einar Hansen...Prepared for a big, blond man, whose bland face would be overspread with seriousness, I was startled by his breathtaking resemblance to Jack Gilbert. "Ya," he admitted, "Down the street I drive and all the girls call, 'Hello Yack' and I wave to them."



Motion Picture News announced the decision for the directorial assignment to the film with Director or Interpreter, "Svend Gade, the Danish director now making Into Her Kingdom is wondering whether he is engaged as a megaphone weirder or interpreter. In directing Miss Griffith, of course, he uses English; but Einar Hanson receives his instructions in Swedish" Meanwhile it also introduced Griffith's co-star, "Einar Hansen, 'The Swedish Barrymore' has arrived in Hollywood to appear opposite Corinne Griffith in her newest First National starring vehicle, Into Her Kingdom, by Ruth Comfort Mitchell." it had been announced by the magazine during early 1926 that, "Corinne Griffith is already planning to start work the first week of March on Into Her Kingdom though now she is only now finishing Mlle. Moditte, both of which are to be First National releases.

motion Picture Magazine in 1927 published an oval portrait of Einar Hansen with the caption, "In Fashions for Women, Einar is the first man to be directed by Paramount's first woman director. How's that for a record? Incidentally, Einar has become a popular leading man as quickly as anyone that ever invaded Hollywood." The caption to the somber portrait published in Picture Play magazine that year held a more sundry description, "Einar Hansen, the young man from Sweden who looks so like a Latin has fared well during his year in this country. he is now under contract to Paramount and has the lead opposite Esther Ralston in Fashions For Women." The film was the first directed by Dorothy Azner, who had worked uncredited with Fred Niblo on Blood and Sand.



Greta Garbo



Silent Greta Garbo



Danish Silent Film



Remade by Greta Garbo



Silent Film
Thu, August 20, 2015 - 5:42 PM permalink


Victor Seastrom-Greta Garbo

"The Image Makers see their images emerge out of the story. And then suddenly: darkness."- Per Olov Enquist in Bildmakarna, a fictional account of Victor Sjostrom, Julius Jaenzon, Tora Teje and Selma Lagerlof
"The stylistic changes brought about by Sjostrom's moving to Hollywood may not have been as definite as film history would have it according to the paradigm. Still the story of Sjostrom was transformed by his transition to Seastrom"- Bo Florin
An actress tells a film director, with whom she is having a brief affair, that he is not the author of the film he is making, "Hon menar att det ar hennes bok Victor. Inte din. Du mekar bara."/ "She means that it is her book Victor. Not yours. You are just tinkering with it."- Lynn R Wilkinson on the film Bildmakarna
While evaluating, or comprising, a filmography of silent film of the Swedish directors of Svenska Bio and Svenska Filmindustri; Mauritz Stiller, Victor Sjostrom, John Brunius and Georg af Klerker, and with them the camerman Julius Jaenzon, It was refreshing to find that author Astrid Soderberg Widing tries to agree with film critic Leif Furhammar that Georg af Klerker, who began as a filmmaker at Svenska Biografteatern, can be placed with Sjostrom and Stiller as being an autuer of the pioneering art form, in that, although he seldom wrote scenarios, he added a "personal signature" to filmmaking contemporary to the other two directors- during the centennial of the two reeler in the United States  and of Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller having become contemporaries at Svenska Bio. "Of the utmost importance is an appreciation of film, film as a visual literature. film as the narrative image, and while any appreciation of film would be incomplete without the films of Ingmar Bergman, every appreciation of film can begin with the films of the silent period, with the watching of the films themselves, their once belonging to a valiant new form of literature. Silent film directors in both Sweden and the United States quickly developed film technique, including the making of films of greater length during the advent of the feature film, to where viewer interest was increased by the varying shot lengths within a scene structure, films that more than still meet the criterion of having storylines, often adventurous, often melodramatic, that bring that interest to the character when taken scene by scene by the audience." The study of silent film is an essential study not only in that the screenplay evolved or emerged from the photoplay, but in that it is imperative to the appreciation of film technique. In my earlier webpage written before the death of Ingmar Bergman I quoted Terry Ramsaye on filent film,"Griffith began to work at a syntax for screen narration...While Griffith may not have originated the closeup and like elements of technique, he did establish for them their function." Director Ingmar Bergman  had been among those who had spoken on the death of the Swedish actor- American director Victor Sjostrom

While Ingmar Bergman was not unknown for his efforts toward film preservation- Widding credits hism with having preserved the film Nattiga Toner directed by Georg af Klerker- Gosta Werner painstaking restored Swedish Silent Films "frame by frame", taking thousands of frames from envelopes and reassembling them before copying them into a modern print, his enlarging prints made on bromide paper and then in order to reconstruct their shot structure, comparing them to stills from several films to insure the director's sense of compostition, his also recommending the searching for of all material on the film, including a synopsis of the plot and other descriptions of what the film contained. Essential to the viewing Swedish Silent film is the evaluation of the thematic technique of conveying a relationship between man and his environment, the character to the landscape, but before even introducing this the present author would share that there is an interesting quote form Gosta Werner the archivist from his having examined the restoring the films The Sea Vultures (Sjostrom), The Death Kiss (Sjostrom), The Master Theif (Stiller) and Madam de Thebes (Stiller), "In pre-1920 films, close ups were very rare, as were landscapes devoid of actors. Actually, shots without actors were very rare. Almost every shot included an actor involved in some obvious situation. The film told its story with pictures, but they were pictures of actors." It is with that appreciation of the art that the present author would look toward the photoplays that, with the development of both their dialogue and expository intertitles, became cinematic novels during the silent era. Werner further analyzes the early films and their mise-en-scene, making them seem as though they were in fact part of the body of work produced in the United States, "Many sequences begin with an actor entering the room and with the main actor (not always the same one) leaving the set." It is also of interest that the last film of the twenty seven that he restored was one of the most difficult in that it was a Danish detective film that lacked intertitles. Particularly because I found the cutting on the action of the actor leaving the frame of interest, if I can connect the quote to one from my own previous webpages on silent film, before reading Werner I had written, "The aesthetics of pictorial composition could utilize placing the figure in either the foreground or background of the shot, depth of plane, depth of frame, narrative and pictorial continuity being then developed together. Compositions would be related to each other in the editing of successive images and adjacent shots, the structure; Griffith had already begun to cut mid-scene, his cutting to another scene before the action of the previous scene was completely finished, and he had already begun to cut between two seperate spatial locations within the scene." It is now difficult to overlook the importance of Gosta Werner's having directed the short film Stiller-fragment in 1969. Produced by Stiftelsen Svenska Filminstitutet it showcased surviving footage from several silent films made by Mauritz Stiller in Sweden, including Mannekangen (1913) with Lili Ziedner, Gransfolken (1913) with Stina Berg and Edith Erastoff, Nar Karleken dodar(1913) with Mauritz Stiller behind the lens and George af Klerker and Victor Sjostrom both in front of the camera, Hans brollopsnatt (1914) starring Swedish silent film actresses Gull Nathorp and Jenny-Tschernichin-Larson and Pa livets odesvager.

It may be fitting that, although a film version of the novel the Atonement of Gosta Berling had been planned by Skandinavisk Film Central, a company that had merged the Danish Silent Film companies Dania Biofilm and Kinogram into Palladium, between 1919 and 1921, the first part of The Saga of Gosta Berling, during March of 1924 premiered in Stockholm at The Roda Kvarn, it's second part having premiered a week later- not only is the art-deco, art-nouveau theater famous as having continued into the twenty first century, but when constructed in 1915 by Charles Magnusson, included in the first films screened in the art-house theater were those directed for Svenska Biografteatern by Mauritz Stiller, particularly, the 35 minute film Lekkamraterna, written by Stiller and photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, which starred Lili Bech, Stina Berg and Emmy Elffors, and the 65 minute film Madame Thebes, written by Mauritz Stiller and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, which starred Ragnar Wettergren, Martha Hallden and Karin Molander. It is often written that Swedish silent film before Molander had paid devout attention to Scandinavian landscape and its effect upon the characters in the drama, there also being an underlying sense that the conception of space, traveling through space according the the seasonal, played a transparent part during the recoding of the now ancient, therefore runic, Prose and Poetic Eddas. true to form the daughter of Ingmar Bergman, Journalist Linn Ullmann, included the historical place of Swedish Filmmaking in her second novel, Stella Descending. "The once thriving ostrich farm in Sundbyberg was sold, taken over by two rival companies, Svensk Bio and Skandia, who joined forces to build Rasunda Filmstad, home of the legendary film studios. Here the filmmakers Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller worked alongside such stars as Tora Teje, Lars Hanson, Anders de Wahl, Karin Molonder and Hilda Bjorgstrom. Greta Garbo turned in an impressive performance in Gosta Berling's Saga in 1924, "giving us hope for the future" to quote the ecstatic critic in Svenska Dagbladet. I can well imagine how Elias must have cursed the day his parents put their money in ostriches rather than the movies....And so it passed that Elias was part of the audience that evening in February 1934 to see When We Dead Awaken."
Swedish Film-Victor Sjostromsilent-film


Scott Lord-Silent Film Victor Sjostrom: Swedish Silent Film
Mauritz Stiller Peter Cowie writes of a voice that was described to Vilgot Sjoman as being "so nice and gentle" it having "a quiet huskiness that makes it interesting". "'Yes, this is Stiller's room, I know for sure.'

After Greta Garbo took off her glasses to show Ingmar Bergman what she looked like, her watching his face to measure the emotion of the director, she excitedly began discussing her acting in The Saga of Gosta Berling. When they returned to the room, one that had also been used by Molander, Bergman poeticlly studied her face." It had been Gustaf Molander, during 1923 while director of the Royal Dramatic Academy, who had been asked by Mauritz Stiller to decide upon two students to appear in his next film. Mona Martenson was already in Molander's office when Greta Garbo was called in and asked to report to Svenska Filmindustri's studios the following morning. Garbo went to Rasunda to meet Stiller for a screen test to be filmed by Julius Jaenzon, whom she happenned to meet on the train, it almost to presage the unexpected encountering she had years later with Swedish director ragnar Ring while crossing the Atlantic. While waiting for Stiller to arrive, cinematographer Julius Jaenzon told Greta Garbo, "You are the lovliest girl I've ever seen walk into the place." While visiting Stockholm during 1938, Garbo asked view the film The Saga of Gosta Berling, her having said to William Sorensen it was "the movie I loved most of all." Not incidentally, Bary Paris has since chronicled that it was Kerstin Bernadette that had brought Garbo to meet then renowned Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman, his having requested it in order for her to return to the screen in his film The Silence. One of the smaller theaters, one with 133 seats, at Borgavagen 1, is named after Mauritz Stiller, another one with 14 seats named after Julius Jaenzon, cameraman for Svenska Bio. Biografen Victor, with its 364 seats is a permanent tribute to Victor Sjostrom and the 363 ghosts that at anytime may accompany him to, perhaps in search of a new Strindbergian theater known as filmed theater, step into the past. My earlier webpages, which often noted film festivals in Scandinavian, namely Sweden, had mentioned that, "In previous years Cinemateket has screened the films of Mauritz Stiller, it having published with Svenska Filminstituet the volume Morderna motiv-Mauritz Stiller I retrospektiv, under Bo Florin, to accompany the screenings. Bo Florin and the Cinematecket have also published Regi:Victor Sjostrom= Directed by Victor Seastrom with the Svenska Filminstituet." It also noted that at that time that the silent films of Sweden were also being screened on Faro, where resided the Magic Lantern and the dancing skeletons that appear when lights are lowered, possibly representative of the magician-personnas we only for a brief time borrow, identify with, while spectators; Ingmar Bergman had added a screening room to Faro that sat fifteen with a daily showing at 3:00.
During her Photoplay interview, Greta Garbo continued on the film remarking that,' Lars Hanson played my leading man...but there were no love scenes, not even a kiss.' About Lars Hanson, after having seen The Saga of Gosta Berling, Lillian Gish wrote, 'When I saw it I thought that he would be the ideal Dimmesdale.' There is a similar earlier account written before her autobiography where she is quoted as having said that she had been told to go into the projection room to watch The Saga of Gosta Berling specificly to decide whether Lars Hanson would be aquirred by the studio to play against her in an adaptation of Hawthorne's novel, "The moment Lars Hanson appeared on the screen, I knew he was the man we wanted." Mauritz Stiller in 1921 had directed Lars Hanson in the film The Emigrants (De landsflyktiga) with Karin Swanstrom, Jenny Hasselquist and Edvin Adolphson. The script was co-written by Stiller with Ragnar Hylten Cavallius, it having had been being an adaptation of the modern novel Zoja, written by Runar Schildt. There also seems to have been an unused screenplay written by Ture Newman. Photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, it was the first film in which Tyra Ryman was to appear. Exhibitor's Trade Review during 1922 listed the film under the title In Self Defence, it also appearing as Guarded Lips. It wrote, "It has a closing of real power. And by power, we mean the final thousand feet...It is a generally sombre role that falls to Miss Hasselquist, but it is played with fine feeling and excellant judgement." Interestingly, actor Lars Hanson had been briefly mentioned in the United States in Pantomine magazine during March of 1922, in Out of the Make Up Box, On to the Screen, written by Helen Hancock. "Lars Hanson, who is one of the most versatile actors on the screen, and one of the most versatile artistic breakers of the hearts of the Swedish flapper, is an adept in the art of make-up." An appreciation of the film made by Hanson in Sweden was displayed by photos of Hanson not only as himself, but in greasepaint as men much older than himself, it including stills from Bluebeard's Eighth Wife, Andre the Red and The Lodge Man. Helen Hancock had only months earlier in Pantomine praised Swedish Silent Filmstar Lars Hanson in the article How About those Viking Ancestors, A little Talk about Swedish Matinee Idols. The photo caption read, "He looks mild- but dare him to do something" It reads, "A star of the legitimate stage, where for a number of years he has has been one of the principal attractions at the Intima Theatre, Stockholm, this virile specimen of manhood is best known for his psychological characterizations." The author then praised Hanson for his doing his own stunts, acting on screen without a stuntman. To highlight this, the magazine The Film Daily later reviewed the performance of Lars Hanson opposite Lillian Gish, "Hanson may lack looks, but is a splendid dramatic actor." During 1929, Photoplay Magazine reviewed the release of The Legend of Gosta Berling, "the only European film appearance of Greta Garbo before she was sold down the river to Hollywood..It need only be said that Hollywood has made The Glamorous One...You won't die in vain even if you miss this one." Greta Garbo was interviewed in Sweden during the filming of Gosta Berling's Saga by for the magazine Filmjournalen (Filmjournal) by Inga Gaate, who had interviewed Mauritz Stiller in 1924, Garbo in the article having praised Stiller for his direction and having referred to him as Moje. Greta Garbo appears on the cover of Filmjournalen 8, bareshouldered, in 1925. Stiller, incidently, had invited Sten Selander, a poet rather than actor, to Rasunda before his having decided upon Lars Hanson for the film. Jenny Hasselquist also appears in the film- Hasselquist was much like modern Swedish actress Marie Liljedahl in that she was a ballerina, her having been  introduced to readers in the United States in 1922 through Picture-Play Magazine with a photograph it entitled The Resting Sylph. Sven Broman has quoted Greta Garbo as having said, 'We sat in a lovely drawing room and Selma Lagerlöf thanked me for my work in Gosta Berling's Saga and she praised Mauritz Stiller...She also had very warm and lovely eyes.' While filming Gosta Berling's Saga, Stiller had said, 'Garbo is so shy, you realize, she's afraid to show what she feels. She's got no technique you know.', to which the screenwriter to the film, Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius, replied, 'But every aspect of her is beautiful.' To those either fascinated by her, or, bluntly, merely erotically stimulated by her body, one possible reason for this was alighted upon by biographer Raymond Durgnat, "The obverse of Garbo's divinity was her shyness. There were few close ups of her during Gosta Berling's Saga because of her nervous blink." He added that it continued into her filming with G.W. Pabst, who speeded up the camera to adjust for it. "Years after his death Garbo still spoke of him in the present tense: 'Maurice thinks...'" Appearing seperate to the hard cover biography titled Garbo written by John Bainbridge was his work published in magazine form, which was titled, "Garbo's Haunted Path to Stardom. A hypnotic director made over her very soul." In it he gives an account of Mauritz Stiller's first session with Greta Garbo at Rasunda, where he asked her to act in front of the camera, Stiller having been quoted as having said, "Have you no feelings. Do you know nothing of sadness and misery? Act, miss, act." Stiller instructed that there be close ups of Garbo shot and this is thought by Bainbridge to be the reason Stiller remarked upon Garbo's shyness. An eerie not arose in 1962 as the author of a volume entitled The Stars claimed John Bainbridge to be "Garbo's best biographer". The author of the now out of print volume used a quote acquired by Bainbridge from "a woman who workded at Svenska Filmindustri, particularly, "Stiller was always teaching and preaching, Greta solemnly listening and learning. I never saw anyone more earnest and eager to learn. With the hypnotic power he seemed to have over her he could make her do extraordinary things. But we had little idea that he was making over her soul." The author portrays Greta Garbo in retirement, adding "Perhaps the last sentence is hyperbolic but the essence of the reminiscence is true." More eerie still is the foregone conclusion that Greta Garbo had sealed herself into a crypt of retirement, the article published as though her comeback was out of the question, despite the amount of truth in that there may have been- a photo of Greta Garbo, middle adged, perhaps thin with her facial skin drawn a little tighter than in most photos, with dark sunglasses, the author adding, "There is reason to believe that Garbo knows her career was mismanaged, and that from time to time the knowledge still disturbs her."

During its filming Greta Garbo and Mona Martenson had stayed in the same hotel together. The beauty of Mona Martenson is miraculous, a deep beauty that can only be seen as wonderous. In The Story of Greta Garbo, a rare interview with Ruth Biery published in Photoplay during 1928, Garbo relates of Martenson's being in Hollywood and of her planning to later return to Sweden. Karin Swanstrom, who had already directed her first film, also appears in The Saga of Gosta Berling. Gloria Swanson, when asked what she enjoyed in literature by Picture Play magazine during February of 1926 replied, "Just now I am greatly interested in Gosta Berling by Selma Lagerlof. I first read it in the hospital in France during my illness and brought it home with me." By the time Stiller had begun co-writing the script to Gosta Berling's Saga, he and Selma Lagerlöf had begun to disagree in regard to how her novels were to be adapted. Lagerlöf had asked that Stiller be removed from the shooting of the film before the script had been completed, her having as well tried to acquire the rights to the film to vouchsafe its integrity as an adaptation. During the filming Stiller went further; he then included a scene that had not appeared in either the novel or the film's script. After Victor Sjostrom had directed several stories based on the writing of Selma Lagerlof, while in the United States he had been interviewed by the publication Scenario Bulletin Digest and had seemed to broach the subject of film adaptation that had brought a rift between Mauritz Stiller and Selma Lageloff, "'Some great works of literature should not be attempted in motion pictures yet,' says Victor Seastrom, famous European director now with Goldwyn. He says further that one should not try to film a masterpiece unless the picture can be made as fine as the book." Iris Barry briefly reviewed the film by Maurtiz Stiller in 1926, "In Sweden, the creative impulse has not some much died down as been bled away" and from that context sees a film that, "shows a gloomy and unusual subject, full of sincere passion and conflict and with the fine somber, photographic quality peculiar to the Scandinavian cinema." There is an account of Mauritz Stiller having introduced Greta Garbo to author Selma Lagerlof and an account of Lagerlof having complimented Garbo on her beauty and her "sorrowful eyes." In particular, Sven Broman has quoted Greta Garbo as having said, "We sat in a lovely drawing room and Selma Lagerlof thanked me for my work in Gosta Berling's Saga and she praised Mauritz Stiller...She also had very warm and lovely eyes." Although far from being a playwright or sceenwriter, Selma Lagerlof flourished as a novelist during the silent film era, despite many of her novels having had having remained unfilmed, including the earlier Invisible Links (1894), The Queens of Kungahalla (1899) and The Miracles of the Antichrist (1897). After her contemporary, Swedish poet Gustaf Froding, had died in 1911, a year during which Lagerlof had published Liljecrona's Home (Liljecrona's Hem), Lagerlof went on to publish Korkalen (Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness, one of the most important novels included in the screen adaptations of the silent era as it appeared on the screen in 1920 directed by Swedish director Victor Sjostrom, in 1911, and Trolls and Men (Troll och manniskor. During 1918 she included the novel The Outcast (Bannlyst) and published a second volume to Trolls and Men in 1921. It was during the filming of Lagerloff's The Phantom Carriage that an ostrich farm that had fallen into desuetude in Rasunda was converted into the Svenska Filmindustri studio, and with that named Filmstaden. Lagerlof wrote the autobiographical novel Marbacka in two parts, her concluding the volume in 1930 and publishing The Diary of Selma Lagerlof in 1932. Victor Sjostrom had met Selma Lagerlof when she had invited him to Flaun during January of 1917.

After The Saga of Gosta Berling was shot, Greta Garbo briefly returned to Sweden to the Royal Dramatic Theater before being brought to Berlin for its premiere- Stiller was also with Greta Garbo for the premiere of The Joyless Street Like Greta Garbo, actress Mary Johnson travelled from Sweden to Germany. Mary Johnson had starred with Gosta Ekman in the first film directed by John W. Brunius, Puss and Boots (Masterkattan i stovlar) in 1918 for Film Industri Inc Scandia. The film was co-written by John W. Brunius and Sam Ask and was the first in which actress Ann Carlsten was to appear. The following year Scandia merged with Scandia to team Charles Magnusson with Nils Bouveng to run AB Svensk Filmindustri. Having been an actress for several films directed by George af Klerker, Mary Johnson was also that year to appear in the Swedish silent film Stovstadsfaror, directed by Manne Gothson and photographed by Gustav A. Gustafson. Appearing with Johnson in the film were Agda Helin, Tekl Sjoblom and Lilly Cronwin. Actress Mary Johnson returned to the screen to act for director John W. Brunius and cameraman Hugo Edlund in 1923 for the film Johan Ulfstjerna in which she starred with Anna Olin, Einar Hansson and Berta Hilberg. To add a sense of the film as a vehicle for the actress, author Forsyth Hardy has written, "Brunius could work effectively on a large canvass." Significantly, that same year Johnson starred for silent film director Mauritz Stiller and cameraman Julius Jaenzon in the film Gunnar Hedes Saga, in which she starred with Pauline Brunius, Stina Berg, and Einar Hansson. The screenplay was co-written by Stiller and Alma Soderhjelm and it is what appears to be her only screenplay. The film was an adaptation of the novel Herrgarssagen. Forsyth Hardy on Gunnar Hedes Saga writes, "Again there is a distinctive combination of a powerfully dramatic story and a magnificent setting in the northern landscape.When reviewed in the United States during 1924 while screened as The Blizzard although the film was reported as an adaptation of "The Story of a Country House", the review featured two stills and the subtitle "Swedish Production is Entertaining."; it ran, "This is highly dramatic and interesting, with several excellant scenes of reindeer swimming across a wide stream and following their leader blindly. The stampede is most realistic and well filmed. The rest of the film is quite ordinary and drags near the end." A second review from the United States seemed all too similar, "unusual entertainment through a strong dramatic story. A bit gruesome but splendidly acted...Drama bordering on tragedy...It is unusual in theme and from a dramatic standpoint, a thoroughly strong and forceful theme." The reindeer stampede was hailed for its "genuine thrills" which were "splendidly pictorial" but from that point onward in the plotline, the story was said to "drag slightly." and its interest said to begin to disappear. While the direction of Mauritz Stiller was seen as "unusually good; displays great sense of dramatic values", "Mary Johnson is pleasing though rather lacking in expression." Einar Hanson appeared as Gunnar Hede on the cover of Filmnyheter during 1923; it is an issue in which there is an article that reads "Mary Johnson, var Svenska Filmingenue framfor kameran". One source, perhaps resource, of beautiful material on the film is the Svenska Filminstituet Biblioteket. On reviewing Mauritz Stiller'sSir Arne's Treasure/Snows of Destiny in 1922, Exceptional Photoplays wrote, "Mary Johnson, if she has a chance to become known on the American screen, will show us what it is to be lovely without being vapid, with the magic of a child and the magic of a woman- tenderness and sweetness that is not chiefly a product of simpering smiles and fluffy curls." Forsyth Hardy looks at the entire film, "Herr Arne's Penger was essentially visual in expression. Mauritz Stiller and Gustav Molander, who collaborated in writing the scenario, appeared to have absorbed the values of the Lagerlof story and translated them imaginatively into film form. The film had dramatic balance. It also had a visual harmony absent from some of the earlier films where the transition from interior to exterior was too abrupt." Kwaitkoski, in his volume Swedish Film Classics, writes, "Stiller and his scriptwriter Molander simplified the meandering plot of the story, making the narration more consistent and building up tension in a logical way justified by the development of events."

Swedish Silent Film Swedish Silent FilmMauritz Stiller-Silent Film



While Garbo was finishing the The Temptress, Stiller, having written the script before the script department had reworked its plot, had begun shooting Hotel Imperial (1927, eight reels) for Paramount; she went to the preview of the film. Greta Garbo had said, 'Stiller was getting his bearings and coming into his own. I could see that he was getting his chance.' The conversation between the two actresses related in retrospect by Pola Negri may almost seem eerie, her account beginning with a telephone call from Mauritz Stiller, "May I be permitted to bring along a friend? She does not know many people here yet. Greta Garbo." After dinner Negri gave Garbo advice in creating for herself a unique personna, something individual, her going so far as to say, "Never be aloof or private" with Garbo adding the rejoinder without noting that they were both actresses that had worked abroad that they were in fact both remaining private while in Hollywood and Negri telling Garbo that she would soon have to film without Stiller. Negri writes, "She held her head high. A look of intense interest was spreading over that perfectly chiseled face, making it the one thing that one would not have thought possible: even more beautiful." In a letter to Lars Saxon, Greta Garbo wrote, "Stiller's going to start working with Pola Negri. I'm still very lonely, not that I mind, except occaisionally." Motion Picture Classic gives a jarring account of Stiller's new assignment, "It's just one director after another with Pola Negri...And the blame has rested equally on the mediocre stories given her and on the directors. The latter have failed to understand her...So Pola, according to my spies on the Coast, will give Mauritz Stiller a chance to understand her moods and make the best of them. The tempermental swedish director has been given a verbal barrage of bouquets by the other foreigners who handle the megaphone. Practically all of them proclaim him the master of them all." It went on with a severity to explain that the director and star were forever joined by their being tempermental, and that that in fact was the reason Stiller was dismissed from The Temptress, it claiming "maybe it needs temperment to combant temperment." Paramount, having had been being reluctant to allow Stiller to direct, at the insistence of the producer relented and granted his artistic license and freedom to create with the other branches of the studio. "He wrote the scenario for the film in nine days." Biographer John Bainbridge quotes Lars Hanson as having said, "I saw Stiller when he was ready to shoot Hotel Imperial', Lars Hanson has recalled, "He was bursting with energy. He showed me the script of some of the scenes he was preparing to do- mass scenes of people in a square. According to the script, that was to take three weeks of shooting. Stiller did it in three days." The biographer continues later by writing that after Hotel Imperial Stiller told Lars Hanson he then intended, for financial reasons and for commercial success to make only one more film in the United States. Greta Garbo had intimated words very much to the same effect, "'I'm not staying here much longer,' she told the Hansons when they talked about leaving Hollywood, 'Moje and I will go home soon.'"

Of Stiller's camerawork in the film, Kenneth MacGowan wrote, 'Hung from an overhead trolley, his camera moved through the lobby and the four rooms on each side of it.' In a brief review of the film R.E. Sherwood complimented Stiller on his use of camera postion and shot structure, but while praising Stiller as a director and the film's "visual qualities", which included "trick lighting" among its camera effects, which according to the author harken back to earlier "photo-acrobatics" from silent film director F.W. Murnau, Sherwood sees a lack of depth or meaning in the film's screenplay or its message as an organic whole in its having moment. Maurits Stiller Whether or not the United States can be viewed as imperial, as it is as seen by Dianne Negra, she writes about Pola Negri's character in Stiller's film, her almost connecting thematically the difference between Negri's role in the film and earlier vamp roles with the film's ending and its reuniting of Negri and her lover in a plotline similar to that of Sjöstrom's The Divine Woman (En Gudomlig Kvinna). 'The film closes with its most emphatic equation of romance and war as a close up of a kiss between Anna and Almay fades to the images of marching troops.' Mauritz Stiller, when invited to a private screening of Hotel Imperial for Max Reinhardt had said, 'Thank you. But if not for Pola, I could not have made it.'

Photoplay Magazine reviewed the film favorably, "Here is a new Pola Negri in a film story at once absorbing and splendidly directed...Actually, "Hotel Imperial" is another variation of the heroine at the mercy of the invading army and beloved by the dashing spy. This has been adroitly retold here, untill it assumes qualities of interest and supspense...Miss Negri at last has a role that is ideal..."Hotel Imperial" places Stiller at the foremost of our imported directors." Motion Picture Magazine reviewed the film with, "It accomplishes almost to perfection those photographic effects which directors have been striving for; and so simply and directly that one is unconscious of the freakishness of the camerawork in one's absorption in the dramatic unfolding of the plot, with rapid succession...It is a smooth, eloquent tale told in an entirely new language- a thrilling language of pictures...Though one is ever conscious that it is essentially a war story, and the menace of wartime is (constantly) present, there are no actual battle pictures. It is almost altogether a story of the reactions of individuals to war." Motion Picture News during 1927 looked at the view, "The story could be stronger, yet its weakness is never manifested so expertly has the director handled it. The plot disntegrates toward the finish principally because it is so difficult to keep it so compact all the way. The story centers around The Hotel Imperial...Pola Negri plays the servant with splendid feeling and imagination." Under its section on Theme, the magazine summarized, "Drama of intrigue and decepetion revolving around hotel maid outwitting commander of army and finding happiness with her bethrothed."

In The Negri Legend, A new view of Pola Negri written by one who really knows her, Helen Carlise of Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "In Hotel Imperial we see a world figure who having sufferred much, having learned much, can with her great gift of artistry portray the soul of a Woman." When reviewed by Film Daily it was deemed that, "Although the vehicle does not offer her anything particularly fine, Pola Negri makes a fairly unimportant role outstanding...There is ready made exploitation in the star's name and the mention of her latest production." Paul Rotha writes, "Not only was it the comeback of Miss Negri, but it was a triumph of a star in a role that asked no sympathy." Paul Rotha extensively quotes Mr. L'Estrange Fawcett, but because The Film till Now is out of print, the present author will requote it here, "Some may remember the use of the travelling camera in Hotel Imperial...the stage accomodating the hotel was one of the largest in existence, and eight rooms were built complete in every detail...Suspended above the set were rails along which the camera mounted on a little carriage moved at the director's will. Scenes (shots) could be taken of each room above from every point of view...to experiment with angle photography, representing impressions of scenes taken from the point of view of a character watching the others...the story could be filmed in proper sequence. In Hotel Imperial, an attempt was made to build up cumulative dramatic effect following the characters swiftly from one room to another by means of several cameras and rolling shots." For those who may have seen the subjective camera of Carl Dreyer in Vampyr, the quote is intriguing.

Stiller also directed Pola Negri, and Clive Brook, in Barbed Wire (Ned med vapen 1927, seven reels). Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "Again in Barbed Wire, Pola Negri proves herself one of our great screen artists. It would seem that Pola is to match the European pictures in which we first knew her, after her appearing in countless poor American productions." Barbed Wire was adapted from the novel The Woman of Knockaloe by Sir Hall Caine. Author and curator Jan-Christopher Horak writing about scriptwriter Lajos Biro in Film History chronologically follows Barbed Wire with a script directed by Victor Fleming, "His next film was to be The Man Who God Forgot (released as The Way of All Flesh, 1927), again to be directed by Mauritz Stiller, which went into preproduction as Emil Jannings' first American film. Pommer and Stiller both disagreed with studio executives about the script." This, according to the author, lead to Pommer's resignation and to Stiller's dismissal from the studio. When Stiller directed the actress Pola Negri again, with Einar Hanson in The Woman on Trial (En kvinnas bekannelse 1927, six reels), Photoplay reviewed the film as "An unusually fine story and one that offers Pola Negri a chance for penetrating character study. Not for children." Motion Picture News reviewed the film as being "well-suited" for Pola Negri, "Having done pretty well by Pola Negri with Hotel Imperial, Mauritz Stiller takes her in tow and guides her through a likely melodrama- one in which she makes a strong bid for sympathy...The director uses the cutback method in building the plot. but he gets away from the obvious plan by refraining from flashing to the woman...the characters are sharply contrasted and as the cutbacks develop it is easy to guess...it is logically told and builds progressively. Miss Pola Negri gives a sincere performance and succeeds in establishing a sympathetic bond with her audience. The late Einar Hanson delivers some elegant pathos as the sick lover." During 1927, Film Daily foreshadowed, quietly and not ominously enough, that, "Immediately following The Woman of Trail, Pola Negri is planning a vacation trip to Europe." It had earlier that year reported that "Cortez Opposite Negri, Ricardo Cortez will play opposite Pola Negri in Confession." A month later it reported, "Pola Negri began work yesterday on A Woman on Trial with Mauritz Stiller directing and Ricardo Cortez and Lido Mannetti in the lead roles" That year Paramount advertised Negri as "The Empress of Emotions". Negri was in Paris during the early Spring while Stiller was viewing the rushes and working on the cutting. It was reported that upon her return from Europe that she would make one more picture for Paramount before filming and already decided film slated to be filmed with Rowland V. Lee- it was elaborated that, "Although she is now a princess by virtue of her recent marraige, Pola Negri will not retire from the screen." She had by then wedded Prince Devani. The previous year Pola Negri had starred in the films The Crown of Lies (Buchowetski, five reels) and Good and Naughty (Malcom St. Clair, six reels). In her autobiography, Memoirs of a Star, Pola Negri describes her first meeting with Greta Garbo.'To tell the truth, I was also very curious about the girl...She smiled wistfully, as we shook hands...Through dinner she was resolutely silent...', her then giving an account of their conversation and of her having given Garbo advice. There is also an account of her attending a dinner party that Pola Negri had "given in her honor" "She had her hair waived and arranged in a novel style resembling a half-open parasol. Her gown for the occasion was equally sensational, being a silk green creation that had been to the cleaner's and shrunk so that the hem was at her knees." All four films that Stiller had begun directing at Paramount had been a collaboration between him and cameraman Bert Glennon. It was through Stiller that Greta Garbo became acquainted with Emil Jannings, who in turn had brought Garbo together with director Jacques Feyder, with whom Garbo often met with socially. Motion Picture News during 1927 published a photograph of "a little Sunday afternoon group of celebrities" in front of the home of Emil Jannings, the group consisting of Mauritz Stiller, F.W. Murnau, Jannings, and actor George O'Brien. That year the trade magazine reported that Emil Jannings' second starring film for Paramount, tentatively titled Hitting for Heaven, "was started last Monday under the direction of Mauritz Stiller." The Street of Sin (Syndens gata 1928, seven reels) starring Fay Wray and Olga Barclanova was begun by Stiller and finished by the director Joseph von Sternberg. It would be Stiller's last attempt to film in the United States before returning to Sweden in late 1927 and presently there are no copies of the film. Motion Picture Magazine during 1927 reported that, "Maurice Stiller, who was slated to direct Jannings in his first picture, will not be given that pleasure. Stiller is to handle megaphone work on Pola Negri's next production." Kenneth MacGowan writing about the film notes, 'The film was more distinguished for its players-Jannings and Olga Barclanova- than for its script by Joseph Sternberg. Paul Rotha wrote, "Taking shots through hanging iron chains did not establish the atmosphere of place, although it may have created pretty pictorial compositions. Sternberg seems lodged in this gully of pictorial values. He has no control over his dramatic feelings (Street of Sin and very little idea of the filmic psychology of any scene that he shoots. He has, however some feeling for the use of women. His contrast of Betty Copson and Olga Baclanova in the latter film was good." (It might be asked if this criticism is lacking in regard to the symbolic scenework of Ingmar Bergman, and that if his "pretty pictorial compositions" have been given just enough dramatic ambiguity to become symbolic in their being arbitary, a personal obscurity accepted as having layers of meaning.) Sternberg's work on Stiller's film has been credited as having secured his position as the writer and director of the silent films The Last Command (1928) with Evelyn Brent and The Case of Lena Smith (1929) with Esther Ralston. During 1928, actress Olga Barclanova also appeared in the films The Man Who Laughs (Paul Leni, ten reels), The Dove (Roland West, nine reels), Forgotten Faces (Victor Schertzinger, eight reels), Avalanche (Otto Brower, five reels) and Three Sinners (Rowland V. Lee, eight reels). Three Sinners, with Warner Baxter was the second film to pair Olga Backlanova and Pola Negri, their both having appeared in the film Cloak of Death in 1915. During 1928, Photoplay Magazine announced, "Lucy Doraine, of Hungary has been signed by Paramount. She is reported to be the successor to Pola Negri." During 1928, Fay Wray appeared in the films Legion of the Condemned (William Wellman, eight reels), The First Kiss (Rowland V. Lee). It was the year she began her lengthy first marriage to playwright screenwriter John Monk Saunders. Legion of the Condemned also that year appeared in bookstore. The Grosset Dunlap Photoplay Edition advertised John Monk Saunders as having been the author of Wings and published the film as a novel rewritten from one narrative form into another by Eustace H Ball, with illustrations from the film. Ball himself was an author, his having written the mystery novel The Scarlet Fox and had previously adapted into novel form the photoplay of the Douglas Fairbanks film The Gaucho. Pola Negri during 1929 had starred in The Secret Hour (eight reels), directed by Rowland V Lee.

The death of Mauritz Stiller is more frequently encountered when discovering the reaction of Greta Garbo, whom had heard of his passing while on the set with Nils Asther. Sjostrom, who had been with Stiller the night before and had telegrammed Garbo, described his last time seeing the then ill Stiller after his release from the hospital, "Then Stiller got desperate. he grabbed my arm in despair and would not let me go. 'No,no', he cried. 'I haven't told him what I must tell him!' The nurse separated us and pushed me toward the door. I tried to quiet and comfort him, saying that he could tell me tommorow. But he go more and more desperate. His face was wet with tears. And he said, 'I want to tell you a story for a film. It will be a great film. It is about real human beings, and you are the only one who can do it.' I was so moved I didn't know what to say. 'Yes, yes, Moje,' was all I could stammer. 'I will be with you the first thing in the morning and then you can tell me.' I left him crying in the arms of the nurse. There was no morning." Close Up magazine marked the director's passing, "The death of Mauritz Stiller has been a genuine loss to the whole cinema world. The great Swedish director, poineer of the artistic film, did more for the screen than people will realize. While others were despairing the lowly medium, when it was given over exclusively to vulgarity akin to that of the penny novelellete, Stiller was froming his conception of a great art, developing its potenialities, seeing far into the future. He was a great artist, working with profound care and intensity. His intensity may have been impart responsible for his early demise." Among the events of 1924 had been a visit by silent film stars Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks to Stockholm, Sweden. The two had that year appeared on the September cover of Motion Picture Magazine in the United States. There are accounts that while in Sweden, Pickford and Fairbanks sailed on the small vessel The Loris with Greta Garbo and Mauritz Stiller, their departing from Lilla Skuggan, and before arriving in Saltsjobaden, their passing where Charles Magnusson lived at Skarpo. As he was wont to do, biographer John Bainbridge quoted an unknown source in order to indirectly quote Garbo, possibly lifted from a fan magazine, or perhaps actually from a personal interview, "Content with her little circle of friends, Garbo resolutely refused to anything to do with the conventional social life of the film colony. When Mary Picford invited her to a dinner in honor of Lord Montbatten...Miss Garbo declined with thanks. Miss Pickford then wrote Miss garbo a long letter...This pleading missive brought no results. 'It would be the same old thing,' Garbo said to one of ther friends. 'Strangers staring at me and talking about me. I would be expected to dance and I despair dancing. I can't do it.'" Marion Davies laso gave a similar dinner for Lord Montbatten where Garbo also declined her invitation.

In the United States, Exceptional Photoplays, in an article titled The Swedish Photoplays distinguished the film of Svenska Bio for their "quality of composition" and "imaginative presentation" by introducing Mortal Clay, "Costume plays are often unconvincing on the screen because they fail to reproduce period atmosphere, but Mortal Clay (banal in nothing but its name) has succeded in creating for us the spirit of the Twelfth century...The plot is dramaticlly sound and absorbingly interesting. But the real claim to greatness which the picture posesses lies in the splendid composition of its scenes and incomparable lovliness of its lighting effects. There is a certain architectural magnificence in the picture". The magazine noted that Victor Seastrom was both actor and director and commended a "fineness of shading" in his performance. In the United States, during 1923 it was reported that the Sjostrom film Mortal Clay was screened by Little Theaters Inc, "an organization recently formed to boost the artistic standards of motion pictures." (Film Daily). That year the films Sjostrom had made in Sweden were becoming more widely reviewed in the United States- in an article that compared the no longer new art form of film to painting, Majorie Mayne, in The New Masters published in Pictures and PictureGoer, wrote, "And the director went to picture galleries for his data; Victor Seastrom reincarnated Renaisance art in his Love's Crucible, scene after scene of which remains an unforgettable memory, and in Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness, pictures of a different, thoroughly compelling type abounded." During January of 1922, Victor Sjostrom was already known in the United States as Victor Seastrom. Apparently he was then the object of the desire of the female spectator, which is reflected in the extratextual discourse of Helen Hancock, in Pantomine Magazine, who wrote, "We have kept Victor Seastrom untill the last. Because perhaps Mr. Seastrom might not like to be called a matinee idol- leaving that phrase to younger and perhaps handsomer men. But he is one, just the same...Of the heavy, rugged type, portraying men of strong emotions and virile personalities." She claims he was one of the foremost directors and a pioneer, and then compliments him on being an actor of the legitimate stage. Director Victor Sjostrom had left Sweden for Hollywood in 1922 upon the completion of the film The Hellship. Victor Seastrom Victor Seastrom The title of the book on Victor Sjostrom written by Bo Florin is fitting; the idea that Victor Sjostrom's coming to Hollywood to film would entail some type of transition and transformation was prefigured in Scenario Bulletin Digest, the Open Forum between the Writer and Studio, published by the Universal Scenario Corporation in 1923 when Sjostrom had first signed his contract with Goldwyn and the need to keep his artistic integrity was formulated by Sjostrom himself before he had toured the studio. The article illustrates the theme of Florin's book on Sjostrom by outlining the expectations of Sjostrom and Goldwyn, "The arrangement gives him a free hand in the artistic making of photodramas. The assurance that Mr. Seastrom will be unhampered in the development of his art is one of the most significant features of his connection with Goldwyn." The magazine quoted Sjostrom at a time when he had just only arrived in Hollywood and it would have been suprising that the quote had not come to the attention of Bengt Forslund, a biographer who had chronicled Sjostrom's transitions while becoming a revered, hallowed director of Swedish Silent Film and later through letters Sjostrom had sent while in Hollywood. "'No definite plans have been made as of yet,' he said, but I am to make pictures in the best way I am able, to satisfy myself as nearly as possible. That is all there is to it.'" He is again quoted,"The most striking attribute of American made motion pictures,' he continued, 'is their humanness. It is my hope that I will be able to develop this remarkable quality of humanness on the screen. It is this quality, i think that has made the popularity os so many American pictures abroad.'" It then profiled the director with, "Mr. Seastrom, who is also one of the most noted actors on the screen, has not decided, he said, whether or not he will appear in his productions in this country...Although Mr. Seastrom's fame has been more closely associated in this country with the grimmest sort of screen dramas. beautifully photographed, (some of his double exposure effects, notably in The Stroke of Midnight, never have been equalled) he has had striking success in his country with comedies." The Film Daily during January of 1923 announced that Sjostrom had signed with Metro: Victor Sjostrom had become Victor Seastrom, "Seastrom under the contract signed is understood to have the right to act in as well as direct his productions." Three months later it announced that Paul Bern was engaged to write continuity for The Master of Man. While noting that Name the Man had not been Sjostrom's Photoplay, Bo Florin records that while in Hollywood, where the techniques of Griffith and Ince had differed as to the details included in a shooting script, Sjostrom created from behind the camera, Paul Bern having had drawn the storyline into its treatment. "When compRing the script to the film, it becomes clear that these details consist of stylistic devices which Sjostrom in Sweden had been used to including at the script stage, but which are now added afterwards. Thus, Name the Man contains a dissolve combined with a cut across the line which shows exactly the same space from the reverse angle. While the dissolve remains quite conventional in its function, bridging a spatial transition, it's combination with the violation of the 180 rule creates an interesting effect." Oddly, as the studio was using Seastrom's name before filming had completed to advertise that "Golddwyn is doing big things.", the publication added to the extratextural discourse with "Americanizing Sweden by Films, Victor Seastrom, in a recent address stated that Sweden is fast becoming Americanized by American motion pictures." Early in June of 1923, it tersely reported, "Victor Seastrom has started shooting on Master of Man and later that month, if only to allow itself to be more concise, reported, "Edith Erastoff, a popular Swedish dramatic star, and wife of Victor Seastrom is en route to the Pacific Coast to join her husband who is Master of Man for Goldwyn." Exhibitor's Trade Review in March, 1923 reported similarly, "Another recent addition was the signing of Victor Seastrom, director and actor with Swedish Biograph to come to this country and direct productions for it. hat his first picture will be is not known." In April of that year it printed that he had selected The Master of Men, "The story selected is of such unusual dramatic quality that it will be worth all of the energy and directorial genius that Mr. Seastrom brings to bear upon his productions...The leading members of the cast are now being selected and the sets are being built." The film stars Mae Busch, Bo Florin noting that Sjostrom had not wanted Mae Busch for the lead, but that she had appeared in an earlier film, The Christian, an adaptation of the novel by Sir Hall Caine by Maurice Tourner- according to the studio, Sjostrom had to relent. Film Daily had avoided speculation for months before announcing, "Nagel replaces Schildkraut. Conrad Nagel will play the leading masculine role in Master of Man, which Victor Seastrom is now making for Goldwyn. Joseph Schildkraut was originally cast for the role." It soon added that "Hobart Bosworth will have an important role" before reporting in September that Sjostrom had finished while Alan Crosland was nearing the completion of his film Three Weeks. Motion Picture Magazine had a similar, but conflicting report during 1923, "Gost Ekman, matinee hero of Stockholm is coming over for the first American picture to be made by Victor Seastrom, the famous Swedish director...He plays in stock during the winter months- in pictures every summer. Seastrom's wife, Edith Erastoff, who usually plays opposite Ekman is coming to Hollywood to be with her husband. He has not stated whether she will go in the movies." During 1924 Carl Sandberg reviewed the film Name the Man (eight reels), his remarking upon Sjostrom's use of lighting, which, whether or not it may have had been a use of realism or naturalism, seemed underplayed to Sandberg and based on the enviornment rather than made more elaborate or as being artificial. "He was an actor, rated as Sweden's best, and his voice leads actors into slow, certain moods." Iris Barry is timely writing in 1924, imparting to the readers of Lets Go to The Movies, "Victor Seastrom, who had made Swedish pictures before Germany had begun its work (and too good to be popular) went last and they had they idiocy to put him to turning one of Hall Caine's intensely stupid stories into moving pictures. He did the best he could and played about a bit with the Yankee studio devices." And yet rather than providing a synopsis to the film, Motion Picture Magazine in 1923 relegated the novelization of the film to Peter Andrews. "She half rose as he returned and his bathrobe which she had flung around her slipped down, perhaps farther than it needed to." It was accompanied by a table explaining the cast of the film directed by Victor Seastrom and a capition which read, "told in short story form by permission from the Goldwyn Production of the scenario by Paul Bern." In his volume The Film Till Now, author Paul Rotha resonates a tone that can be likened to other critics his contemporary, "I cannot recall any example of a European director, who, on coming to Hollywood, made film better, or even as good as he did in his own surroundings." After mentioning Murnau, Leni and Lubitsch, the opines, "Sjostrom's Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness is preferable to Name the Man."

During 1923, Sjostrom wrote from the United States that he thought he might be given a script by Elinor Glyn to adapt into a photoplay, "I told them that I knew a film like that would succeed on her name, but that I didn't believe it was the kind of stuff I should do." He also writes that the novel Born av tiden (A Simple Life, written by Knut Hamsun, at that time could have been a possibility. 1922 had been the year during which appeared the second film directed by Gustaf Molander, Amatorfilmen, the first film in which actress Elsa Ebbengen-Thorblad was to appear, brought actress Mimi Pollack to Swedish movie audiences. Molander had made the film The King of Boda (Tyrranny of Hate, Bodakungen) in 1920. It was the first film to be photographed by Swedish cinematographer Adrian Bjurman and starred Egil Eide and Wanda Rothgardt. Karin Molander had in 1920 starred in two films by Mauritz Stiller, in When We Are Married (Erotikon) with Lars Hanson, Tora Teje, and Glucken Cederberg, and in Fiskebyn. She also that year appeared in the film Bomben, directed by Rune Carlsten. And yet Karin Molander would only later be mentioned to audiences in the United States, Photoplay Magazine noting in 1926 that she was no longer in Sweden and no longer married to Gustaf Molander, "With Lars Hanson came his wife, Karin Nolander, leading woman in the Royal State Theater of Stockholm and billed as 'Sweden's most beautiful woman' She hasn't appeared on the screen yet, but it shouldn't be long now with so many good Scandinavian directors over here." Karin Molander had been married to the Swedish director between 1910-1919, her and Lars Hanson having been paired together under the direction of Victor Sjostrom during 1917. Pictured together, a 1927 photocaption from Photoplay Magazine read, "When Mr. and Mrs. Lars Hanson worked for Swedish companies, Mrs. Hanson was popular on the European screen as Karin Nolander. But now that her husband has made a hit in this country, she has retired and decided to let his gather all the glory for the family." After their return to Sweden the Molander's were invited to a dinner party with Garbo acquaintance Knut Martin by visiting journalist Jack Cambell, who quoted Karin Molander in the article "I am the Unhappiest Girl in the World- says Greta Garbo", published by The New Movie Magazine. After Hanson related that he had lately seen very little of Greta Garbo, Karin Molander described the actress, "She was always a timid girl. terribly shy. Even in the old days in Hollywood, she used to go right home from the studio and go to bed. she'd never see anybody...You must admire her for the way she has fought herself upward, all alone, since Stiller." Picture Play magazine printed the article Two Gentlemen from Sweden, which was to comparatively interview both Einar Hansen and Lars Hanson. It read, "To crush flappers hopes, I regret that I must report he is happily married to Karen Nolander, formerly an actress in Sweden.She is charming and a lovely lady, whose sparkle and quaint naïveté have intrigued Hollywood." Victor Sjostrom wrote an article entitled The Screen Story of the Future, published by The Story World and Photodramatist in July, 1923, in which he advised, "The screenwriter must first of all have something to say, and secondly, the vitality and the sincerity that will enable him to say it in a deeply human way. But technique is vastly essential." As an act of spectatorship, Iris Barry looked at film directors in the United States, "Seastrom, the Swedish director, is a man whom America has ruined. In Sweden, one cannot help feeling the cinema has steered its own sweet course irrespective of a desire to please the people at all costs...There has been much poetry and a great deal of fancy in Swedish films." The Film Daily advised, "Keep your eye on Seastrom. He is liable to do some things that will make him one of the most important directors in this country." Readers in Sweden can affectionately know that it added, "Incidentally, if they can prevail upon him to act in one of of his productions he will also prove suprising." Photoplay magazine featured a magnificient photo Victor Sjostrom during 1923 in which he is holding a megaphone while standing next to his camera and camera crew in a foot of water while on location, shooting a scene from the middle of a stream; it is the same photo that appeared in Screenland Magazi Thu, August 20, 2015 - 4:28 PM permalink
Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo talar!

The private life of Greta Garbo escapes the slightest scrutiny of Richard Corliss, the earliest acting done by Greta Gustafsson only intimated as biography by a still photograph from the film Peter and the Tramp. By his own admission, Corliss only writes about the films Greta Garbo appeared in, as one of us, her many spectators, and keeps in front of the screen as a moviegoer in a theater. Referred to as peerless by Time Magazine, Corliss nevertheless acknowledges writes of biography as acquaintances that were brought to him though the study of actress Greta Garbo, among them being Ray Durgnant, Andrew Sarris and Molly Haskell, added to which are the names John Bainbridge, Kevin Brownlow, Pauline Kael and Norman Zierold that appear in his bibliography, which also attempts to add Parker Tyler, Georges Sadoul and Bosley Crowther. Nancy Gibbs, editor of Time Magazine reported the death of film critic Richard Corliss during the middle of 2015. These are the film's of Greta Garbo reviewed by Corliss, editor of Film Comment, for their value as films along with the interest in them and in the Greta Garbo that helped create them that was left unevaluated by the prolific film reviewer.



In the "First Interview She has Granted to any Magazine in Months", Greta Garbo in "The Swedish Sphinx Speaks" broke "her long silence" about when she would exit the silent film era, interviewed by Raplph Wheelwright in Screenland Magazine during 1929. "'I hated talking pictures when they first came out,' said Greta, stimulating a shudders guesture by way of adding emphasis to her words. 'They screeched and scratched. They were neither of the stage nor screen. Just monstrous nightmares. I thought to myself, I I have to appear in anything like that I ought to go home to Sweden and stay there. ugh! Now-' and Greta threw back her head and laughed. I am bored to death when I see a silent picture. It seems that something is lacking: life is gone when the players fail to speak their lines."

In the article Greta Garbo discussed there having had been being rapid technological developments in sound film while she had been in Sweden and mentioned her ability to fluently speak English, perhaps with little no Swedish accent. Not yet entirely completely refusing to be seen or quoted in public, she continued, "The public likes or dislikes a player solely upon what it sees of the player on the screen. I do not think a star's private life exposed in intimate detail serves any purpose than to satisfy curiosity. I am just a human being like anyone else. I resent prying into my personal affairs just as much as anyone in any other station or position rightfully resists similar intrusions.'" It was a monthly issue in which Helen Ludlam had introduced The New John Gilbert and Fashion Editor Adrain had introduced himself, authoring an article that was accompanied by one of his sketches and a photograph of himself with Greta Garbo taken three years earlier.

"Greta Garbo portrays the torments of love, but little else" was one photcaption that had accompanied Greta Garbo through the pages of fan magazines during 1930, specifically Picture Play Magazine, that had pages earlier praised sound film for having improved John Gilbert's image as a lover. Although correctly referred to a a hold-out for M.G.M, along with Lon Chaney, by author Richard Corliss, by then Greta Garbo by all accounts had made three sound tests, one from a monologue from Goethe's Faust, one a selection from Peer Gynt delivered in Swedish, and the other from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as Ophelia, the speech delivered in English. Norbert Lusk of Picture Play magazine was the film critic author Richard Corliss chose while deciding whom to select to relate the phenomenon of "The Voice: Greta Garbo's Sound films". To look at the article further and expand Corliss's quote, Lusk, who had serialized the photo plays of two reelers into fictional magazine adaptations, merely becomes perplexed by the baritone of Greta Garbo as the mystery of the Swedish Sphinx was to become more enigmatic and reach higher into the firmament reclusively. Significantly, or more significantly than is often viewed, by July of 1930, Talking Screen magazine has been added to the newsstand extra textual discourse. It read, "Gridley has fired. The Sphinx speaks! Greta Garbo has made a talkie. And the great myth of the movies- the legend of Hollywood- has received another tremendous impetus that will mean millions to M.G.M and it's sequestered Swede....according to director Clarence Brown...List to the oracle: 'I consider Greta Garbo one of the three Greta actresses the world has known, Bernhardt, Duse, and now Garbo.'" Author Herbert Cruikshank continued with his article Garbo Myth of the Movies More Amazing Than All the Mystery Stuff Is the Truth-Presented Herewith-Concerning Greta'" If not typical of the sentiment of the new adventure with sound, Talking Picture Magazine also went into publication as a proponent of the new moving, and talking, picture.

Greta Garbo





"Gorgeous Greta Garbo has swept into a national acclaim accorded few people in all of show history. The Phrase 'Greta Garbo Talks'- was blazoned from thousands of theaters. And ticket buyers came in droves." advertisement circulated by MGM to announce Greta Garbo in her second talking picture Romance, 1930




"Greta Garbo will have Charles Bickford as leading man in Clarence Brown's production of Anna Christie for M.G.M. and not John Gilbert as was first reported." After announcing the coming of a new Greta Garbo film, Motion Picture News printed an extensive series of advertisements by Metro Goldwyn Mayer on the new season of film. "Greta Garbo will appear in two all talking and one silent picture" appeared above the full page advertisement in Motion Picture News paid for by Metro Goldwyn Mayer. It ran below, "Greta Garbo in Anna Christie. Her first All-Talking picture! There's a title that will blaze mightily from marquees all over this broad land in the coming season. Greta Garbo, the divine beauty talking to her vast public!..In addition to the All-Talking picture Anna Christie, Greta Garbo will appear in a second All-Talking Drama, title shortly to be announced. This second speaking role for Miss Garbo is a vividly colorful characterization uniquely suited for her extraordinary beauty and talents. It will also be a silent production." "Garbo talar!!" was the title decided upon for the webpage authored by Louise Lagerstrom of the Swedish Film Institute. If it does seem more post-climatic than anti-climatic, actor John Barrymore had literally tried it first in an earlier film with synchronization, Pickford and Fairbanks both leaving their individual projects to co-star together shortly thereafter; Picture Play magazine speculated, "The Garbo Voice. What will it sound like? The Whole World waits to her the Swedish enchantress for the first time in Anna Christie." And yet, while audiences were waiting not all movie theaters were available for sound film and M.G.M divided their advertisement into a "Summary 16 Pictures Available for Theatres Without Installation: Greta Garbo, the flaming orchid whose seductive personality has made her an audience draw will appear in one silent picture, title of which is to be announced." While John Gilbert was scheduled to appear in his first sound picture Olympia, "Olympia:Title to Be Changed", Redemption, an adaptation of Tolstoy was being advertised as "A Fred Niblo Production, Screenplay by Dorothy Farnum". Before continuing to its advertisement of films "For Wired Houses", it included, "Lon Chaney in three thrilling silent pictures, the first Bugle Sounds. Titles of two more Lon Chaney silent pictures to be announced." Early during 1929, M.G.M. advertised Greta Garbo in Wild Orchids, "Sound or Silent", her having been assigned to "the most gripping story she's ever appeared in", and John Gilbert in Thirst "Equipped for Silent or Sound". Fred Niblo, introduced by a photo of Dorothy Sebastian in front of a microphone while filming one of her "new style scree tests, one for voice and one for photographic qualities", was attributed with having written the articles Crashing the Soundgates for Screenland magazine during 1929. The silent film director Niblo, noted in the photcaption for having directed Ben Hur, wrote, "Breaking into the talkie racket raises the ratio two thousand to one." Beneath them was a septagonal portrait of Greta Garbo Motion Picture News reported in July of 1929 that Greta Garbo was in rehearsals for Anna Christie, "her first talker". Picture Play magazine awaited the film, "At the very height of the talkie excitement, M.G.M. risked Garbo in an all silent picture in The Single Standard. It was a hit. Following her experiment in dialogue with Anna Christie, she may return to the silent fold, and I for one will not mourn. Garbo is a shadow. She suggests mystery, a mystery that has been in silence. What then will the spoken, tangible thought have to do with this peculiar appear? An out of character voice will ruin Garbo. She must speak as she looks- soft, alluring, and yet with a huskiness which her sophistication suggests...Always a good actress, Lilyan Tashman's throaty contralto has increased her prestige and emphasized her individuality. The talkie has given Conrad Nagel a new lease on popularity."

In 1930, Katherine Albert penned the article Is Jack Gilbert Through for Photoplay Magazine. She outlined Jack Gilbert's power of script approval, notifying audiences that his first sound film, Redemption had been "shelved by the studio." and that she wondered if it would ever be shown in theaters. The article reviewed his performance as having been "nervous", "too highkeyed and "sel-conscious". In the same issue, Photoplay released stills from Anna Christie, "This Clarence Brown filming of the O'Neil play for M.G.M. is eagerly awaited by Garbo fans everywhere. Garbo's first talkie is bound to be one of the sensations of the next few months."

Greta Garbo eludes, Greta Garbo evades

"There are many things in your heart you can never tell a person. They are you. Your joys and sorrows- and you can never, never tell them. It is not right that you should tell them. You cheapen yourself, the inside of yourself when you tell them."

Silent Film actress Greta Garbo

While waiting for the release of Anna Christie (Brown/Feyder, 1930), Picture Play magazine included a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull. Edwin Shallelert wrote, "Greta Garbo has gone to the extreme when exacting it within the studio itself...Greta Garbo has pursued the same phantom. The ordinary news gatherer, and the majority of the extraordinary, are not permitted on her set. It is told that once even some of her countrymen of the press came to visit and were ritzed, or felt they were." New Movie magazine devoted a page to Greta Garbo's first sound film, "Elsewhere in this issue Herbert Howe refers to Greta Garbo as the Hollywood Sphinx. But the Sphinx speaks in her next Metro Goldwyn picture, a new talkie version of Eugene O'Neil's Anna Christie once done by Blanche Sweet. Clarence Brown is introducing the Swedish Star to the microphone." The magazine also featured a portrait of Garbo dressed for tennis captioned, "The exotic Swedish star plays a great game of tennis. This isn't a posed sport picture. It's the real thing." Motion Picture News reviewed the film during 1929, "Her work is a sensation. Garbo has an exceptional talking voice, recording with a rich mellowness that exactly conveys her personality. A fine delivery of lines coupled with a splendid performance classes her among the finest of dramatic actresses...Clarence brown handled his direction with a deft hand that sustains the fullest interest in dramatic movement. His work is superb and the individual characterizations are particularly fine, with a small cast of four principals presenting sterling performances." It added, "Just as audiences repeat for Garbo in silent form, it is predicted the will do the same in her talker productions." "She was not pleased with the Anna Christie, writes John Bainbridge about a film that Garbo had first seen in the company of director Jacques Feyder and Wilhelm Sorensen, "'Isn't it terrible?' she whispered to them time and again as the picture unfolded. 'Whoever saw Swedes act like that?'" Although she apparently left early during the screening she visited actress Marie Dressler the following day with Chrysanthemums. Sorensen, after appearing in the refilming reversed their position, or emotion rather, "Garbo thinks this is one of the best pictures she has ever made, and she gives most of the credit to Jacques Feyder." Greta Garbo had worked out dialogue changes with the director during her second filming of Anna Christie. The character played by Dressler would in the second film be reenacted by Salka Viertel, who became, along with Mercedes de Acosta, one of Greta Garbo's more devoted companions during the period of early sound film, Feyder having returned to Europe after making the film, as had Hanson and Sjostrom. Garbo, who without entirely disappearing as though mysteriously, purportedly was travelling under the name of Gussie Berger, would infrequently be seen with Lilyan Tashman. After retiring from film, Garbo would later register at hotels as Mrs Harriet Brown. The magazine Hollywood Filmograph traced the early stardom of the entrance of Greta Garbo into sound film during 1930. It reported, "Niblo had planned to film Red Dust with Greta Garbo, but Romance was put on schedule ahead of this, so he will direct the Haines picture first, then Red Dust, according to present plans." It followed with the heading "Garbo in a new talkie", which read, "Forsaking the Swedish accent of Anna Christie for Italian dialect and garbed in crinolines in place of sweaters and oilskins, Greta Garbo has started work on her second talking picture. Romance, an adaptation of the famous stageplay...Clarence Brown, who filmed Garbo's first talkie for Metro Goldwyn Mayer, is directing." Hollywood Filmograph then alluded to Garbo's then next film, "Greta Garbo will be seen in at least three productions during the coming season, the first of which will be Red Dust. This is based on William Collison's story and presents the magnetic Swedish star as a Parisian." It later reported, "Fred Niblo, having just completed directing Easy Going starring William Haines at M.G.M., is right now preparing to direct Greta Garbo in her next story Red River which Fred De Grease is writing and adapting for the screen." Motion Picture News during 1930 echoed with a similar report on Red Dust, "M.G.M is preparing Red River as Greta Garbo's next talker following her current picture Romance. Fred Niblo is to direct upon finishing Easy Going. Red River is an original by Fred De Greasac and was formally known as Red Dust." With this was also, "M.G.M switches Niblo from Red Dust to Haines film- Fred Noblo will direct William Haines in the latter's next film for M.G.M, N original titled Easy Going...Niblo was originally scheduled to direct Red Dust with an all star cast but this has been postponed to follow the Haines picture so that Greta Garbo can take the starring assignment in Red Dust." The magazine later reverted to the title having had been being Red Dust and it having been based on a story by Wilson Collison, but it also carried an advertisement from M.G.M. itself, which read, "Greta Garbo in Red Dust" which claimed it would be Greta Garbo's third sound film. "The most unusual part she has ever played. On a Chinese rubber plantation her past in Paris is forgotten- gorgeous Greta Garbo gives the talking screen a performance such as you've never witnessed. This stageplay by Wilson Collison has the power of Sadie Thompson. It's going to be one of the year's greatest." The New Movie Magazine during 1930 looked at Garbo in regard to fashion. "The glamorous Garbo, away from the studio, affects dull tweeds and flat heel shoes. No expensive wardrobe for Miss Garbo. Yet she is Hollywood's most lavish purchaser of lovely lingerie. She spends thousands every year on fancy underthings. Above the photo of Garbo was a caption reading, "Spend between $5,000 and $25,000 on clothes." It continued pages later, "For evening Garbo is magnificent...She goes so little to social functions that one can do little speculating as to the number of outfits shew has, but the writer has seen a magnificent ermine wrap, with white fox trimming and several elaborate white satin, white lace, white chiffon, and white moiree gowns that could not cost less than three hundred dollars a piece." Within months the magazine added, "She wore a tan beret and a tan overcoat with a high collar and a pair of horn rimmed glasses. As time goes on the great Garbo seems to become more and more like a hermit." Another item read, "Greta Garbo loves spaghetti and never eats in the studio lunch room. Three years later the magazine interviewed the make-up girl at M.G.M., Lillian Rosini, "Greta Garbo has never used anything but the thinnest dusting of flesh-coloured powder, rather pinkish, and pale lip-rouge; nothing on her eyes at all. And by they way if I get anymore letters asking me if Garbo's eyelashes are artificial, I'll scream...I've been making her up for nine years...I ought to know her lashes are real.

Greta Garbo Advertisements sent by M.G.M. itself to Motion Picture News during 1930 relied upon the theme expressed on the cover of Exhibitors herald World, which almost comicly announced, "Greta Garbo talks again in Romance. Its her greatest"; after acknowledging the fame that Garbo had acquired by returning to the screen in a sound film, it depended on the recognition of her as an investment and it was discernably giving her press of its own, "Already the word comes out of Hollywood that Miss Garbo's new Talking picture Romance is destined to overshadow Anna Christie by far. There's no figure in all studioland whose screen activities are of such widespread interest. Long before a Greta Garbo attraction reaches the screen the magazines of the nation are heralding its approach, the public is breathless with anticipation. Its nice to have a Greta Garbo under contract to your theater. In 1930-31, the first of her three vehicles will Red Dust." Motion Picture Classic during 1930 noted in "Garbo at her best" that "It is probable that her latest and greatest photoplay, Romance marks the zenith of Greta Garbo's career. Garbo plumbs new dramatic depths. She adds new charm to her attractions, and is very much the star of the production...The selection of Gavin Gordon is less fortunate, but the shadow of the great Garbo softens the glare of his defects." Directed by Clarence Brown, the screenplay to the film was written by Bess Meredyth and Edwin Justus Mayer. Richard Corliss saw "recognizable curtain lines" that were to almost harken back to the proscenium arc of "filmed theater" during the cinema of attractions, deeming the blocking of the film playlike, "It was as if Clarence Brown, the admirable technician, had died with the coming of sound, and most of his later films were directed not by his spirit, but by his shade. The result is a feature-length series of static two shots, of statuesque poses instead of felt guestures." The portrait of Greta Garbo in costume from the set of Romance published in Motion Picture magazine was photographed by George Hurrell. Adela Rogers St. Johns, writing in New Movie magazine gave a portrait of Greta Garbo that veers from her being a recluse in The Heart of Garbo, How the Plight of her Leading Man Touched the Sympathies of the Star Who Walks Alone, Gavin Gordon went to Hollywood because he found out that Garbo lived and made pictures in the distant land of which he had heard so much." A still of them in the film Romance accompanies the article with the explanation of how Garbo insisted that he be in the cast and that she sent him roses, it quoting the actor, "'And she helped me through those scenes so wonderfully.' he said,'She didn't think of herself and how it would be for her. She was so kindly, she always made it possible for me to do each scene.'"

"Love?" She laughed softly, "Of course I have been in love. Love is the last and first of a women's education. How could you express love if you have never felt it? You can imagine, but its not like the feeling- who hasn't been in love?"

Greta Garbo- Photoplay magazine
Greta Garbo Faith Service, who had for more than a decade been writing about silent film and adapting photo-plays into magazine short-stories, printed the article "Garbo Never Sleeps- This is Her Tragedy- The Real Explanation of her strange life and her Broken Romance." Interesting to read, it contains what seems to initially be a plausible theory that begins to explain the mystery of Greta Garbo with, "The reason why she does what she does, the reason why she doesn't do the things other people do, the reason for her famous eccentricities and hermit-like existence, her lack of response to a social life, her lack of response to eager lovers is this- Garbo is an insomniac. She never sleeps." The article claimed that Mauritz Stiller had experienced bouts of sleeplessness before his death and go back and forth between rooms before finding a suitable bed, and that Garbo too had had mild instances on occaision that she was now using "constant sunbaths" and "endless walks up and down the beach" to preempt. It continued that John Gilbert's heart was still broken- "Garbo, too tired to love." Motion Picture Classic magazine during 1930 instructed, "To locate Greta Garbo, take out your binoculars and study the sun. Discover the hottest ray, locate where it strikes Hollywood and with the aid of a compass seek the spot. There you will find the mysterious one sunbathing. She never misses, so you will not have wasted a minute." New Movie Magazine during 1931 reported, "Greta Garbo seems to be emerging from her mysterious seclusion. She gave Malibu quite a thrill lately when she came down and spent a whole afternoon on the beach with friends." Journalist Cary Wilson later gave a portrait of the Greta Garbo he had met in Photoplay during 1936 claiming that he referred to her as "Fleck", which was short for "Svenskaflecka" and that he had first been introduced to her when she was standing on her head; she had been playing tennis which was then in turn followed by an hour's swimming and then another hour of hiking, "she still contained so much physical exuberance that standing on her head, on a sofa pillow, seemed to be the simple and desirable thing to do." Garbo had been winning at tennis after only having been playing for seventeen days. The extra-textural discourse depicting the off screen activities of motion picture actors, and sometimes directors, and more than often not the enigmatic ghostlike swirlings of the Swedish Sphix, Greta Garbo, who was by then established as the most reclusive actress in Hollwood, included an announcement during 1932 in the magazine Hollywood Filmograph, "Humphrey Pierson, one of Hollywood's best known writers was signed today by Joseph I Schnitzer and Samuel Schnitzner to do the adaptation and screenplay of "Greta, the Great", which is said to be based upon the life of Garbo." Earlier it had reported, "A number of feminine stars in Hollywood are said to be worried for fear that their private lives will soon be public since it has been revealed that Rilla Page Palmborg, author of the sensational 'Private life of Greta Garbo' is at work on a second book. It is not known whether or not this book will be a 'private life' although the book is said to concern Hollywood." Close Up magazine during 1932 also reviewed the biography, "But Rilla Page Palmborg in The Private Life of Greta Garbo got dope from Garbo's private servants. For the first time one learned that Garbo buys all the fan magazines and asks for her money back if there is nothing in them about herself. For the first time one learns that Garbo's favorite breakfast is grape fruit, creamed dried chipped beef, fried potatoes, an egg, home made coffee cake and coffee." Biographer John Bainbridge goes so far as to quote Gustaf and Sigrid Norin and after giving a similar account of Garbo reading, and returning fan magazines adds to that her bringing her lunch to the studio in a brown paper bag. "She also made a point of seeing every film directed by Ernst Lubitsch and Eric von Stroheim- in her opinion two of the most gifted directors in Hollywood. She usually saw her own pictures two or three times, on different occaisions." To the account is added that she avoided beauty shops and that she rinsed her hair after shampooing with camomile tea, which the housekeeper brewed from camomile seeds. Although Adrian had visited the house and had arranged its living room furniture and decorated its interior, the butler is quoted as having remarked that Garbo was apathetic about it and the making of purchases for it. During the filming of Sign of the Cross, Movie Classic quoted the film's director, without him expressing any further interest in the mysterious Garbo, and yet there is an allusion to the seductive roles that she was trying to ascend in his typifying her as a woman that could gain power through sensuality, "'The most voluptuous-looking woman in Hollywood,' adds DeMille. "is Greta Garbo. She has true voluptuousness- not of body, but of mind.'". To end the silent era, two months before Greta Garbo's last silent film, The Kiss (Feyder, 1929), Clarence Sinclair Bull became the gallery photographer of Greta Garbo, photographing her through several years, only in costume and only on the (closed) set. Author Mark A Vieira writes, "She liked him because, like Clarence Brown, he spoke softly, if at all." In an e-mailed correspondence with the present author, Mr. Vieira sent still photographs scanned from their original negatives in two seperate letters, their having been mostly left over and unused from the editorial decisions during the publication of his biography Greta Garbo, A Cinematic Legacy. One of the portraits taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull, as the reader will notice, is the one used on the cover of Mr. Vieira's biography without the publisher's title lettering. Vieira, who was an apprentice of Clarence Sinclair Bull, quotes Greta Garbo, "As she said, 'I had it all my own way and did it in my own fashion.' This is what ended her career and what makes her cinematic legacy the exquisite thing that it is."
One portrait of Greta Garbo included in the Estate of Greta Garbo auction was a gelatin silver print on double-weight matte paper with Clarence Sinclair Bull's blind stamp from the film Susan Lennox Her Rise and Fall. Motion Picture Magazine during the release of Susan Lennox Her Rise and Fall was explicit, perhaps perfunctory, in its publishing a portrait of Greta Garbo by Clarence Sinclair Bull with the caption, "The One- and Only" Underneath read, "There's only one gown in the world like this, just as there is only one Greta Garbo. It was designed by Adrian. An exquisite portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull appeared in Modern Screen Magazine in 1931 with the caption, "Although almost everyone in Hollywood knows where Greta Garbo lives, the swedish star hasn't moved for some time. Perhaps she's getting used to inquisitive fans peering through the hedges. She takes long hikes everyday and is usually accompanied by a woman companion." 1932 saw the article Garbo is like Lindbergh, written by R. Fernstrom and published in New Movie Magazine."Garbo is like Lindbergh. They act alike toward publicity.They shy away from reporters. Garbo is like the King of Sweden in many ways- kind, but aloof to everyone."
Greta Garbo It is a gendered spectatorship that places Garbo as a Cleopatra, who, as an alluring Queen, is looking at wealth as an abstraction in that to her it is aphrodisiac, her displaying herself as desirable admidst a backdrop of opulence; to know the secrets of her body is to be allowed by her within the solitude of grandeur. After Victor Sjostrom had returned to Sweden, Robert Herring, writing in Close Up magazine on Uno Henning in En Natt, a classic early Swedish sound film directed by Gustaf Molander, abruptly interrupted his essay to enter into a legnthy discourse on Greta Garbo, it being glaring that the section on Garbo is displaced in the essay, as if by overenthusiasm, to where he compares Garbo to Bridgette Helm only to stall with more on Greta Garbo before returning to Molander's film, "For with Garbo, too, there is the same sense of being linked to something more than one's personal life. Of carrying on and of being carried. Garbo in love, uses her lover as a means of reaching that land, that mood, that peace she requires. That is what is so difficult for her leading men, and so hard to find scenarios in which her leading man can continued to be wooed...Garbo has never lost this, this restless quiet..It is what makes her sometimes tired, which the movies try to turn into langorousness; it is what makes her dynamic, determined...Garbo astonishes people by being alternatively strangely careless and suddenly precise, right and assured." Film Daily reviewed the film Inspiration, "Greta Garbo dominates every situation and is the Garbo the fans want....Miss Garbo brings to the screen all the great possibilities of her talents with a combination of heart-gripping emotion and carefree indifference." With the superlative photography of Clarence Sinclair Bull, Greta Garbo inherited Photoplay Magazine journalist Katherine Albert, who summarized her writing during 1931 by herself paraphrasing her, "I'm bored with Garbo.", her looking at and foreward to the sensation differently with the articles Did Brown and Garbo Fight and Exploding the Garbo Myth, the former concerned with "the carefully guarded walled in stage where Garbo was starring in Inspiration, the latter making an event of Greta Garbo objecting to a line of dialouge on the set of the film Romance, including a photocaption which read, "the writer, who knows hers says there is not mystery about Greta Garbo". After explaining how successful artisticlly the work of Clarence Brown and Greta Garbo had been it asks what happenned during the filming of Inspiration, "The piece is an adaptation of Sappho. The book is now old fashioned. So is the play. A new script had to be written and neither Garbo nor Brown were entirely satisfied, but there was nothing to do but experiment on the set and see how it read. In order to get anything out of it, they must rehearse and rehearse and change and change. That's where the trouble began. Garbo would not rehearse." Photoplay reviewed the release of the film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox, "If you like your romance thick, your passion strong and your Garbo hot, don't miss this...M.G.M. stuck closely to the tale, modernizing it of course, and adding a trick ending. Garbo does her utmost with the tile role, natural for her." Although the announcement may seem odd to this century, The New Movie Magazine in 1931 had reported, "King Vidor has selected Ernest Torreace for one of the important roles in The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox, Greta Garbo's current picture." During 1932 it was well within the knowledge of "all the more studious Garbo fanatics" (Picture Play) that Greta Garbo was on the screen with Clark Gable, Their attraction to each other is understandable, their antagonism predestined, and their desperate reunion at the end of the picture holds no hope of tranquility." Picture Play thought highly of Greta Garbo adding, "Nor does she triumph in spite of her picture. it is a story entirely worthy of her." Richard Corliss includes Mata Hari with those films in which Greta Garbo's performance had been reviewed as "intentionally, or perhaps artisticly, lethargic". "M.G.M. had put Garbo through so many variations on the beautiful spider falling in love with the idealistic fly that the actress could have performed this part in her sleep- and more than one critic accused her of doing just that." During 1932 Regina Cannon directly quoted Ramon Novarro in New Movie Magazine in The Most Eligible Couple Will Never Marry, "Garbo is my ideal woman, but I shall never marry." The "startling frank article continued, "No other woman has impressed me so much; not even Barbara La Marr. Greta is everything that man desires. She has beauty, lure, mystery and aloofness that only men understand, for it is a quality which is usually to be found only in men. It is not coldness either. It is emotion." Journalist Ralph Wheelridge chronicled the making of Mata Hari for Photoplay magazine, "Announcements of the co-starring assignnment for Mata Hari sounded signal guns for rumors, conjecture and prognostication of all description. Those who have seen Miss Garbo about the lot during the making of the picture commented upon the gorgeousness of her costume and her unruffled contentment." The author mentions that her co-star had only met Greta Garbo socially on one or two occaisions, "On her dressing room table that morning Garbo found a huge mound of pink roses." He had sent a card reading, "I hope that the world will be as thrilled to see Mata Hari as I am to work with her- Ramon Novarro." Ben Maddox announced during the middle of his article Garbo and Novarro Together, Has Garbo found her Perfect Screen Lover at Last published in Screenland Magazine that he "had a long talk with Ramon during the making of Mata Hari. Ostensibly, little of it was about Greta Garbo, his quoting Novarro as having said, "Popularity is fleeting. So why should I be dazzled with a material success that is bound to end...However, I was delighted to do Mata Hari, it gives me an excellant role, one for which I am fitted. To me, the play is the thing. I like the co-starring plan. When one person alone is featured, the story is distorted to stress one character. And as a result the picture cannot be dramaticly effective..After thirty something happens to you. You get a more serious outlook on life."

Scott Higgins, currently. Professor of Film at Wesleyean University and recently the editor of Arnheim for Film and Media draws a portrait of Arnheim as an outdated, archaic formalist lacking vision, but notes that the author, a proponent of the visual as the basis of aesthetic theory, maintained that "an action can gain expressive power through 'indirect representation'. This may be in part evident in Arnheim's 1934 piece on Motion, "When in Grand Hotel Greta Garbo walked through the lobby with a springy, dynamic gait, she produced not only the most beautiful moment of the film, but also the most telling characterization of the dancer, whose part she was playing. Sr risk of doing an injustice to the most animated face in the history of film art, it may be said that Greta Garbo could give equally strong expression to the human soul by the rhythm of her gait, which depending on the Occaisionalism was victorious Nd energetic, transfigured, or tied, broken anxious and feeble."

Richard Corliss describes the work of Greta Garbo with director George Fitzmaurice, "As You Desire Me begins with a fascinating premise, and reworks a Pirandello play that seems intriguingly relevant to the creation of Garbo the star. indeed the film has everything going for it but good writing, acting and directing. Gor most of the film, Garbo looks as if she's simply finishing out her five year contract." Photoplay Magazine gave an eerie, perhaps unsettling, review of the film, " 'This may be the last Garbo picture you see' but at this moment she will not make any more now...if ever...And Garbo has never been more marvelous....The love scenes between Douglas and Garbo are the high points of the film and they Re almost equal to the ones played so long ago by Gilbert and Garbo. if this must be her last picture, we are glad it is such a fitting swan song. And you don't need us to tell you not to miss the film."

Film Daily tersely, perhaps succinctly, announced during 1932, "Greta Garbo, who gets more publicity by trying to avoid it, is reported due today with intentions of sailing on the liner Grispholm for Sweden. At the M.G.M. home office yesterday, nobody had any idea as to the whereabouts of the Glamorous Greta." It followed later with. "Greta Garbo wearing horn-rimmed spectacles and accompanied by the Countess Wactmeister has been reported in Paris for the last week shopping. She is expected to return to Stockholm this week. Hollywood Filmograph during 1932 chronicled that, "Greta Garbo, while in Djuisholm, Sweden, refused to see American reporters. But the door was opened to Rene Kraus, German writer. Greta told Mr. Kraus that she would not be back in Hollywood for two years. That Maurice Stiller had not left her any money. That she had not played a part in Ivar Kruger's life. That she was only a friend to Newspaperman Sorensen. That she had no intention of getting married." The magazine later continued, "WILL GARBO RETURN seems to be a much mooted question with the executives as well as the fans debating the question since the Swedish star left our shores, but she's still elusive." Movie Classic in 1932 reported that the United States was on tenterhooks as Greta Garbo neared the shores of Sweden, "She permitted a young American poet, named Philip Cummings to share her society- and even to laugh with her. And when her boat docked at Gothenburg, she was so excited that she actually summoned reporters to her! She told them- with a smile- that she was not afraid of reporters...but that she was tired of being written about so much. She added that she was not returning to America in the near future...She said she could tell no one her future plans." Movie Classic reported that while talking to reporters Garbo had to admit to the eventuality of her returning to the Hollywood screen. John Bainbridge gives an account of the events around Greta Garbo and her having departed for Sweden for an entirety of eight months. "Besides arranging to have her name omitted from the ships passenger list, she quietly slipped aboard the liner the night before it sailed. She had spent a period of weeks on an island swimming and sunbathing before returning to Stockholm, where she was visited by Mercedes de Acosta. She had read a biography of on encouragement of Salka Viertel about the throne of Sweden and of one who, during her reign, her "distaste of marriage was profound, she had swarms of lovers...she rewarded her favorites lavishly with money, land and titles...She also gave away half the crown lands." Garbo read the completed script to Queen Christina written Viertel and a colleague, it being made a stipulation of the renewal of her contract. She was met by Viertel on her return to the United States. Greta Garbo Nearing the end of 1933, Hollywood Filmograph reported. "The famous Lola Montez- will be the next character that Greta Garbo will try as M.G.M have bought a story of the dashing Lola that vamped The King of Bavaria. The title of the story Heavenly Sinner, which has a glamorous, picturesque background and should exactly fit the mysterious one. That year the periodical published Looking through the Telescope, by Lal Chand Mehra, which outlined filmic spectatorship as being concerned with "the channels of the mystery of knowledge" and that the spectator remained distant and aloof so as to mystify the view, "Greta Garbo's greatest appeal in my humble opinion lies in the fact that this consummate actress always leaves an air of mystery about her. Even though she has portrayed ordinary human characters in all her pictures, she has carried an aloofness that the audiences never understand. This very distance has made Miss Garbo an attractive character...Her human portrayals are mystically beautiful. This question is- what can she do in a real mystic part?" Rilla Page Palmborg, the journalist, who has on several occaisions been credited with having created the initial "Mysterious Stranger" image of Greta Garbo in regard to the interpretations of Greta Garbo's personal life and how they were or were not neccesarily translated on to the screen, returned to Photoplay in 1933 to write the article "Now Its $12,500 a week", the title coming from Garbo's apparently wondering if there would be an early retirement she would enter and if he current salary would compensate for her being neglected, "However that may be, Garbo is now busy with her friend, Mrs. Berthold Viertel, wife of the German motion picture director, hunting a house and otherwise getting established. Metro is humming with excitement- and these matters stand untill the next development." Garbo had returned from Sweden and "She didn't know whether she'd care to make pictures next year." To begin 1934, in Hollywood Reporter it was reported that, "M.G.M has quietly shelved The Paradine Case by Robert Hichens. Story was wrangled over as a possible vehicle for Greta Garbo, but no go, owing to a character problem that could not be cracked, to which it within months added, "M.G.M. cannot make up its mind as to the cast decisions for Indo-China, originally scheduling it under Bernie Hyman's wing for Constance Bennet, but now giving it serious consideration as possible Greta Garbo vehicle."

New Movie Magazine anticipated the release of Queen Christina in Advanced News of Films in the making, "The Garbo set, as usual, was closed to all but the people actually working on it...Miss Garbo's schedule during production never varies a minute. You could set your watch by the entrance of her limousine through the front gates each morning at seven forty five. She spends an hour studying her lines and being made up. At nine o'clock on the dot she arrives on the set. At nine thirty, the first scene rehearsed or made, she disappeares into her portable dressing room and has fruit juice and tea, her breakfast" New Movie went on to outline the rest of her predictable day of shooting. During 1934, Photoplay succinctly encapsulated the onscreen Greta Garbo, "in Queen Christina, Greta Garbo and John Gilbert have a rendezvous in an inn. To Christina, all the inanimate things in their chummy room become very dear, due to their association with her romance. One sequence consists of Garbo hovering about the room, caressing various objects while Gilbert watches silently. She takes her time too." The caption of a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull published in Photoplay during 1934 read, "Greta Garbo as Queen Christina is impressively beautiful." In Three Weeks with Garbo, published in 1936, Leon Surmelian began with, "After twelve years of entertaining the public as the screen's No 1 glamour gal, my and your weakness, the incomparable Garbo remains the same elusive shadow, the same lovely enigma to the world that worships her at her feet...It was during the filming of the memorable Queen Chistina when Katerine Hepburn tried to crash Garbo's stage as an extra and failed where I succeeded. And now I will give you an intimate closeup of the Swedish Sphinx out of my won personal observations." Greta Garbo It reviewed the film, "The magnificient Greta, after an abscence of over a year, makes a glorious reappearance on the screen...on the whole, Rouben Mammoulian's direction is admirable; S.J. Behrman's dialouge is scintillating; settings and costumes are rich." Tucked away in a secluded corner of a 1933-4 issue of Cinema Quarterly is a review of Queen Christina written by Paul Rotha. "I do not find it in me to write about this picture, but I must write instead about Garbo, who contrives, though Heaven knows how, to surpass all the badness they thrust upon her...Here a lithe figure sheathed in men's breeches and stamping boots, she strides into our prescence and again reveals her dynamic personal magneticism. She is a woman, it seems, destined to contrive in a world that spells misunderstanding...Queen Christina perhaps comes nearest; with its great close-ups and sublime fading shot. But the showman tricks of Mamoulian and the falseness of the environment conspire against her." Cinema Quarterly was also a magazine that published The Film Critic of Today and Tommorow, by Rudolph Arnheim, who wrote, "In an essay....Mamoulian was blamed for having allowed himself to be influenced by the "innocent vanity" of Greta Garbo. Almost simultaneously there appeared in a German newspaper, an interview in which Greta Garbo said, "You ask whether I am satisfied with the Christina film? Not at all. How could you think that? If I had any say in the matter, it would be quite different. But what one would like oneself is never realized. I shall never act the part of which I have dreamed." After continuing to write that he and his readers were not to be concerned "with a defence of Greta Garbo", Arnheim notes a creative dichotomy between actor and director, much like the one posited by silent film historians that saw the two reel film evolve into the eight reel during the time of Bitzer and Griffith where the scenario and photoplay emerged and developed. Hollywood magazine during 1934 published an article titled, "Garbo Finds Love" without revealing the name of its author, the headline reading, "The budding and blossoming of Garbo's romance with Mammoulian, as seen through the eyes of an actress who worked with her in Queen Christina, but for obvious reasons must remain anonymous." It began, "As one of those who worked with Garbo in Queen Christina, I saw her romance with Rouben Mammoulian bud and grow and flower into love. And I, like the rest of Hollywood, believe they will soon marry." The cover Movie Classic magazine hosted the title, "Will Garbo marry her Director". Between the covers, underneath an oval photograph of Greta Garbo as Queen Christina, read the caption,"Portrait by Bull". It stated, "Greta Garbo and John Gilbert were only a few feet away from the city clerk and matrimony when she turned away, shaking her head. 'I have changed my mind.', she said. But now apparently the man for whom she has waited has now appeared. Rouben Mammoulian, the famous director of stage and screen, is that man." Journalist Dorothy Manners for New Movie Magazine that year asked, "Will Garbo Marry Mamoulian during an article in which she quoted the director, "Mamoulian only shrugs, 'The story that Miss Garbo and I plan to be married is absurd.'" Mamoulian, Greta Garbo and Salka Viertel had been dining together that evening. Silver Screen during 1934 observed, "The Garbo Mammoulian romance seems to develop steadily. The two have been quietly lunching at the Ambassador and dining at the Russian Eagle quite often lately." It was nestled on a page titled More Gossip-Whispers are Little Daggers. John Gilbert would make only one film after having been reunited with Greta Garbo in Queen Christina, The Captain Hates the Sea (1934). Bainbridge writes, "It was reported, erroneously, that when Garbo was informed of his death she said, 'What is that to me?' Actually she was vacationing in Stockholm when Gilbert died [1936] and was given the news by a Swedish reporter in the foyer of the Royal Dramatic Theater during an intermission. She refused to make any comment; shortly afterward she left the theater." There is one account, if not more, that the role in Queen Christina was first going to be offered to Lord Olivier and was given to John Gilbert on Greta Garbo's insistence. Greta Garbo Hal E. Wood contributed Garbo Frowns Again to Hollywood in 1934, "Greta Garbo is anything but pleased over the action of Metro in signing assigning Victor Fleming to direct her in the Painted Veil. In fasct there are rumblings to the effect that the Swede is dusting off." The magazine claimed that Garbo wanted to leave for Sweden due to her lack of director approval and that she favored making a second film with Mammoulian, to which it appended, "Greta's lonely again" in its News Slueth section, "It's all over between garbo and Rouben mammoulian if you take the word of the chatters...Incidently, the star has rescinded her demand that Mammoulian, who directed her in Queen Christina be named her guide through The Painted veil and has approved Richard Boleslavsly as her megaphonist" Milton Brown photographed Greta Garbo on the set of The Painted Veil for The New Movie Magazine during 1934. It pointed out, "Notice the raised boards Garbo walks on to increse her height." A second photograph taken on the set of The Painted Veil by Milton Brown accompanying Garbo Starts Her New Picture took up more than three fourths of two pages in Photoplay, "Take 1- which means the first scene in Greta's new Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film, The Painted Veil. The first call of 'Camera' for a Garbo picture is always a thrilling second. This time it stirred more excitement than ever before...All the sets for The Painted Veil were constructed on stilts, as this photograph reveals. The set has a ceiling, which is unusual from a scenic angle." Hollywood magazine during 1935 printed the article "Garbo's Cameraman Talks At Last, where William Daniels was quoted as having said, "She has been pictured as gloomy, aloof, frightened, imperious and a hundred other things as unlike her real self as are midnight and noon. The real Greta Garbo is the most sensible woman I have ever known. The keynotes of her character are intelligence, simplicity and absolute sincerity....Garbo likes to look through the camera to see what the scene is going to look like, but she does n't thrust her opinions on any of her fellow workers....She almost never troubles to look at the 'rushes' of her films, nor even at the first rough assembly of the picture. Instead she waits for the previews." In the article there is a photo caption reading, "Camerman Daniels wants to photograph Garbo in color. He believes her complexion is the loveliest he has ever filmed." William Daniels is quoted by journalist William Stoll as having related, "When it came time to film retakes on The Painted Veil, Director Boleslawski had been called away to another studio, so W.S. Van Dyke took charge. He is probably the breeziest, quickest shooting director in the business, he literally cuts and edits his pictures as he shoots them. Our first retake was a scene of Miss Garbo coming down a long flight of stairs. we made the shot- once. Van Dyke said to me, 'Okay-wrap it up! Now, let's move over here!' Miss Garbo's face was a study; then she slowly smiled and said,'Well, I suppose there is only one way to walk down stairs.'" Memory would be insufficient to serve in regard to the often related story about Greta Garbo's slippers as to whether it originated with Mauritz Stiller or William Daniels, but as Hollywood folklore, John Bainbridge whispers that it was Daniels, "Whenever possible, she wore an old pair of carpet slippers on the set for the sake of comfort. before a scene was shot she always asked Daniels, 'Is the feet in?'. If they were out of camera range, she kept the slippers on, regardless of what fabulous Adrain creations she was wearing." Perhaps, the wearing of slippers had prompted her remark to Daniels about how an actress should descend a staircase. Greta Garbo departed from her usual portrait photographers for four photos "posed exclusively for Photoplay", her reconfirming herself as a fashion model as the two page layout "Garbo's first fashion sitting in five years" described in detail three gowns that Adrian had designed for the film The Painted Veil. The first of which was a gray silk teagown, with pleated organiza jabot and deep dolman type sleeves. The second article photograph was described as "the sports type of thing Garbo loves- nonchalance in the swagger lines of a white flannel coat" whereas the third included "a new version of the famous Garbo pillbox hat," and a corded felt with jade ornament. Richard Corliss writes, "Boleslawski's visual effects here are adept without being ostentatious- as when Garbo looks distractedly into a window, and the reflection shows a much more disturbed face." Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Photoplay during 1935 almost couldn't have seemed more inaccurate, it having printed, "Garbo from all indications to make Hollywood her home on her return. She's going to bring her two brothers with her." Silver Screen toward the end of 1935 reported, "From Stockholm comes news that Garbo is busy these days finishing up a scenario based on the life of a saint. Her fondest dream has been to star in a picture with a religious theme, and the studio offering her none, she has written her own script." In regard to the mystery of Greta Garbo, Stockholm reported in Motion Picture Daily during early March of 1936, "Greta Garbo will leave here tommorow aboard the Drottingholm." More than two weeks later, in the same periodical, Gottenburg reported, "Greta Garbo is expected to sail tommorrow for the United States on the Gripsholm." The periodical soon amended, "Greta Garbo, who arrived Sunday on the Gripsholm from Sweden is shifted to leave for Hollywood this afternoon." but with very little explanation spotted Greta Garbo in Chicago, "Greta Garbo and Berthrold Viertol had an exciting time here between the arrival of the Twentieth Century and The Chief. They went to the Field Museum and looked over the mummies." Photoplay provided a brief review of Greta Garbo in Anna Karenina during 1936, "The persuasive genius of Greta Garbo raises the rather weak picture into the class of art. Fredrick March is unconvincing as the lover for whom Greta sacrifices everything." It later rewrote its review, "This picture is really a weak and dull picture. yet the persuasive genius of Garbo raises it into the class of art. What should be moving seems dated, though the production is magnificient...But Frederick March seems stuffy." Film Daily reviewed the film not unsimilarily, "Greta Garbo in a sympathetic role that fits her admirably...with a fine appreciation of the poignant drama with all its subtle evaluations....Garbo has never appeared more human and appealing." Motion Picture Daily's review of the film included the assessment, "The Tolstoi novel of Russia, containing as it does dramatic elements repeated time without end in many and far less distinguished pictures, make a fitting vehicle for the screen's leading tragedienne...Anna Karenina, slightly ponderous perhaps from the view of story, is nevertheless, a thoroughly worthwhile motion picture directed by Clarence Brown with pronounced ability." Picture Play magazine looked at the film as a remake, "So old that it served Garbo before she broke her silence and lapses into her present perfect speech. Then it was called Love. The new version is more interesting because it is more painstakingly done, speech giving it new refinements and subtleties. meticulous costumes and seetings complete a marvelous reproduction of St Petersburg society." Motion Picture Daily early in the year reported, "Basil Rathbone intends to leave for Hollywood in six weeks. He has turned down an offer by M.G.M. to appear in Anna Karenina with Greta Garbo and Frederick March. Rathbone is anxious to play the Sidney Carlton role in Tale of Two Cities, but he will most likely be signed by a company other than M.G.M." A month later it announced, "Reginald Denny goes in to Anna Karenina, which stars Greta Garbo at M.G.M." Basil Rathbone wrote of his aquaintance with Greta Garbo in his autobiography In and Out of Character- one of my copies mysteriously had the Players Cigarette Card featuring the actor from 1938 scotched taped to the inside cover, which, not unlike the persian slipper, the present author still keeps in my wallet- "I first met Miss Garbo in 1928 when Ouida and I were invited to lunch one Sunday." Rathbone and his wife had been present at the premiere of the film The Flesh and the Devil. There is an account that it had been Adrian that had designed the costume that Greta Garbo had worn to a party given by Basil Rathbone and Ouida Bergere during 1929. She had attended Mrs. Rathbone's affair as Hamlet. Of his starring in the film Anna Karenina with her he wrote, "And so upon the morning previously arranged I called upon Miss Garbo. The house, a small one, was as silent as a grave. There was no indication that it might be occupied." The atmosphere may not quite have been as conducive to a seance that Valentino would have attended as Rathbone may have made it out to be. Jane Ardmore's biography of Mae Murray, The Self Enchanted- Mae Murray: Image of an Era only briefly mentions Basil Rathbone or Greta Garbo, but it is an account of off-screen Hollywood, there having been a diegetic and non-diegetic aspect to the extra-textual as well. Rathbone had starred with Mae Murray in The Masked Bride (Christy Cabbane, 1925, six reels). "Every fourth Sunday, Mae threw open her house for lavish entertainment...Jack Gilbert brought Greta Garbo. They were in love and radiant, but Greta worried about the studio, she was shy, there seemed such commotion, her energies were sapped. 'You should have a dressing room as I do, Darling," Mae had told her. Mae Murray would later be attending a birthday party for Rudolph Valentino given by Pola Negri. On learning that Greta Garbo had already had the film Mata Hari in production, Pola Negri deciding between scripts that were in her studio's story department chose A Woman Commands as her first sound film, in which she starred with Basil Rathbone. Of Rathbone, she wrote in her autobiography, "As an actor I suspected basil Rathbone might be a little stiff and unromantic for the role, but he made a test that was suprisingly good. In an article titled Hissed to the Heights- That's Rathbone, written during 1936, Motion Picture quoted the actor, "Before I played Karenin I was puzzled about the technique of film acting, and wasn't satisfied at all with what I had been doing. During the filming of Anna Karenina I watched Garbo and learned from her what I think is the secret of good screen acting; play your part with the least possible movement and the greatest possible mental projection. It is different on the stage. There your whole body is constantly exposed to the audience and you must have perfect coordination from head to foot....And Garbo has this power of mental projection to a superb degree...I first met her in 1928. I found her very intelligent and charming. I didn't meet her again untill 1935, when we were cast in the same picture. She wasn't the same person, she had changed. You know I think Garbo suffers a great deal for being typed typed. Her camerman thinks so too." "And now in Anna Karenina she becomes newly romantic." To the left of a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull, a caption read, "And on her return from Sweden, she may do Camille." Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo

Screenland magazine made the fantastic announcement, "And here's another thing that concerns Miss Garbo. for years Fred Niblo has been trying to interest the financial powers at Metro in a story by Barney Glazer on the Emperess Josephine. unlike other yarns that mention Napoleon, he is to be, in this, a secondary character. it being women's day, the author feels the women of history should have their due. now it looks as though the deal will go through, and Greta will play Josephine." Screenland printed the article in August of 1930! M.G.M's own advertisements featuring Greta Garbo in Motion Picture Daily during 1937 told audiences, "Garbo and Boyer in Beloved. You'll hear plenty about it." During 1937 The Film Daily chronicled the interest Clarence Brown held in the script of Conquest, "Countess Walewska, M.G.M. Greta Garbo picture has literally become a 'Clarence Brown production'. Valuable tapestries, silver candlesticks and tableware that once graced Sat, August 8, 2015 - 7:21 PM permalink
Greta Garbo A suitable story for director Mauritz Stiller, famous Swedish director who just began work under M.G.M. contract is now being sought and will be announced at an early date. Greta Garbo, who has also just arrived in America will be assigned a suitable vehicle sometime this month." -Exhibitor's Trade Review, 1925Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo arrives from Europe

When refilmed, her hollywood screentest would by filmed by Mauritz Stiller and purportedly spliced into the rushes of Torrent and was then, in turn, seen by Monta Bell, who insisted the script be given to Garbo. Greta Garbo's second screentest had been photographed by Henrik Sartov, who later explained that the earlier test had lacked proper lighting and that a lens he had devised had allowed him to articulate depth while filming her. Cameraman William Daniels had photographed the earlier test. Lillian Gish relates a conversation between her and Sartov where Gish asked him if he could photograph a screentest of Garbo, "Garbo's temperment reflected the rain and gloom of the long, dark Scandinavian winters." At first Garbo was reluctant to accept a role in the film, although it was a large role that had been considered for Norma Shearer, whom Bell had directed in the film After Midnight (1921). Mauritz Stiller advised, "It can lead to better parts later." to which Garbo replied, "How can I take direction from someone I don't know?". John Bainbridge writes that in the beginning Garbo spent most of her time with Mauritz Stiller, quoting him as having said, "You will see that something will become of her." It would be ten weeks before the studio would show any marked interest in her, this mostly at the behest of Stiller and in light of his second series of screentests. "She was especially fond of Seastrom's children," Bainbridge writes, "and brought little present to them." Victor Sjostrom's daughter is the Swedish actress Guje Lagerwall. Begnt Forlund notes that the filming of Anna Karenina had at first been thought for actress Lillian Gish, who in Sweden, Greta Garbo had seen the film White Sister. In her autobiography, Gish wrote, "I often saw young Garbo on the set. She was then the protege of the Swedish director Mauritz Stiller. Stiller often left her on my set. He would take her to lunch and then bring her back, and Garbo would sit there watching." John Bainbridge reiterates this while writing on The Torrent, "Stiller did not appear on the set, but every evening he rehearsed Garbo in the next day's scenes, coaching her in every movement and every expression...Stiller delivered Garbo to the studio every morning and called for her every night." He quotes a letter written to Sweden by Stiller, "Greta is starting work for a well-known director and I think she has got an excellant part." Richard Corliss adds, "Though out of her element and seperated from Mauritz Stiller, Garbo gives fine performance, full of feeling and technical precocity. her first Hollywood kiss is one to remember." Swedish actor Lars Hanson attended the premiere of the film and reflected, "We all thought the picture was a flop and that Garbo was terrible...In our opinion it didn't mean anything." Bainbridge makes the observation that Mauritz Stiller and Victor Seastrom were also at the premiere. He writes, "The picture did perhaps contain a few imperfections, such as Garbo's costumes." As a biographer, Bainbridge is enjoyable to read in one sense, not only for his prose synopsis of the film, but that he plays a guessing game by quoting a Swedish actress who was then in Hollywood without disclosing her name, the reader to wonder if she was in fact Karen Molander, wife of Lars Hanson who journeyed to Hollywood with him. The accuracy of Hollywood reporting during the Twenties, or Jazz Age, on which Bainbridge seems to base his historical references was admittedly referred to by Picture Play magazine and journalist William H. McKegg in Three Sphinxes, which compared Jetta Goudal, Ronald Colman and Greta Garbo, who, as of 1929, were three people that "puzzle Hollywood" It opined, "Of course rumors have been spread bu those who "know". Some say that Garbo was a waitress in one of the open air cafés in the Swedish capital. They add that the poverty and sorrow she underwent made her fearful of life. Only those who have experienced poverty really know hoe cruel human beings can be to one another. some say she was a singer. Who cares?"The subtitle to one section of The Story of Greta Garbo as told to Ruth Biery, published in Photoplay during 1929 reads, "Tempermental of misunderstood". In it Greta Garbo relates the events that led up to her having left the studio for what would only be less than a week, "Then it was for months here before I was to work for Mr. Stiller. When it couldn't be arranged, they put me in The Torrent, with Mr. Monta Bell directing. It was very hard work, but I didn't mind that. I was at the studio every morning at seven o'clock and untill six every evening." She goes further explaining that there was a language barrier that would later contribute to Mauritz Stiller being also taken off her next picture, "Mr. Stiller is an artist...he does not understand the American factories. He always made his own pictures in Europe, where he is the master. In our country it is always the small studio." Stiller had in fact written to Sweden to say, "There is nothing here of Europe's culture." It is of note that in regard to Stiller's relationship to the studio, and Thalberg, Lars Hanson has been quoted as having said, "And Stiller, because he could speak hardly any English, wasn't able to explain what he was doing and how to satisfy them.": it was on the set of The Torrent that author Sven-Hugo Borg was introduced to Stiller, who in turn then informed Garbo that he was assigned translator under Monta Bell's direction. In The Private Life of Greta Garbo By Her Most Intimate Friend, Borg recounts that Bell had turned to him and had said of her, "What a voice! If we could only use it." Of the film he notes, "Of course she was constantly with Stiller, spending every possible moment with him; but thought that when the camera's eye was flashed upon her, (that)the picture would decide her fate began, (that) he would not be there terrified her." Borg continued as the interpreter for Greta Garbo untill 1929. Author Richard Corliss remarked upon the performance in the film by Greta Garbo, "Though out of her element and separated from Mauritz Stiller, Garbo gives a fine performance. Her first Hollywood kiss is one to remember...There are to be sure moments early in the film when Garbo works too hard with her eyes; overstating emotions rather than expressing them, dropping nuances like anvils, registering filial devotion...but she grows in the role...by the final scenes..she is utterly convincing as an actress and a star." Corliss continues stating that there are flashes of the later Garbo as though she were many-talented and in retrospect it was present but would later develop more fully, "By the end of The Torrent he face seems more severely contoured, her eyes more glacially clear, her head lifted upward by the chinstrap of spiritual pride. The phenomena is that of a star creating her own myth within the time-space of a single film." Photoplay magazine quoted Greta Garbo, "Greta Garbo was having her pictures taken by Ruth Harriet Louise. During one of the close up shots her eyes blinked, 'Oh, I'm so sorry, Miss Louise,' Greta apologized, 'But I twinkled.'" The production stills of Greta Garbo during the filming of The Torrent were photographed by Ruth Harriet Louise. Ruth Harriet Louise had also published an early full photograph of Greta Garbo in Motion Picture Classic Magazine during May of 1926. Before photographing Greta Garbo, Louise had created her "first published Hollywood image", that of Vilma Banky from the film Dark Angel in the September 1925 issue of Photoplay and during 1926 she contributed a particularly romantic blue-titnted portrait of Pauline Stark and Antonio Moreno to Photoplay from the film Love's Blindness. During 1928 Louise contributed to Screenland Magazine a portrait of Lars Hansen and Lillian Gish, "the lovers in the forthcoming special production The Wind", directed by Victor Sjostrom under the name Victor Seastrom. For those susceptible to the fantasy of Hollywood, it might feel like one of those rare fleeting sightings of Harriet Brown but it in fact that Robert Dance and Bruce Robertson introduce the photographer in their volume Ruth Harriet Louise and Hollywood Glamour Photography. The authors include a photograph of Greta Garbo taken by Ruth Harriet Louise, who had invited her back to her studios for another photo shoot after the filming of The Torrent had come to its completion, late December of 1925. Harriet Brown, now in fact Harriet Brown and company, the owner of the photograph is none other than "senior management and market executive" Scott Reisfield, whom, and I quote, "Developed museum exhibit of photographs with the Santa Barbra Museum of Art. The exhibit subsequently was toured to four additional venues. Developed a book published by Rizzoli in conjunction with the museum exhibit." The picture of Greta Garbo in a chair seated next to a lion, Garbo photographed outdoors on what at first appears to be a bench and the lion posing with his feet elevated on a log, as it was first published in Motion Picture Magazine during 1926 must have been a publicity test, by a publicity department that may have named her The Swedish Sphinx during the silent era, as it left her not only silent but unidentified, without printing her name; the caption reads, "$10.00 for the best title of this picture." There are twenty three photographs of Greta Garbo taken by the photographer Arnold Genthe in the United States either on July 25, or July 27. Often unseen by the public and for the most part belonging to public domain, the were part of his estate and are presently housed at the library of congress. Biographer Norman Zeirold, who used a photograph of Greta Garbo taken by Genthe for the cover of his wonderful volume has written that, "Garbo's plasticity made it possible for her to reflect the fantasies of her screen audiences, in the sense she functioned as a receptacle for the emotions of others." An attempt on the present author to include the subject of Greta Garbo while corresponding with Norman Zierold, now a professor, was mostly unsuccessful. In keeping with the Greata Garbo that was nearly unknown to movies audiences for her personal life off-screen despite its being highly remarked upon by extra-diegetic text, the Garbo that had lurked in the shadows of museum-art-house screenings as a recluse after her retirement, the Garbo that had blindfolded her firing squad as she smoked a cigarrette as though at any time she could be sitting right beside any us us during any of her films while as spectators we made identifications with each interpellated nuance, I added, "These emotional structures are created within each particular film, often by subject and spectator positioning that exploits the combination of tragic seductress, the viewer, and the film's other characters often in relation to her pre-talkie, before sound, body in an objectification of sexual mystery, as when her body within the frame creates space between two other characters in front of the camera, isolating them near a specific visual motif, or when Greta Garbo briefly moves into the emotion of a particular solitude." But then clearly, the relationship between character and landscape and its interaction with subject positioning and or spectatorial positioning can also differ widely from one director to another, almost to the point where it includes stylization, as when comparing the film's of Victor Sjostrom and Carl Th. Dreyer- the relation of character to landscape during the appearances of Greta Garbo is a relation, or inverse relation, to modernity within the object arrangements of mise-en-scene and female sexuality. It it clearly for emotion that Garbo posed for the soft-focus series of portraits, almost in as much as the close up in film is used to depict the significant detail of the shot. During December 1925, a photograph of greta Garbo by Arnold Genthe was published in Picture Play magazine with the caption From the Land of the Vikings, it announcing that she was the "latest arrival" from Scandinavia, a "statuesque blond, very reserved in manner." Picture Play Magazine during 1927 used a full page photograph taken by Arnold Genthe to figurehead the article Rebellion Sweeps Hollywood, written by Aieleen St. John Brennon, following it within pages by a portrait of Lars Hanson by Ruth Harriet Louise, it's caption noting that he had "amassed a large following since his forceful performance in The Scarlett Letter and now has the title role in Captain Salvation. Greta Garbo The entire review of The Torrent in Photoplay runs as follows: "Monta Bell stands well in the foreground of those directors who can take a simple story and fill it with true touches that the characters emerge real human beings and the resulting film becomes a small masterpiece. Such work has he created in The Torrent and for fans who are slightly grown up, this picture will be a visual delight. Greta Garbo, the new Swedish importation is very lovely." To provide a timeline, it appears on the same page as a review of The Devil's Circus (Benjamin Christensen). Tucked away in a later Photoplay issue was a more candid reviewer, "Greta Garbo exerts an evil fascination- on the screen. True, her debut was not auspiciously placed in The Torrent, which is in reality a babbling brook that runs on forever, now-she-loves-him-now-she don't until the end of the film and beyond." The reviewer then complements her as being attractive, surveying her eyes, lips and nostrils in, perhaps, a "gender-specific" paragraph. And yet Eugene V. Brewster began the watching of Greta Garbo on the part of Motion Picture Classic magazine with his own secular view, "At Metro Goldwyn Studios they showed me a few reels of Greta Garbo's unfinished picture. This striking young Swedish actress will doubtless appeal to many but somehow I couldn't see the great coming star in her the company expects." Frederick James Smith continued for Motion Picture Classic with Greta Garbo Arrives, "The newcomer is a slumber-eyed Norsewoman, one Greta Garbo, who seems to have more possiblities than anyone since Pola Negri of Passion...She isn't afraid to act. That she was able to stand out of an infererior story, poorly directed, is more than her credit...The Ibanez story is full of claptrap, including the dam that bursts without having anything to do with the story. Monta Bell tossed it in the film form without any apparent interest." It quickly followed with the article, "The Northern Star, The Screen's Newest Meteor is a Moody daughter of Sweden", written by Alice L. Tildelsey, who decidedly felt more at liberty to Greta Garbo than interviewers that came later. She relates that the actress had said, "I love the sea, yes. It understands me, I think...it is not happy, it is always yearning for something that it cannot have." Garbo purportedly referred to herself as "poor little Sweden girl" during the interview. "Now for my new picture I must learn to dance the tango and to ride the horse." Tidesley refers to Garbo as "a moody young thing, Greta Garbo, with the temperment of the true artist." The article imparts how Greta Garbo was introduced to Mauritz Stiller, who had seen her performing Ibsen and had had her called in to his office. The photograph of Garbo was taken by Ruth Harriet Louise. National Board of Review magazine, although literate, may have remained true to form as it typified the film with, "The story preserves a European atmosphere in which parents still have the least say about their children's marriages." Biographer Richard Corliss fairly accurately assesses Greta Garbo's first of several silent films, "Not only does it prefigure many of the morals and motifs of her later pictures, but it avoids many of those films pirouettes into the ludicrous. All things considered (the times. the material, the studio, The Torrent is a suprisingly adult piece of work." While reading Corliss the reviewer as essayist, there is a slight temptation to see him presenting the synopsis of each story and the characters as being antiquated, that it is a reevaluation of our film and its incidents but, written while it was a given that Garbo was leading a solitary life, it is kept within Garbo being a mystery, that if the stories were outdated, they could be looked at with curiousity and inquiry, as the fantasies they were meant to be, and in that way the reviews of Richard Corliss only contain a hint of being outdated in their being questioning without necessity. To compare and contrast, if Corliss is writing about the versatility of Greta Garbo, John Bainbridge reverberates the sentiment, "What was to become known as the Garbo manner was but faintly discernable in The Torrent, but there were intimations." Bainbridge seems to keep his secret that much of the material for his biography was derived from fan magazines, albeit he conducted interviews. Biographies on Greta Garbo the sensation began to appear, almost in droves, as soon as the actress had spoken in sound film, many explaining how she reached the screen in Hollywood in the first place while adding spoonfuls of data about Mauritz Stiller. This was to nearly culminate in 1938 with Modern Screen's 15 pages of biography, The True Life Story of Greta Garbo, written by William Stewart. It summarized, "The picture was The Torrent, originally slated for Aileen Pringle but given to Garbo as a test of her ablility...It pleased her, but for final praise she awaited Stiller's word. "It is good.', he said, and those three encouraging words were sufficient."





Greta Garbo Greta Garbo in The Temptress Greta Garbo in Flesh and the Devil insert banner Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo and Victor Seastrom insert garbo banner
Sat, August 8, 2015 - 7:21 PM permalink
originally published at Greta Garbo
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For those familiar with the history of Danish Silent Film Lady of the Camellias, (Kameliadamen, Camille) adapted from the novel by Dumas, was filmed by Viggo Larsen, who starred in front of the camera as well as creating from behind it, as he was often won't to do, the film also starring Oda Alstrup, Robert Storm Petersen and Helga Tonnesen. It was produced by Nordisk Film and Ole Olsen and it's cinematographer was Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen.





The Divine Bernhardt that was immortalized as a model for Alphonse Mucha exists, the plays that Louis Mercanton adapted for the screen, Jeanne Dore (1915, three reels), starring Madame Tissot with actress Sarah Bernhardt and shown in the United States by Bluebird Photoplays, and Adrienne Lecouvveur (1913, two/three reels), do not, and belong to the province of Film Preservation, if not Lost Films, Found Magazines, a vital part of From Stage to Screen, the transition of the proscenium arc to visual planes achieved by film editing and composition having been relegated to desuetude. By all accounts there still is a copy of Sarah Bernhardt performing Camille on film.



Camille (J. Gordon Edwards, 1917) starring Theda Bara is, like The Divine Woman (Victor Seastrom), a lost silent film, there being no surviving copies of it. Motography not I coincidentally revealed, "Theda Bara in a sumptuous picturization of Camille is the latest announcement of William Fox to the public...Theda Bara as the unhappy Parisian girl who sacrifices herself on the altar of convention, has surpassed all her previous work. This production...Parisian life is followed in every detail so that the atmosphere of the story fits admirably with the acting in it." Surepetitiously, Motion Picture News used the exact same wording, it concluding with, The tears it caused were genuine and the emotions it stirred were deep."



It was a year during which Goldwyn Pictures had spotlighted Mary Garden in Thais, Jane Cowl in The Spreading Dawn(Basil King) and Mae Marsh in Sunshine Alley. Metro Pictures Corporation touted Ethel Barrymore in The Lifted Veil.







Using a still where the two lovers were in embrace on a couch, reminiscent of John Gilbert and Greta Garboin Flesh and the Devil, captioned with "Armand pours out his love to the adored Camille, Picture Play magazine during 1927 introduced the film starring Norma Talmadge and Gilbert Roland as "the latest screen version of the Dumas' masterpiece." Motion Picture magazine noted that it was a film in which Norma Talmadge would wear her hair bobbed, the studio having reported to the magazine that it would be an adaptation located in the then present day Paris of Gerturde Stien, Fitzgerald and Hemmingway and that the cast of the film would also include Lilyan Tashman.





The 1915 screen version of Camille was scripted by Frances Marion. the five reel film starred Clara Kimbal Young under the direction of Albert Cappellani.

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Sat, August 22, 2015 - 11:17 AM permalink
The photo caption beneath Einar Hanson's photograph Picture Play Magazine read, "Einar Hanson, who, made his debut in Corinne Griffith's Into her Kingdom is romantic adventurous, much more like a Latin than Scandinavian." In the article Two Gentlemen from Sweden, Myrtle Gebhardt relates about having dinner with him, her having at first hoped to interview Lars Hanson and Einar Hanson together in the same room. "For it appeared that Einar was working not for Metro, but for First National...Two evenings later I ringed spaghetti around my fork in a nook of an Italian cafe with Einar Hansen...Prepared for a big, blond man, whose bland face would be overspread with seriousness, I was startled by his breathtaking resemblance to Jack Gilbert. "Ya," he admitted, "Down the street I drive and all the girls call, 'Hello Yack' and I wave to them."



Motion Picture News announced the decision for the directorial assignment to the film with Director or Interpreter, "Svend Gade, the Danish director now making Into Her Kingdom is wondering whether he is engaged as a megaphone weirder or interpreter. In directing Miss Griffith, of course, he uses English; but Einar Hanson receives his instructions in Swedish" Meanwhile it also introduced Griffith's co-star, "Einar Hansen, 'The Swedish Barrymore' has arrived in Hollywood to appear opposite Corinne Griffith in her newest First National starring vehicle, Into Her Kingdom, by Ruth Comfort Mitchell." it had been announced by the magazine during early 1926 that, "Corinne Griffith is already planning to start work the first week of March on Into Her Kingdom though now she is only now finishing Mlle. Moditte, both of which are to be First National releases.

motion Picture Magazine in 1927 published an oval portrait of Einar Hansen with the caption, "In Fashions for Women, Einar is the first man to be directed by Paramount's first woman director. How's that for a record? Incidentally, Einar has become a popular leading man as quickly as anyone that ever invaded Hollywood." The caption to the somber portrait published in Picture Play magazine that year held a more sundry description, "Einar Hansen, the young man from Sweden who looks so like a Latin has fared well during his year in this country. he is now under contract to Paramount and has the lead opposite Esther Ralston in Fashions For Women." The film was the first directed by Dorothy Azner, who had worked uncredited with Fred Niblo on Blood and Sand.



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Thu, August 20, 2015 - 5:42 PM permalink


Victor Seastrom-Greta Garbo

"The Image Makers see their images emerge out of the story. And then suddenly: darkness."- Per Olov Enquist in Bildmakarna, a fictional account of Victor Sjostrom, Julius Jaenzon, Tora Teje and Selma Lagerlof
"The stylistic changes brought about by Sjostrom's moving to Hollywood may not have been as definite as film history would have it according to the paradigm. Still the story of Sjostrom was transformed by his transition to Seastrom"- Bo Florin
An actress tells a film director, with whom she is having a brief affair, that he is not the author of the film he is making, "Hon menar att det ar hennes bok Victor. Inte din. Du mekar bara."/ "She means that it is her book Victor. Not yours. You are just tinkering with it."- Lynn R Wilkinson on the film Bildmakarna
While evaluating, or comprising, a filmography of silent film of the Swedish directors of Svenska Bio and Svenska Filmindustri; Mauritz Stiller, Victor Sjostrom, John Brunius and Georg af Klerker, and with them the camerman Julius Jaenzon, It was refreshing to find that author Astrid Soderberg Widing tries to agree with film critic Leif Furhammar that Georg af Klerker, who began as a filmmaker at Svenska Biografteatern, can be placed with Sjostrom and Stiller as being an autuer of the pioneering art form, in that, although he seldom wrote scenarios, he added a "personal signature" to filmmaking contemporary to the other two directors- during the centennial of the two reeler in the United States  and of Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller having become contemporaries at Svenska Bio. "Of the utmost importance is an appreciation of film, film as a visual literature. film as the narrative image, and while any appreciation of film would be incomplete without the films of Ingmar Bergman, every appreciation of film can begin with the films of the silent period, with the watching of the films themselves, their once belonging to a valiant new form of literature. Silent film directors in both Sweden and the United States quickly developed film technique, including the making of films of greater length during the advent of the feature film, to where viewer interest was increased by the varying shot lengths within a scene structure, films that more than still meet the criterion of having storylines, often adventurous, often melodramatic, that bring that interest to the character when taken scene by scene by the audience." The study of silent film is an essential study not only in that the screenplay evolved or emerged from the photoplay, but in that it is imperative to the appreciation of film technique. In my earlier webpage written before the death of Ingmar Bergman I quoted Terry Ramsaye on filent film,"Griffith began to work at a syntax for screen narration...While Griffith may not have originated the closeup and like elements of technique, he did establish for them their function." Director Ingmar Bergman  had been among those who had spoken on the death of the Swedish actor- American director Victor Sjostrom

While Ingmar Bergman was not unknown for his efforts toward film preservation- Widding credits hism with having preserved the film Nattiga Toner directed by Georg af Klerker- Gosta Werner painstaking restored Swedish Silent Films "frame by frame", taking thousands of frames from envelopes and reassembling them before copying them into a modern print, his enlarging prints made on bromide paper and then in order to reconstruct their shot structure, comparing them to stills from several films to insure the director's sense of compostition, his also recommending the searching for of all material on the film, including a synopsis of the plot and other descriptions of what the film contained. Essential to the viewing Swedish Silent film is the evaluation of the thematic technique of conveying a relationship between man and his environment, the character to the landscape, but before even introducing this the present author would share that there is an interesting quote form Gosta Werner the archivist from his having examined the restoring the films The Sea Vultures (Sjostrom), The Death Kiss (Sjostrom), The Master Theif (Stiller) and Madam de Thebes (Stiller), "In pre-1920 films, close ups were very rare, as were landscapes devoid of actors. Actually, shots without actors were very rare. Almost every shot included an actor involved in some obvious situation. The film told its story with pictures, but they were pictures of actors." It is with that appreciation of the art that the present author would look toward the photoplays that, with the development of both their dialogue and expository intertitles, became cinematic novels during the silent era. Werner further analyzes the early films and their mise-en-scene, making them seem as though they were in fact part of the body of work produced in the United States, "Many sequences begin with an actor entering the room and with the main actor (not always the same one) leaving the set." It is also of interest that the last film of the twenty seven that he restored was one of the most difficult in that it was a Danish detective film that lacked intertitles. Particularly because I found the cutting on the action of the actor leaving the frame of interest, if I can connect the quote to one from my own previous webpages on silent film, before reading Werner I had written, "The aesthetics of pictorial composition could utilize placing the figure in either the foreground or background of the shot, depth of plane, depth of frame, narrative and pictorial continuity being then developed together. Compositions would be related to each other in the editing of successive images and adjacent shots, the structure; Griffith had already begun to cut mid-scene, his cutting to another scene before the action of the previous scene was completely finished, and he had already begun to cut between two seperate spatial locations within the scene." It is now difficult to overlook the importance of Gosta Werner's having directed the short film Stiller-fragment in 1969. Produced by Stiftelsen Svenska Filminstitutet it showcased surviving footage from several silent films made by Mauritz Stiller in Sweden, including Mannekangen (1913) with Lili Ziedner, Gransfolken (1913) with Stina Berg and Edith Erastoff, Nar Karleken dodar(1913) with Mauritz Stiller behind the lens and George af Klerker and Victor Sjostrom both in front of the camera, Hans brollopsnatt (1914) starring Swedish silent film actresses Gull Nathorp and Jenny-Tschernichin-Larson and Pa livets odesvager.

It may be fitting that, although a film version of the novel the Atonement of Gosta Berling had been planned by Skandinavisk Film Central, a company that had merged the Danish Silent Film companies Dania Biofilm and Kinogram into Palladium, between 1919 and 1921, the first part of The Saga of Gosta Berling, during March of 1924 premiered in Stockholm at The Roda Kvarn, it's second part having premiered a week later- not only is the art-deco, art-nouveau theater famous as having continued into the twenty first century, but when constructed in 1915 by Charles Magnusson, included in the first films screened in the art-house theater were those directed for Svenska Biografteatern by Mauritz Stiller, particularly, the 35 minute film Lekkamraterna, written by Stiller and photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, which starred Lili Bech, Stina Berg and Emmy Elffors, and the 65 minute film Madame Thebes, written by Mauritz Stiller and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, which starred Ragnar Wettergren, Martha Hallden and Karin Molander. It is often written that Swedish silent film before Molander had paid devout attention to Scandinavian landscape and its effect upon the characters in the drama, there also being an underlying sense that the conception of space, traveling through space according the the seasonal, played a transparent part during the recoding of the now ancient, therefore runic, Prose and Poetic Eddas. true to form the daughter of Ingmar Bergman, Journalist Linn Ullmann, included the historical place of Swedish Filmmaking in her second novel, Stella Descending. "The once thriving ostrich farm in Sundbyberg was sold, taken over by two rival companies, Svensk Bio and Skandia, who joined forces to build Rasunda Filmstad, home of the legendary film studios. Here the filmmakers Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller worked alongside such stars as Tora Teje, Lars Hanson, Anders de Wahl, Karin Molonder and Hilda Bjorgstrom. Greta Garbo turned in an impressive performance in Gosta Berling's Saga in 1924, "giving us hope for the future" to quote the ecstatic critic in Svenska Dagbladet. I can well imagine how Elias must have cursed the day his parents put their money in ostriches rather than the movies....And so it passed that Elias was part of the audience that evening in February 1934 to see When We Dead Awaken."
Swedish Film-Victor Sjostromsilent-film


Scott Lord-Silent Film Victor Sjostrom: Swedish Silent Film
Mauritz Stiller Peter Cowie writes of a voice that was described to Vilgot Sjoman as being "so nice and gentle" it having "a quiet huskiness that makes it interesting". "'Yes, this is Stiller's room, I know for sure.'

After Greta Garbo took off her glasses to show Ingmar Bergman what she looked like, her watching his face to measure the emotion of the director, she excitedly began discussing her acting in The Saga of Gosta Berling. When they returned to the room, one that had also been used by Molander, Bergman poeticlly studied her face." It had been Gustaf Molander, during 1923 while director of the Royal Dramatic Academy, who had been asked by Mauritz Stiller to decide upon two students to appear in his next film. Mona Martenson was already in Molander's office when Greta Garbo was called in and asked to report to Svenska Filmindustri's studios the following morning. Garbo went to Rasunda to meet Stiller for a screen test to be filmed by Julius Jaenzon, whom she happenned to meet on the train, it almost to presage the unexpected encountering she had years later with Swedish director ragnar Ring while crossing the Atlantic. While waiting for Stiller to arrive, cinematographer Julius Jaenzon told Greta Garbo, "You are the lovliest girl I've ever seen walk into the place." While visiting Stockholm during 1938, Garbo asked view the film The Saga of Gosta Berling, her having said to William Sorensen it was "the movie I loved most of all." Not incidentally, Bary Paris has since chronicled that it was Kerstin Bernadette that had brought Garbo to meet then renowned Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman, his having requested it in order for her to return to the screen in his film The Silence. One of the smaller theaters, one with 133 seats, at Borgavagen 1, is named after Mauritz Stiller, another one with 14 seats named after Julius Jaenzon, cameraman for Svenska Bio. Biografen Victor, with its 364 seats is a permanent tribute to Victor Sjostrom and the 363 ghosts that at anytime may accompany him to, perhaps in search of a new Strindbergian theater known as filmed theater, step into the past. My earlier webpages, which often noted film festivals in Scandinavian, namely Sweden, had mentioned that, "In previous years Cinemateket has screened the films of Mauritz Stiller, it having published with Svenska Filminstituet the volume Morderna motiv-Mauritz Stiller I retrospektiv, under Bo Florin, to accompany the screenings. Bo Florin and the Cinematecket have also published Regi:Victor Sjostrom= Directed by Victor Seastrom with the Svenska Filminstituet." It also noted that at that time that the silent films of Sweden were also being screened on Faro, where resided the Magic Lantern and the dancing skeletons that appear when lights are lowered, possibly representative of the magician-personnas we only for a brief time borrow, identify with, while spectators; Ingmar Bergman had added a screening room to Faro that sat fifteen with a daily showing at 3:00.
During her Photoplay interview, Greta Garbo continued on the film remarking that,' Lars Hanson played my leading man...but there were no love scenes, not even a kiss.' About Lars Hanson, after having seen The Saga of Gosta Berling, Lillian Gish wrote, 'When I saw it I thought that he would be the ideal Dimmesdale.' There is a similar earlier account written before her autobiography where she is quoted as having said that she had been told to go into the projection room to watch The Saga of Gosta Berling specificly to decide whether Lars Hanson would be aquirred by the studio to play against her in an adaptation of Hawthorne's novel, "The moment Lars Hanson appeared on the screen, I knew he was the man we wanted." Mauritz Stiller in 1921 had directed Lars Hanson in the film The Emigrants (De landsflyktiga) with Karin Swanstrom, Jenny Hasselquist and Edvin Adolphson. The script was co-written by Stiller with Ragnar Hylten Cavallius, it having had been being an adaptation of the modern novel Zoja, written by Runar Schildt. There also seems to have been an unused screenplay written by Ture Newman. Photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, it was the first film in which Tyra Ryman was to appear. Exhibitor's Trade Review during 1922 listed the film under the title In Self Defence, it also appearing as Guarded Lips. It wrote, "It has a closing of real power. And by power, we mean the final thousand feet...It is a generally sombre role that falls to Miss Hasselquist, but it is played with fine feeling and excellant judgement." Interestingly, actor Lars Hanson had been briefly mentioned in the United States in Pantomine magazine during March of 1922, in Out of the Make Up Box, On to the Screen, written by Helen Hancock. "Lars Hanson, who is one of the most versatile actors on the screen, and one of the most versatile artistic breakers of the hearts of the Swedish flapper, is an adept in the art of make-up." An appreciation of the film made by Hanson in Sweden was displayed by photos of Hanson not only as himself, but in greasepaint as men much older than himself, it including stills from Bluebeard's Eighth Wife, Andre the Red and The Lodge Man. Helen Hancock had only months earlier in Pantomine praised Swedish Silent Filmstar Lars Hanson in the article How About those Viking Ancestors, A little Talk about Swedish Matinee Idols. The photo caption read, "He looks mild- but dare him to do something" It reads, "A star of the legitimate stage, where for a number of years he has has been one of the principal attractions at the Intima Theatre, Stockholm, this virile specimen of manhood is best known for his psychological characterizations." The author then praised Hanson for his doing his own stunts, acting on screen without a stuntman. To highlight this, the magazine The Film Daily later reviewed the performance of Lars Hanson opposite Lillian Gish, "Hanson may lack looks, but is a splendid dramatic actor." During 1929, Photoplay Magazine reviewed the release of The Legend of Gosta Berling, "the only European film appearance of Greta Garbo before she was sold down the river to Hollywood..It need only be said that Hollywood has made The Glamorous One...You won't die in vain even if you miss this one." Greta Garbo was interviewed in Sweden during the filming of Gosta Berling's Saga by for the magazine Filmjournalen (Filmjournal) by Inga Gaate, who had interviewed Mauritz Stiller in 1924, Garbo in the article having praised Stiller for his direction and having referred to him as Moje. Greta Garbo appears on the cover of Filmjournalen 8, bareshouldered, in 1925. Stiller, incidently, had invited Sten Selander, a poet rather than actor, to Rasunda before his having decided upon Lars Hanson for the film. Jenny Hasselquist also appears in the film- Hasselquist was much like modern Swedish actress Marie Liljedahl in that she was a ballerina, her having been  introduced to readers in the United States in 1922 through Picture-Play Magazine with a photograph it entitled The Resting Sylph. Sven Broman has quoted Greta Garbo as having said, 'We sat in a lovely drawing room and Selma Lagerlöf thanked me for my work in Gosta Berling's Saga and she praised Mauritz Stiller...She also had very warm and lovely eyes.' While filming Gosta Berling's Saga, Stiller had said, 'Garbo is so shy, you realize, she's afraid to show what she feels. She's got no technique you know.', to which the screenwriter to the film, Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius, replied, 'But every aspect of her is beautiful.' To those either fascinated by her, or, bluntly, merely erotically stimulated by her body, one possible reason for this was alighted upon by biographer Raymond Durgnat, "The obverse of Garbo's divinity was her shyness. There were few close ups of her during Gosta Berling's Saga because of her nervous blink." He added that it continued into her filming with G.W. Pabst, who speeded up the camera to adjust for it. "Years after his death Garbo still spoke of him in the present tense: 'Maurice thinks...'" Appearing seperate to the hard cover biography titled Garbo written by John Bainbridge was his work published in magazine form, which was titled, "Garbo's Haunted Path to Stardom. A hypnotic director made over her very soul." In it he gives an account of Mauritz Stiller's first session with Greta Garbo at Rasunda, where he asked her to act in front of the camera, Stiller having been quoted as having said, "Have you no feelings. Do you know nothing of sadness and misery? Act, miss, act." Stiller instructed that there be close ups of Garbo shot and this is thought by Bainbridge to be the reason Stiller remarked upon Garbo's shyness. An eerie not arose in 1962 as the author of a volume entitled The Stars claimed John Bainbridge to be "Garbo's best biographer". The author of the now out of print volume used a quote acquired by Bainbridge from "a woman who workded at Svenska Filmindustri, particularly, "Stiller was always teaching and preaching, Greta solemnly listening and learning. I never saw anyone more earnest and eager to learn. With the hypnotic power he seemed to have over her he could make her do extraordinary things. But we had little idea that he was making over her soul." The author portrays Greta Garbo in retirement, adding "Perhaps the last sentence is hyperbolic but the essence of the reminiscence is true." More eerie still is the foregone conclusion that Greta Garbo had sealed herself into a crypt of retirement, the article published as though her comeback was out of the question, despite the amount of truth in that there may have been- a photo of Greta Garbo, middle adged, perhaps thin with her facial skin drawn a little tighter than in most photos, with dark sunglasses, the author adding, "There is reason to believe that Garbo knows her career was mismanaged, and that from time to time the knowledge still disturbs her."

During its filming Greta Garbo and Mona Martenson had stayed in the same hotel together. The beauty of Mona Martenson is miraculous, a deep beauty that can only be seen as wonderous. In The Story of Greta Garbo, a rare interview with Ruth Biery published in Photoplay during 1928, Garbo relates of Martenson's being in Hollywood and of her planning to later return to Sweden. Karin Swanstrom, who had already directed her first film, also appears in The Saga of Gosta Berling. Gloria Swanson, when asked what she enjoyed in literature by Picture Play magazine during February of 1926 replied, "Just now I am greatly interested in Gosta Berling by Selma Lagerlof. I first read it in the hospital in France during my illness and brought it home with me." By the time Stiller had begun co-writing the script to Gosta Berling's Saga, he and Selma Lagerlöf had begun to disagree in regard to how her novels were to be adapted. Lagerlöf had asked that Stiller be removed from the shooting of the film before the script had been completed, her having as well tried to acquire the rights to the film to vouchsafe its integrity as an adaptation. During the filming Stiller went further; he then included a scene that had not appeared in either the novel or the film's script. After Victor Sjostrom had directed several stories based on the writing of Selma Lagerlof, while in the United States he had been interviewed by the publication Scenario Bulletin Digest and had seemed to broach the subject of film adaptation that had brought a rift between Mauritz Stiller and Selma Lageloff, "'Some great works of literature should not be attempted in motion pictures yet,' says Victor Seastrom, famous European director now with Goldwyn. He says further that one should not try to film a masterpiece unless the picture can be made as fine as the book." Iris Barry briefly reviewed the film by Maurtiz Stiller in 1926, "In Sweden, the creative impulse has not some much died down as been bled away" and from that context sees a film that, "shows a gloomy and unusual subject, full of sincere passion and conflict and with the fine somber, photographic quality peculiar to the Scandinavian cinema." There is an account of Mauritz Stiller having introduced Greta Garbo to author Selma Lagerlof and an account of Lagerlof having complimented Garbo on her beauty and her "sorrowful eyes." In particular, Sven Broman has quoted Greta Garbo as having said, "We sat in a lovely drawing room and Selma Lagerlof thanked me for my work in Gosta Berling's Saga and she praised Mauritz Stiller...She also had very warm and lovely eyes." Although far from being a playwright or sceenwriter, Selma Lagerlof flourished as a novelist during the silent film era, despite many of her novels having had having remained unfilmed, including the earlier Invisible Links (1894), The Queens of Kungahalla (1899) and The Miracles of the Antichrist (1897). After her contemporary, Swedish poet Gustaf Froding, had died in 1911, a year during which Lagerlof had published Liljecrona's Home (Liljecrona's Hem), Lagerlof went on to publish Korkalen (Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness, one of the most important novels included in the screen adaptations of the silent era as it appeared on the screen in 1920 directed by Swedish director Victor Sjostrom, in 1911, and Trolls and Men (Troll och manniskor. During 1918 she included the novel The Outcast (Bannlyst) and published a second volume to Trolls and Men in 1921. It was during the filming of Lagerloff's The Phantom Carriage that an ostrich farm that had fallen into desuetude in Rasunda was converted into the Svenska Filmindustri studio, and with that named Filmstaden. Lagerlof wrote the autobiographical novel Marbacka in two parts, her concluding the volume in 1930 and publishing The Diary of Selma Lagerlof in 1932. Victor Sjostrom had met Selma Lagerlof when she had invited him to Flaun during January of 1917.

After The Saga of Gosta Berling was shot, Greta Garbo briefly returned to Sweden to the Royal Dramatic Theater before being brought to Berlin for its premiere- Stiller was also with Greta Garbo for the premiere of The Joyless Street Like Greta Garbo, actress Mary Johnson travelled from Sweden to Germany. Mary Johnson had starred with Gosta Ekman in the first film directed by John W. Brunius, Puss and Boots (Masterkattan i stovlar) in 1918 for Film Industri Inc Scandia. The film was co-written by John W. Brunius and Sam Ask and was the first in which actress Ann Carlsten was to appear. The following year Scandia merged with Scandia to team Charles Magnusson with Nils Bouveng to run AB Svensk Filmindustri. Having been an actress for several films directed by George af Klerker, Mary Johnson was also that year to appear in the Swedish silent film Stovstadsfaror, directed by Manne Gothson and photographed by Gustav A. Gustafson. Appearing with Johnson in the film were Agda Helin, Tekl Sjoblom and Lilly Cronwin. Actress Mary Johnson returned to the screen to act for director John W. Brunius and cameraman Hugo Edlund in 1923 for the film Johan Ulfstjerna in which she starred with Anna Olin, Einar Hansson and Berta Hilberg. To add a sense of the film as a vehicle for the actress, author Forsyth Hardy has written, "Brunius could work effectively on a large canvass." Significantly, that same year Johnson starred for silent film director Mauritz Stiller and cameraman Julius Jaenzon in the film Gunnar Hedes Saga, in which she starred with Pauline Brunius, Stina Berg, and Einar Hansson. The screenplay was co-written by Stiller and Alma Soderhjelm and it is what appears to be her only screenplay. The film was an adaptation of the novel Herrgarssagen. Forsyth Hardy on Gunnar Hedes Saga writes, "Again there is a distinctive combination of a powerfully dramatic story and a magnificent setting in the northern landscape.When reviewed in the United States during 1924 while screened as The Blizzard although the film was reported as an adaptation of "The Story of a Country House", the review featured two stills and the subtitle "Swedish Production is Entertaining."; it ran, "This is highly dramatic and interesting, with several excellant scenes of reindeer swimming across a wide stream and following their leader blindly. The stampede is most realistic and well filmed. The rest of the film is quite ordinary and drags near the end." A second review from the United States seemed all too similar, "unusual entertainment through a strong dramatic story. A bit gruesome but splendidly acted...Drama bordering on tragedy...It is unusual in theme and from a dramatic standpoint, a thoroughly strong and forceful theme." The reindeer stampede was hailed for its "genuine thrills" which were "splendidly pictorial" but from that point onward in the plotline, the story was said to "drag slightly." and its interest said to begin to disappear. While the direction of Mauritz Stiller was seen as "unusually good; displays great sense of dramatic values", "Mary Johnson is pleasing though rather lacking in expression." Einar Hanson appeared as Gunnar Hede on the cover of Filmnyheter during 1923; it is an issue in which there is an article that reads "Mary Johnson, var Svenska Filmingenue framfor kameran". One source, perhaps resource, of beautiful material on the film is the Svenska Filminstituet Biblioteket. On reviewing Mauritz Stiller'sSir Arne's Treasure/Snows of Destiny in 1922, Exceptional Photoplays wrote, "Mary Johnson, if she has a chance to become known on the American screen, will show us what it is to be lovely without being vapid, with the magic of a child and the magic of a woman- tenderness and sweetness that is not chiefly a product of simpering smiles and fluffy curls." Forsyth Hardy looks at the entire film, "Herr Arne's Penger was essentially visual in expression. Mauritz Stiller and Gustav Molander, who collaborated in writing the scenario, appeared to have absorbed the values of the Lagerlof story and translated them imaginatively into film form. The film had dramatic balance. It also had a visual harmony absent from some of the earlier films where the transition from interior to exterior was too abrupt." Kwaitkoski, in his volume Swedish Film Classics, writes, "Stiller and his scriptwriter Molander simplified the meandering plot of the story, making the narration more consistent and building up tension in a logical way justified by the development of events."

Swedish Silent Film Swedish Silent FilmMauritz Stiller-Silent Film



While Garbo was finishing the The Temptress, Stiller, having written the script before the script department had reworked its plot, had begun shooting Hotel Imperial (1927, eight reels) for Paramount; she went to the preview of the film. Greta Garbo had said, 'Stiller was getting his bearings and coming into his own. I could see that he was getting his chance.' The conversation between the two actresses related in retrospect by Pola Negri may almost seem eerie, her account beginning with a telephone call from Mauritz Stiller, "May I be permitted to bring along a friend? She does not know many people here yet. Greta Garbo." After dinner Negri gave Garbo advice in creating for herself a unique personna, something individual, her going so far as to say, "Never be aloof or private" with Garbo adding the rejoinder without noting that they were both actresses that had worked abroad that they were in fact both remaining private while in Hollywood and Negri telling Garbo that she would soon have to film without Stiller. Negri writes, "She held her head high. A look of intense interest was spreading over that perfectly chiseled face, making it the one thing that one would not have thought possible: even more beautiful." In a letter to Lars Saxon, Greta Garbo wrote, "Stiller's going to start working with Pola Negri. I'm still very lonely, not that I mind, except occaisionally." Motion Picture Classic gives a jarring account of Stiller's new assignment, "It's just one director after another with Pola Negri...And the blame has rested equally on the mediocre stories given her and on the directors. The latter have failed to understand her...So Pola, according to my spies on the Coast, will give Mauritz Stiller a chance to understand her moods and make the best of them. The tempermental swedish director has been given a verbal barrage of bouquets by the other foreigners who handle the megaphone. Practically all of them proclaim him the master of them all." It went on with a severity to explain that the director and star were forever joined by their being tempermental, and that that in fact was the reason Stiller was dismissed from The Temptress, it claiming "maybe it needs temperment to combant temperment." Paramount, having had been being reluctant to allow Stiller to direct, at the insistence of the producer relented and granted his artistic license and freedom to create with the other branches of the studio. "He wrote the scenario for the film in nine days." Biographer John Bainbridge quotes Lars Hanson as having said, "I saw Stiller when he was ready to shoot Hotel Imperial', Lars Hanson has recalled, "He was bursting with energy. He showed me the script of some of the scenes he was preparing to do- mass scenes of people in a square. According to the script, that was to take three weeks of shooting. Stiller did it in three days." The biographer continues later by writing that after Hotel Imperial Stiller told Lars Hanson he then intended, for financial reasons and for commercial success to make only one more film in the United States. Greta Garbo had intimated words very much to the same effect, "'I'm not staying here much longer,' she told the Hansons when they talked about leaving Hollywood, 'Moje and I will go home soon.'"

Of Stiller's camerawork in the film, Kenneth MacGowan wrote, 'Hung from an overhead trolley, his camera moved through the lobby and the four rooms on each side of it.' In a brief review of the film R.E. Sherwood complimented Stiller on his use of camera postion and shot structure, but while praising Stiller as a director and the film's "visual qualities", which included "trick lighting" among its camera effects, which according to the author harken back to earlier "photo-acrobatics" from silent film director F.W. Murnau, Sherwood sees a lack of depth or meaning in the film's screenplay or its message as an organic whole in its having moment. Maurits Stiller Whether or not the United States can be viewed as imperial, as it is as seen by Dianne Negra, she writes about Pola Negri's character in Stiller's film, her almost connecting thematically the difference between Negri's role in the film and earlier vamp roles with the film's ending and its reuniting of Negri and her lover in a plotline similar to that of Sjöstrom's The Divine Woman (En Gudomlig Kvinna). 'The film closes with its most emphatic equation of romance and war as a close up of a kiss between Anna and Almay fades to the images of marching troops.' Mauritz Stiller, when invited to a private screening of Hotel Imperial for Max Reinhardt had said, 'Thank you. But if not for Pola, I could not have made it.'

Photoplay Magazine reviewed the film favorably, "Here is a new Pola Negri in a film story at once absorbing and splendidly directed...Actually, "Hotel Imperial" is another variation of the heroine at the mercy of the invading army and beloved by the dashing spy. This has been adroitly retold here, untill it assumes qualities of interest and supspense...Miss Negri at last has a role that is ideal..."Hotel Imperial" places Stiller at the foremost of our imported directors." Motion Picture Magazine reviewed the film with, "It accomplishes almost to perfection those photographic effects which directors have been striving for; and so simply and directly that one is unconscious of the freakishness of the camerawork in one's absorption in the dramatic unfolding of the plot, with rapid succession...It is a smooth, eloquent tale told in an entirely new language- a thrilling language of pictures...Though one is ever conscious that it is essentially a war story, and the menace of wartime is (constantly) present, there are no actual battle pictures. It is almost altogether a story of the reactions of individuals to war." Motion Picture News during 1927 looked at the view, "The story could be stronger, yet its weakness is never manifested so expertly has the director handled it. The plot disntegrates toward the finish principally because it is so difficult to keep it so compact all the way. The story centers around The Hotel Imperial...Pola Negri plays the servant with splendid feeling and imagination." Under its section on Theme, the magazine summarized, "Drama of intrigue and decepetion revolving around hotel maid outwitting commander of army and finding happiness with her bethrothed."

In The Negri Legend, A new view of Pola Negri written by one who really knows her, Helen Carlise of Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "In Hotel Imperial we see a world figure who having sufferred much, having learned much, can with her great gift of artistry portray the soul of a Woman." When reviewed by Film Daily it was deemed that, "Although the vehicle does not offer her anything particularly fine, Pola Negri makes a fairly unimportant role outstanding...There is ready made exploitation in the star's name and the mention of her latest production." Paul Rotha writes, "Not only was it the comeback of Miss Negri, but it was a triumph of a star in a role that asked no sympathy." Paul Rotha extensively quotes Mr. L'Estrange Fawcett, but because The Film till Now is out of print, the present author will requote it here, "Some may remember the use of the travelling camera in Hotel Imperial...the stage accomodating the hotel was one of the largest in existence, and eight rooms were built complete in every detail...Suspended above the set were rails along which the camera mounted on a little carriage moved at the director's will. Scenes (shots) could be taken of each room above from every point of view...to experiment with angle photography, representing impressions of scenes taken from the point of view of a character watching the others...the story could be filmed in proper sequence. In Hotel Imperial, an attempt was made to build up cumulative dramatic effect following the characters swiftly from one room to another by means of several cameras and rolling shots." For those who may have seen the subjective camera of Carl Dreyer in Vampyr, the quote is intriguing.

Stiller also directed Pola Negri, and Clive Brook, in Barbed Wire (Ned med vapen 1927, seven reels). Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "Again in Barbed Wire, Pola Negri proves herself one of our great screen artists. It would seem that Pola is to match the European pictures in which we first knew her, after her appearing in countless poor American productions." Barbed Wire was adapted from the novel The Woman of Knockaloe by Sir Hall Caine. Author and curator Jan-Christopher Horak writing about scriptwriter Lajos Biro in Film History chronologically follows Barbed Wire with a script directed by Victor Fleming, "His next film was to be The Man Who God Forgot (released as The Way of All Flesh, 1927), again to be directed by Mauritz Stiller, which went into preproduction as Emil Jannings' first American film. Pommer and Stiller both disagreed with studio executives about the script." This, according to the author, lead to Pommer's resignation and to Stiller's dismissal from the studio. When Stiller directed the actress Pola Negri again, with Einar Hanson in The Woman on Trial (En kvinnas bekannelse 1927, six reels), Photoplay reviewed the film as "An unusually fine story and one that offers Pola Negri a chance for penetrating character study. Not for children." Motion Picture News reviewed the film as being "well-suited" for Pola Negri, "Having done pretty well by Pola Negri with Hotel Imperial, Mauritz Stiller takes her in tow and guides her through a likely melodrama- one in which she makes a strong bid for sympathy...The director uses the cutback method in building the plot. but he gets away from the obvious plan by refraining from flashing to the woman...the characters are sharply contrasted and as the cutbacks develop it is easy to guess...it is logically told and builds progressively. Miss Pola Negri gives a sincere performance and succeeds in establishing a sympathetic bond with her audience. The late Einar Hanson delivers some elegant pathos as the sick lover." During 1927, Film Daily foreshadowed, quietly and not ominously enough, that, "Immediately following The Woman of Trail, Pola Negri is planning a vacation trip to Europe." It had earlier that year reported that "Cortez Opposite Negri, Ricardo Cortez will play opposite Pola Negri in Confession." A month later it reported, "Pola Negri began work yesterday on A Woman on Trial with Mauritz Stiller directing and Ricardo Cortez and Lido Mannetti in the lead roles" That year Paramount advertised Negri as "The Empress of Emotions". Negri was in Paris during the early Spring while Stiller was viewing the rushes and working on the cutting. It was reported that upon her return from Europe that she would make one more picture for Paramount before filming and already decided film slated to be filmed with Rowland V. Lee- it was elaborated that, "Although she is now a princess by virtue of her recent marraige, Pola Negri will not retire from the screen." She had by then wedded Prince Devani. The previous year Pola Negri had starred in the films The Crown of Lies (Buchowetski, five reels) and Good and Naughty (Malcom St. Clair, six reels). In her autobiography, Memoirs of a Star, Pola Negri describes her first meeting with Greta Garbo.'To tell the truth, I was also very curious about the girl...She smiled wistfully, as we shook hands...Through dinner she was resolutely silent...', her then giving an account of their conversation and of her having given Garbo advice. There is also an account of her attending a dinner party that Pola Negri had "given in her honor" "She had her hair waived and arranged in a novel style resembling a half-open parasol. Her gown for the occasion was equally sensational, being a silk green creation that had been to the cleaner's and shrunk so that the hem was at her knees." All four films that Stiller had begun directing at Paramount had been a collaboration between him and cameraman Bert Glennon. It was through Stiller that Greta Garbo became acquainted with Emil Jannings, who in turn had brought Garbo together with director Jacques Feyder, with whom Garbo often met with socially. Motion Picture News during 1927 published a photograph of "a little Sunday afternoon group of celebrities" in front of the home of Emil Jannings, the group consisting of Mauritz Stiller, F.W. Murnau, Jannings, and actor George O'Brien. That year the trade magazine reported that Emil Jannings' second starring film for Paramount, tentatively titled Hitting for Heaven, "was started last Monday under the direction of Mauritz Stiller." The Street of Sin (Syndens gata 1928, seven reels) starring Fay Wray and Olga Barclanova was begun by Stiller and finished by the director Joseph von Sternberg. It would be Stiller's last attempt to film in the United States before returning to Sweden in late 1927 and presently there are no copies of the film. Motion Picture Magazine during 1927 reported that, "Maurice Stiller, who was slated to direct Jannings in his first picture, will not be given that pleasure. Stiller is to handle megaphone work on Pola Negri's next production." Kenneth MacGowan writing about the film notes, 'The film was more distinguished for its players-Jannings and Olga Barclanova- than for its script by Joseph Sternberg. Paul Rotha wrote, "Taking shots through hanging iron chains did not establish the atmosphere of place, although it may have created pretty pictorial compositions. Sternberg seems lodged in this gully of pictorial values. He has no control over his dramatic feelings (Street of Sin and very little idea of the filmic psychology of any scene that he shoots. He has, however some feeling for the use of women. His contrast of Betty Copson and Olga Baclanova in the latter film was good." (It might be asked if this criticism is lacking in regard to the symbolic scenework of Ingmar Bergman, and that if his "pretty pictorial compositions" have been given just enough dramatic ambiguity to become symbolic in their being arbitary, a personal obscurity accepted as having layers of meaning.) Sternberg's work on Stiller's film has been credited as having secured his position as the writer and director of the silent films The Last Command (1928) with Evelyn Brent and The Case of Lena Smith (1929) with Esther Ralston. During 1928, actress Olga Barclanova also appeared in the films The Man Who Laughs (Paul Leni, ten reels), The Dove (Roland West, nine reels), Forgotten Faces (Victor Schertzinger, eight reels), Avalanche (Otto Brower, five reels) and Three Sinners (Rowland V. Lee, eight reels). Three Sinners, with Warner Baxter was the second film to pair Olga Backlanova and Pola Negri, their both having appeared in the film Cloak of Death in 1915. During 1928, Photoplay Magazine announced, "Lucy Doraine, of Hungary has been signed by Paramount. She is reported to be the successor to Pola Negri." During 1928, Fay Wray appeared in the films Legion of the Condemned (William Wellman, eight reels), The First Kiss (Rowland V. Lee). It was the year she began her lengthy first marriage to playwright screenwriter John Monk Saunders. Legion of the Condemned also that year appeared in bookstore. The Grosset Dunlap Photoplay Edition advertised John Monk Saunders as having been the author of Wings and published the film as a novel rewritten from one narrative form into another by Eustace H Ball, with illustrations from the film. Ball himself was an author, his having written the mystery novel The Scarlet Fox and had previously adapted into novel form the photoplay of the Douglas Fairbanks film The Gaucho. Pola Negri during 1929 had starred in The Secret Hour (eight reels), directed by Rowland V Lee.

The death of Mauritz Stiller is more frequently encountered when discovering the reaction of Greta Garbo, whom had heard of his passing while on the set with Nils Asther. Sjostrom, who had been with Stiller the night before and had telegrammed Garbo, described his last time seeing the then ill Stiller after his release from the hospital, "Then Stiller got desperate. he grabbed my arm in despair and would not let me go. 'No,no', he cried. 'I haven't told him what I must tell him!' The nurse separated us and pushed me toward the door. I tried to quiet and comfort him, saying that he could tell me tommorow. But he go more and more desperate. His face was wet with tears. And he said, 'I want to tell you a story for a film. It will be a great film. It is about real human beings, and you are the only one who can do it.' I was so moved I didn't know what to say. 'Yes, yes, Moje,' was all I could stammer. 'I will be with you the first thing in the morning and then you can tell me.' I left him crying in the arms of the nurse. There was no morning." Close Up magazine marked the director's passing, "The death of Mauritz Stiller has been a genuine loss to the whole cinema world. The great Swedish director, poineer of the artistic film, did more for the screen than people will realize. While others were despairing the lowly medium, when it was given over exclusively to vulgarity akin to that of the penny novelellete, Stiller was froming his conception of a great art, developing its potenialities, seeing far into the future. He was a great artist, working with profound care and intensity. His intensity may have been impart responsible for his early demise." Among the events of 1924 had been a visit by silent film stars Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks to Stockholm, Sweden. The two had that year appeared on the September cover of Motion Picture Magazine in the United States. There are accounts that while in Sweden, Pickford and Fairbanks sailed on the small vessel The Loris with Greta Garbo and Mauritz Stiller, their departing from Lilla Skuggan, and before arriving in Saltsjobaden, their passing where Charles Magnusson lived at Skarpo. As he was wont to do, biographer John Bainbridge quoted an unknown source in order to indirectly quote Garbo, possibly lifted from a fan magazine, or perhaps actually from a personal interview, "Content with her little circle of friends, Garbo resolutely refused to anything to do with the conventional social life of the film colony. When Mary Picford invited her to a dinner in honor of Lord Montbatten...Miss Garbo declined with thanks. Miss Pickford then wrote Miss garbo a long letter...This pleading missive brought no results. 'It would be the same old thing,' Garbo said to one of ther friends. 'Strangers staring at me and talking about me. I would be expected to dance and I despair dancing. I can't do it.'" Marion Davies laso gave a similar dinner for Lord Montbatten where Garbo also declined her invitation.

In the United States, Exceptional Photoplays, in an article titled The Swedish Photoplays distinguished the film of Svenska Bio for their "quality of composition" and "imaginative presentation" by introducing Mortal Clay, "Costume plays are often unconvincing on the screen because they fail to reproduce period atmosphere, but Mortal Clay (banal in nothing but its name) has succeded in creating for us the spirit of the Twelfth century...The plot is dramaticlly sound and absorbingly interesting. But the real claim to greatness which the picture posesses lies in the splendid composition of its scenes and incomparable lovliness of its lighting effects. There is a certain architectural magnificence in the picture". The magazine noted that Victor Seastrom was both actor and director and commended a "fineness of shading" in his performance. In the United States, during 1923 it was reported that the Sjostrom film Mortal Clay was screened by Little Theaters Inc, "an organization recently formed to boost the artistic standards of motion pictures." (Film Daily). That year the films Sjostrom had made in Sweden were becoming more widely reviewed in the United States- in an article that compared the no longer new art form of film to painting, Majorie Mayne, in The New Masters published in Pictures and PictureGoer, wrote, "And the director went to picture galleries for his data; Victor Seastrom reincarnated Renaisance art in his Love's Crucible, scene after scene of which remains an unforgettable memory, and in Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness, pictures of a different, thoroughly compelling type abounded." During January of 1922, Victor Sjostrom was already known in the United States as Victor Seastrom. Apparently he was then the object of the desire of the female spectator, which is reflected in the extratextual discourse of Helen Hancock, in Pantomine Magazine, who wrote, "We have kept Victor Seastrom untill the last. Because perhaps Mr. Seastrom might not like to be called a matinee idol- leaving that phrase to younger and perhaps handsomer men. But he is one, just the same...Of the heavy, rugged type, portraying men of strong emotions and virile personalities." She claims he was one of the foremost directors and a pioneer, and then compliments him on being an actor of the legitimate stage. Director Victor Sjostrom had left Sweden for Hollywood in 1922 upon the completion of the film The Hellship. Victor Seastrom Victor Seastrom The title of the book on Victor Sjostrom written by Bo Florin is fitting; the idea that Victor Sjostrom's coming to Hollywood to film would entail some type of transition and transformation was prefigured in Scenario Bulletin Digest, the Open Forum between the Writer and Studio, published by the Universal Scenario Corporation in 1923 when Sjostrom had first signed his contract with Goldwyn and the need to keep his artistic integrity was formulated by Sjostrom himself before he had toured the studio. The article illustrates the theme of Florin's book on Sjostrom by outlining the expectations of Sjostrom and Goldwyn, "The arrangement gives him a free hand in the artistic making of photodramas. The assurance that Mr. Seastrom will be unhampered in the development of his art is one of the most significant features of his connection with Goldwyn." The magazine quoted Sjostrom at a time when he had just only arrived in Hollywood and it would have been suprising that the quote had not come to the attention of Bengt Forslund, a biographer who had chronicled Sjostrom's transitions while becoming a revered, hallowed director of Swedish Silent Film and later through letters Sjostrom had sent while in Hollywood. "'No definite plans have been made as of yet,' he said, but I am to make pictures in the best way I am able, to satisfy myself as nearly as possible. That is all there is to it.'" He is again quoted,"The most striking attribute of American made motion pictures,' he continued, 'is their humanness. It is my hope that I will be able to develop this remarkable quality of humanness on the screen. It is this quality, i think that has made the popularity os so many American pictures abroad.'" It then profiled the director with, "Mr. Seastrom, who is also one of the most noted actors on the screen, has not decided, he said, whether or not he will appear in his productions in this country...Although Mr. Seastrom's fame has been more closely associated in this country with the grimmest sort of screen dramas. beautifully photographed, (some of his double exposure effects, notably in The Stroke of Midnight, never have been equalled) he has had striking success in his country with comedies." The Film Daily during January of 1923 announced that Sjostrom had signed with Metro: Victor Sjostrom had become Victor Seastrom, "Seastrom under the contract signed is understood to have the right to act in as well as direct his productions." Three months later it announced that Paul Bern was engaged to write continuity for The Master of Man. While noting that Name the Man had not been Sjostrom's Photoplay, Bo Florin records that while in Hollywood, where the techniques of Griffith and Ince had differed as to the details included in a shooting script, Sjostrom created from behind the camera, Paul Bern having had drawn the storyline into its treatment. "When compRing the script to the film, it becomes clear that these details consist of stylistic devices which Sjostrom in Sweden had been used to including at the script stage, but which are now added afterwards. Thus, Name the Man contains a dissolve combined with a cut across the line which shows exactly the same space from the reverse angle. While the dissolve remains quite conventional in its function, bridging a spatial transition, it's combination with the violation of the 180 rule creates an interesting effect." Oddly, as the studio was using Seastrom's name before filming had completed to advertise that "Golddwyn is doing big things.", the publication added to the extratextural discourse with "Americanizing Sweden by Films, Victor Seastrom, in a recent address stated that Sweden is fast becoming Americanized by American motion pictures." Early in June of 1923, it tersely reported, "Victor Seastrom has started shooting on Master of Man and later that month, if only to allow itself to be more concise, reported, "Edith Erastoff, a popular Swedish dramatic star, and wife of Victor Seastrom is en route to the Pacific Coast to join her husband who is Master of Man for Goldwyn." Exhibitor's Trade Review in March, 1923 reported similarly, "Another recent addition was the signing of Victor Seastrom, director and actor with Swedish Biograph to come to this country and direct productions for it. hat his first picture will be is not known." In April of that year it printed that he had selected The Master of Men, "The story selected is of such unusual dramatic quality that it will be worth all of the energy and directorial genius that Mr. Seastrom brings to bear upon his productions...The leading members of the cast are now being selected and the sets are being built." The film stars Mae Busch, Bo Florin noting that Sjostrom had not wanted Mae Busch for the lead, but that she had appeared in an earlier film, The Christian, an adaptation of the novel by Sir Hall Caine by Maurice Tourner- according to the studio, Sjostrom had to relent. Film Daily had avoided speculation for months before announcing, "Nagel replaces Schildkraut. Conrad Nagel will play the leading masculine role in Master of Man, which Victor Seastrom is now making for Goldwyn. Joseph Schildkraut was originally cast for the role." It soon added that "Hobart Bosworth will have an important role" before reporting in September that Sjostrom had finished while Alan Crosland was nearing the completion of his film Three Weeks. Motion Picture Magazine had a similar, but conflicting report during 1923, "Gost Ekman, matinee hero of Stockholm is coming over for the first American picture to be made by Victor Seastrom, the famous Swedish director...He plays in stock during the winter months- in pictures every summer. Seastrom's wife, Edith Erastoff, who usually plays opposite Ekman is coming to Hollywood to be with her husband. He has not stated whether she will go in the movies." During 1924 Carl Sandberg reviewed the film Name the Man (eight reels), his remarking upon Sjostrom's use of lighting, which, whether or not it may have had been a use of realism or naturalism, seemed underplayed to Sandberg and based on the enviornment rather than made more elaborate or as being artificial. "He was an actor, rated as Sweden's best, and his voice leads actors into slow, certain moods." Iris Barry is timely writing in 1924, imparting to the readers of Lets Go to The Movies, "Victor Seastrom, who had made Swedish pictures before Germany had begun its work (and too good to be popular) went last and they had they idiocy to put him to turning one of Hall Caine's intensely stupid stories into moving pictures. He did the best he could and played about a bit with the Yankee studio devices." And yet rather than providing a synopsis to the film, Motion Picture Magazine in 1923 relegated the novelization of the film to Peter Andrews. "She half rose as he returned and his bathrobe which she had flung around her slipped down, perhaps farther than it needed to." It was accompanied by a table explaining the cast of the film directed by Victor Seastrom and a capition which read, "told in short story form by permission from the Goldwyn Production of the scenario by Paul Bern." In his volume The Film Till Now, author Paul Rotha resonates a tone that can be likened to other critics his contemporary, "I cannot recall any example of a European director, who, on coming to Hollywood, made film better, or even as good as he did in his own surroundings." After mentioning Murnau, Leni and Lubitsch, the opines, "Sjostrom's Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness is preferable to Name the Man."

During 1923, Sjostrom wrote from the United States that he thought he might be given a script by Elinor Glyn to adapt into a photoplay, "I told them that I knew a film like that would succeed on her name, but that I didn't believe it was the kind of stuff I should do." He also writes that the novel Born av tiden (A Simple Life, written by Knut Hamsun, at that time could have been a possibility. 1922 had been the year during which appeared the second film directed by Gustaf Molander, Amatorfilmen, the first film in which actress Elsa Ebbengen-Thorblad was to appear, brought actress Mimi Pollack to Swedish movie audiences. Molander had made the film The King of Boda (Tyrranny of Hate, Bodakungen) in 1920. It was the first film to be photographed by Swedish cinematographer Adrian Bjurman and starred Egil Eide and Wanda Rothgardt. Karin Molander had in 1920 starred in two films by Mauritz Stiller, in When We Are Married (Erotikon) with Lars Hanson, Tora Teje, and Glucken Cederberg, and in Fiskebyn. She also that year appeared in the film Bomben, directed by Rune Carlsten. And yet Karin Molander would only later be mentioned to audiences in the United States, Photoplay Magazine noting in 1926 that she was no longer in Sweden and no longer married to Gustaf Molander, "With Lars Hanson came his wife, Karin Nolander, leading woman in the Royal State Theater of Stockholm and billed as 'Sweden's most beautiful woman' She hasn't appeared on the screen yet, but it shouldn't be long now with so many good Scandinavian directors over here." Karin Molander had been married to the Swedish director between 1910-1919, her and Lars Hanson having been paired together under the direction of Victor Sjostrom during 1917. Pictured together, a 1927 photocaption from Photoplay Magazine read, "When Mr. and Mrs. Lars Hanson worked for Swedish companies, Mrs. Hanson was popular on the European screen as Karin Nolander. But now that her husband has made a hit in this country, she has retired and decided to let his gather all the glory for the family." After their return to Sweden the Molander's were invited to a dinner party with Garbo acquaintance Knut Martin by visiting journalist Jack Cambell, who quoted Karin Molander in the article "I am the Unhappiest Girl in the World- says Greta Garbo", published by The New Movie Magazine. After Hanson related that he had lately seen very little of Greta Garbo, Karin Molander described the actress, "She was always a timid girl. terribly shy. Even in the old days in Hollywood, she used to go right home from the studio and go to bed. she'd never see anybody...You must admire her for the way she has fought herself upward, all alone, since Stiller." Picture Play magazine printed the article Two Gentlemen from Sweden, which was to comparatively interview both Einar Hansen and Lars Hanson. It read, "To crush flappers hopes, I regret that I must report he is happily married to Karen Nolander, formerly an actress in Sweden.She is charming and a lovely lady, whose sparkle and quaint naïveté have intrigued Hollywood." Victor Sjostrom wrote an article entitled The Screen Story of the Future, published by The Story World and Photodramatist in July, 1923, in which he advised, "The screenwriter must first of all have something to say, and secondly, the vitality and the sincerity that will enable him to say it in a deeply human way. But technique is vastly essential." As an act of spectatorship, Iris Barry looked at film directors in the United States, "Seastrom, the Swedish director, is a man whom America has ruined. In Sweden, one cannot help feeling the cinema has steered its own sweet course irrespective of a desire to please the people at all costs...There has been much poetry and a great deal of fancy in Swedish films." The Film Daily advised, "Keep your eye on Seastrom. He is liable to do some things that will make him one of the most important directors in this country." Readers in Sweden can affectionately know that it added, "Incidentally, if they can prevail upon him to act in one of of his productions he will also prove suprising." Photoplay magazine featured a magnificient photo Victor Sjostrom during 1923 in which he is holding a megaphone while standing next to his camera and camera crew in a foot of water while on location, shooting a scene from the middle of a stream; it is the same photo that appeared in Screenland Magazi Thu, August 20, 2015 - 4:28 PM permalink
Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo talar!

The private life of Greta Garbo escapes the slightest scrutiny of Richard Corliss, the earliest acting done by Greta Gustafsson only intimated as biography by a still photograph from the film Peter and the Tramp. By his own admission, Corliss only writes about the films Greta Garbo appeared in, as one of us, her many spectators, and keeps in front of the screen as a moviegoer in a theater. Referred to as peerless by Time Magazine, Corliss nevertheless acknowledges writes of biography as acquaintances that were brought to him though the study of actress Greta Garbo, among them being Ray Durgnant, Andrew Sarris and Molly Haskell, added to which are the names John Bainbridge, Kevin Brownlow, Pauline Kael and Norman Zierold that appear in his bibliography, which also attempts to add Parker Tyler, Georges Sadoul and Bosley Crowther. Nancy Gibbs, editor of Time Magazine reported the death of film critic Richard Corliss during the middle of 2015. These are the film's of Greta Garbo reviewed by Corliss, editor of Film Comment, for their value as films along with the interest in them and in the Greta Garbo that helped create them that was left unevaluated by the prolific film reviewer.



In the "First Interview She has Granted to any Magazine in Months", Greta Garbo in "The Swedish Sphinx Speaks" broke "her long silence" about when she would exit the silent film era, interviewed by Raplph Wheelwright in Screenland Magazine during 1929. "'I hated talking pictures when they first came out,' said Greta, stimulating a shudders guesture by way of adding emphasis to her words. 'They screeched and scratched. They were neither of the stage nor screen. Just monstrous nightmares. I thought to myself, I I have to appear in anything like that I ought to go home to Sweden and stay there. ugh! Now-' and Greta threw back her head and laughed. I am bored to death when I see a silent picture. It seems that something is lacking: life is gone when the players fail to speak their lines."

In the article Greta Garbo discussed there having had been being rapid technological developments in sound film while she had been in Sweden and mentioned her ability to fluently speak English, perhaps with little no Swedish accent. Not yet entirely completely refusing to be seen or quoted in public, she continued, "The public likes or dislikes a player solely upon what it sees of the player on the screen. I do not think a star's private life exposed in intimate detail serves any purpose than to satisfy curiosity. I am just a human being like anyone else. I resent prying into my personal affairs just as much as anyone in any other station or position rightfully resists similar intrusions.'" It was a monthly issue in which Helen Ludlam had introduced The New John Gilbert and Fashion Editor Adrain had introduced himself, authoring an article that was accompanied by one of his sketches and a photograph of himself with Greta Garbo taken three years earlier.

"Greta Garbo portrays the torments of love, but little else" was one photcaption that had accompanied Greta Garbo through the pages of fan magazines during 1930, specifically Picture Play Magazine, that had pages earlier praised sound film for having improved John Gilbert's image as a lover. Although correctly referred to a a hold-out for M.G.M, along with Lon Chaney, by author Richard Corliss, by then Greta Garbo by all accounts had made three sound tests, one from a monologue from Goethe's Faust, one a selection from Peer Gynt delivered in Swedish, and the other from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as Ophelia, the speech delivered in English. Norbert Lusk of Picture Play magazine was the film critic author Richard Corliss chose while deciding whom to select to relate the phenomenon of "The Voice: Greta Garbo's Sound films". To look at the article further and expand Corliss's quote, Lusk, who had serialized the photo plays of two reelers into fictional magazine adaptations, merely becomes perplexed by the baritone of Greta Garbo as the mystery of the Swedish Sphinx was to become more enigmatic and reach higher into the firmament reclusively. Significantly, or more significantly than is often viewed, by July of 1930, Talking Screen magazine has been added to the newsstand extra textual discourse. It read, "Gridley has fired. The Sphinx speaks! Greta Garbo has made a talkie. And the great myth of the movies- the legend of Hollywood- has received another tremendous impetus that will mean millions to M.G.M and it's sequestered Swede....according to director Clarence Brown...List to the oracle: 'I consider Greta Garbo one of the three Greta actresses the world has known, Bernhardt, Duse, and now Garbo.'" Author Herbert Cruikshank continued with his article Garbo Myth of the Movies More Amazing Than All the Mystery Stuff Is the Truth-Presented Herewith-Concerning Greta'" If not typical of the sentiment of the new adventure with sound, Talking Picture Magazine also went into publication as a proponent of the new moving, and talking, picture.

Greta Garbo





"Gorgeous Greta Garbo has swept into a national acclaim accorded few people in all of show history. The Phrase 'Greta Garbo Talks'- was blazoned from thousands of theaters. And ticket buyers came in droves." advertisement circulated by MGM to announce Greta Garbo in her second talking picture Romance, 1930




"Greta Garbo will have Charles Bickford as leading man in Clarence Brown's production of Anna Christie for M.G.M. and not John Gilbert as was first reported." After announcing the coming of a new Greta Garbo film, Motion Picture News printed an extensive series of advertisements by Metro Goldwyn Mayer on the new season of film. "Greta Garbo will appear in two all talking and one silent picture" appeared above the full page advertisement in Motion Picture News paid for by Metro Goldwyn Mayer. It ran below, "Greta Garbo in Anna Christie. Her first All-Talking picture! There's a title that will blaze mightily from marquees all over this broad land in the coming season. Greta Garbo, the divine beauty talking to her vast public!..In addition to the All-Talking picture Anna Christie, Greta Garbo will appear in a second All-Talking Drama, title shortly to be announced. This second speaking role for Miss Garbo is a vividly colorful characterization uniquely suited for her extraordinary beauty and talents. It will also be a silent production." "Garbo talar!!" was the title decided upon for the webpage authored by Louise Lagerstrom of the Swedish Film Institute. If it does seem more post-climatic than anti-climatic, actor John Barrymore had literally tried it first in an earlier film with synchronization, Pickford and Fairbanks both leaving their individual projects to co-star together shortly thereafter; Picture Play magazine speculated, "The Garbo Voice. What will it sound like? The Whole World waits to her the Swedish enchantress for the first time in Anna Christie." And yet, while audiences were waiting not all movie theaters were available for sound film and M.G.M divided their advertisement into a "Summary 16 Pictures Available for Theatres Without Installation: Greta Garbo, the flaming orchid whose seductive personality has made her an audience draw will appear in one silent picture, title of which is to be announced." While John Gilbert was scheduled to appear in his first sound picture Olympia, "Olympia:Title to Be Changed", Redemption, an adaptation of Tolstoy was being advertised as "A Fred Niblo Production, Screenplay by Dorothy Farnum". Before continuing to its advertisement of films "For Wired Houses", it included, "Lon Chaney in three thrilling silent pictures, the first Bugle Sounds. Titles of two more Lon Chaney silent pictures to be announced." Early during 1929, M.G.M. advertised Greta Garbo in Wild Orchids, "Sound or Silent", her having been assigned to "the most gripping story she's ever appeared in", and John Gilbert in Thirst "Equipped for Silent or Sound". Fred Niblo, introduced by a photo of Dorothy Sebastian in front of a microphone while filming one of her "new style scree tests, one for voice and one for photographic qualities", was attributed with having written the articles Crashing the Soundgates for Screenland magazine during 1929. The silent film director Niblo, noted in the photcaption for having directed Ben Hur, wrote, "Breaking into the talkie racket raises the ratio two thousand to one." Beneath them was a septagonal portrait of Greta Garbo Motion Picture News reported in July of 1929 that Greta Garbo was in rehearsals for Anna Christie, "her first talker". Picture Play magazine awaited the film, "At the very height of the talkie excitement, M.G.M. risked Garbo in an all silent picture in The Single Standard. It was a hit. Following her experiment in dialogue with Anna Christie, she may return to the silent fold, and I for one will not mourn. Garbo is a shadow. She suggests mystery, a mystery that has been in silence. What then will the spoken, tangible thought have to do with this peculiar appear? An out of character voice will ruin Garbo. She must speak as she looks- soft, alluring, and yet with a huskiness which her sophistication suggests...Always a good actress, Lilyan Tashman's throaty contralto has increased her prestige and emphasized her individuality. The talkie has given Conrad Nagel a new lease on popularity."

In 1930, Katherine Albert penned the article Is Jack Gilbert Through for Photoplay Magazine. She outlined Jack Gilbert's power of script approval, notifying audiences that his first sound film, Redemption had been "shelved by the studio." and that she wondered if it would ever be shown in theaters. The article reviewed his performance as having been "nervous", "too highkeyed and "sel-conscious". In the same issue, Photoplay released stills from Anna Christie, "This Clarence Brown filming of the O'Neil play for M.G.M. is eagerly awaited by Garbo fans everywhere. Garbo's first talkie is bound to be one of the sensations of the next few months."

Greta Garbo eludes, Greta Garbo evades

"There are many things in your heart you can never tell a person. They are you. Your joys and sorrows- and you can never, never tell them. It is not right that you should tell them. You cheapen yourself, the inside of yourself when you tell them."

Silent Film actress Greta Garbo

While waiting for the release of Anna Christie (Brown/Feyder, 1930), Picture Play magazine included a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull. Edwin Shallelert wrote, "Greta Garbo has gone to the extreme when exacting it within the studio itself...Greta Garbo has pursued the same phantom. The ordinary news gatherer, and the majority of the extraordinary, are not permitted on her set. It is told that once even some of her countrymen of the press came to visit and were ritzed, or felt they were." New Movie magazine devoted a page to Greta Garbo's first sound film, "Elsewhere in this issue Herbert Howe refers to Greta Garbo as the Hollywood Sphinx. But the Sphinx speaks in her next Metro Goldwyn picture, a new talkie version of Eugene O'Neil's Anna Christie once done by Blanche Sweet. Clarence Brown is introducing the Swedish Star to the microphone." The magazine also featured a portrait of Garbo dressed for tennis captioned, "The exotic Swedish star plays a great game of tennis. This isn't a posed sport picture. It's the real thing." Motion Picture News reviewed the film during 1929, "Her work is a sensation. Garbo has an exceptional talking voice, recording with a rich mellowness that exactly conveys her personality. A fine delivery of lines coupled with a splendid performance classes her among the finest of dramatic actresses...Clarence brown handled his direction with a deft hand that sustains the fullest interest in dramatic movement. His work is superb and the individual characterizations are particularly fine, with a small cast of four principals presenting sterling performances." It added, "Just as audiences repeat for Garbo in silent form, it is predicted the will do the same in her talker productions." "She was not pleased with the Anna Christie, writes John Bainbridge about a film that Garbo had first seen in the company of director Jacques Feyder and Wilhelm Sorensen, "'Isn't it terrible?' she whispered to them time and again as the picture unfolded. 'Whoever saw Swedes act like that?'" Although she apparently left early during the screening she visited actress Marie Dressler the following day with Chrysanthemums. Sorensen, after appearing in the refilming reversed their position, or emotion rather, "Garbo thinks this is one of the best pictures she has ever made, and she gives most of the credit to Jacques Feyder." Greta Garbo had worked out dialogue changes with the director during her second filming of Anna Christie. The character played by Dressler would in the second film be reenacted by Salka Viertel, who became, along with Mercedes de Acosta, one of Greta Garbo's more devoted companions during the period of early sound film, Feyder having returned to Europe after making the film, as had Hanson and Sjostrom. Garbo, who without entirely disappearing as though mysteriously, purportedly was travelling under the name of Gussie Berger, would infrequently be seen with Lilyan Tashman. After retiring from film, Garbo would later register at hotels as Mrs Harriet Brown. The magazine Hollywood Filmograph traced the early stardom of the entrance of Greta Garbo into sound film during 1930. It reported, "Niblo had planned to film Red Dust with Greta Garbo, but Romance was put on schedule ahead of this, so he will direct the Haines picture first, then Red Dust, according to present plans." It followed with the heading "Garbo in a new talkie", which read, "Forsaking the Swedish accent of Anna Christie for Italian dialect and garbed in crinolines in place of sweaters and oilskins, Greta Garbo has started work on her second talking picture. Romance, an adaptation of the famous stageplay...Clarence Brown, who filmed Garbo's first talkie for Metro Goldwyn Mayer, is directing." Hollywood Filmograph then alluded to Garbo's then next film, "Greta Garbo will be seen in at least three productions during the coming season, the first of which will be Red Dust. This is based on William Collison's story and presents the magnetic Swedish star as a Parisian." It later reported, "Fred Niblo, having just completed directing Easy Going starring William Haines at M.G.M., is right now preparing to direct Greta Garbo in her next story Red River which Fred De Grease is writing and adapting for the screen." Motion Picture News during 1930 echoed with a similar report on Red Dust, "M.G.M is preparing Red River as Greta Garbo's next talker following her current picture Romance. Fred Niblo is to direct upon finishing Easy Going. Red River is an original by Fred De Greasac and was formally known as Red Dust." With this was also, "M.G.M switches Niblo from Red Dust to Haines film- Fred Noblo will direct William Haines in the latter's next film for M.G.M, N original titled Easy Going...Niblo was originally scheduled to direct Red Dust with an all star cast but this has been postponed to follow the Haines picture so that Greta Garbo can take the starring assignment in Red Dust." The magazine later reverted to the title having had been being Red Dust and it having been based on a story by Wilson Collison, but it also carried an advertisement from M.G.M. itself, which read, "Greta Garbo in Red Dust" which claimed it would be Greta Garbo's third sound film. "The most unusual part she has ever played. On a Chinese rubber plantation her past in Paris is forgotten- gorgeous Greta Garbo gives the talking screen a performance such as you've never witnessed. This stageplay by Wilson Collison has the power of Sadie Thompson. It's going to be one of the year's greatest." The New Movie Magazine during 1930 looked at Garbo in regard to fashion. "The glamorous Garbo, away from the studio, affects dull tweeds and flat heel shoes. No expensive wardrobe for Miss Garbo. Yet she is Hollywood's most lavish purchaser of lovely lingerie. She spends thousands every year on fancy underthings. Above the photo of Garbo was a caption reading, "Spend between $5,000 and $25,000 on clothes." It continued pages later, "For evening Garbo is magnificent...She goes so little to social functions that one can do little speculating as to the number of outfits shew has, but the writer has seen a magnificent ermine wrap, with white fox trimming and several elaborate white satin, white lace, white chiffon, and white moiree gowns that could not cost less than three hundred dollars a piece." Within months the magazine added, "She wore a tan beret and a tan overcoat with a high collar and a pair of horn rimmed glasses. As time goes on the great Garbo seems to become more and more like a hermit." Another item read, "Greta Garbo loves spaghetti and never eats in the studio lunch room. Three years later the magazine interviewed the make-up girl at M.G.M., Lillian Rosini, "Greta Garbo has never used anything but the thinnest dusting of flesh-coloured powder, rather pinkish, and pale lip-rouge; nothing on her eyes at all. And by they way if I get anymore letters asking me if Garbo's eyelashes are artificial, I'll scream...I've been making her up for nine years...I ought to know her lashes are real.

Greta Garbo Advertisements sent by M.G.M. itself to Motion Picture News during 1930 relied upon the theme expressed on the cover of Exhibitors herald World, which almost comicly announced, "Greta Garbo talks again in Romance. Its her greatest"; after acknowledging the fame that Garbo had acquired by returning to the screen in a sound film, it depended on the recognition of her as an investment and it was discernably giving her press of its own, "Already the word comes out of Hollywood that Miss Garbo's new Talking picture Romance is destined to overshadow Anna Christie by far. There's no figure in all studioland whose screen activities are of such widespread interest. Long before a Greta Garbo attraction reaches the screen the magazines of the nation are heralding its approach, the public is breathless with anticipation. Its nice to have a Greta Garbo under contract to your theater. In 1930-31, the first of her three vehicles will Red Dust." Motion Picture Classic during 1930 noted in "Garbo at her best" that "It is probable that her latest and greatest photoplay, Romance marks the zenith of Greta Garbo's career. Garbo plumbs new dramatic depths. She adds new charm to her attractions, and is very much the star of the production...The selection of Gavin Gordon is less fortunate, but the shadow of the great Garbo softens the glare of his defects." Directed by Clarence Brown, the screenplay to the film was written by Bess Meredyth and Edwin Justus Mayer. Richard Corliss saw "recognizable curtain lines" that were to almost harken back to the proscenium arc of "filmed theater" during the cinema of attractions, deeming the blocking of the film playlike, "It was as if Clarence Brown, the admirable technician, had died with the coming of sound, and most of his later films were directed not by his spirit, but by his shade. The result is a feature-length series of static two shots, of statuesque poses instead of felt guestures." The portrait of Greta Garbo in costume from the set of Romance published in Motion Picture magazine was photographed by George Hurrell. Adela Rogers St. Johns, writing in New Movie magazine gave a portrait of Greta Garbo that veers from her being a recluse in The Heart of Garbo, How the Plight of her Leading Man Touched the Sympathies of the Star Who Walks Alone, Gavin Gordon went to Hollywood because he found out that Garbo lived and made pictures in the distant land of which he had heard so much." A still of them in the film Romance accompanies the article with the explanation of how Garbo insisted that he be in the cast and that she sent him roses, it quoting the actor, "'And she helped me through those scenes so wonderfully.' he said,'She didn't think of herself and how it would be for her. She was so kindly, she always made it possible for me to do each scene.'"

"Love?" She laughed softly, "Of course I have been in love. Love is the last and first of a women's education. How could you express love if you have never felt it? You can imagine, but its not like the feeling- who hasn't been in love?"

Greta Garbo- Photoplay magazine
Greta Garbo Faith Service, who had for more than a decade been writing about silent film and adapting photo-plays into magazine short-stories, printed the article "Garbo Never Sleeps- This is Her Tragedy- The Real Explanation of her strange life and her Broken Romance." Interesting to read, it contains what seems to initially be a plausible theory that begins to explain the mystery of Greta Garbo with, "The reason why she does what she does, the reason why she doesn't do the things other people do, the reason for her famous eccentricities and hermit-like existence, her lack of response to a social life, her lack of response to eager lovers is this- Garbo is an insomniac. She never sleeps." The article claimed that Mauritz Stiller had experienced bouts of sleeplessness before his death and go back and forth between rooms before finding a suitable bed, and that Garbo too had had mild instances on occaision that she was now using "constant sunbaths" and "endless walks up and down the beach" to preempt. It continued that John Gilbert's heart was still broken- "Garbo, too tired to love." Motion Picture Classic magazine during 1930 instructed, "To locate Greta Garbo, take out your binoculars and study the sun. Discover the hottest ray, locate where it strikes Hollywood and with the aid of a compass seek the spot. There you will find the mysterious one sunbathing. She never misses, so you will not have wasted a minute." New Movie Magazine during 1931 reported, "Greta Garbo seems to be emerging from her mysterious seclusion. She gave Malibu quite a thrill lately when she came down and spent a whole afternoon on the beach with friends." Journalist Cary Wilson later gave a portrait of the Greta Garbo he had met in Photoplay during 1936 claiming that he referred to her as "Fleck", which was short for "Svenskaflecka" and that he had first been introduced to her when she was standing on her head; she had been playing tennis which was then in turn followed by an hour's swimming and then another hour of hiking, "she still contained so much physical exuberance that standing on her head, on a sofa pillow, seemed to be the simple and desirable thing to do." Garbo had been winning at tennis after only having been playing for seventeen days. The extra-textural discourse depicting the off screen activities of motion picture actors, and sometimes directors, and more than often not the enigmatic ghostlike swirlings of the Swedish Sphix, Greta Garbo, who was by then established as the most reclusive actress in Hollwood, included an announcement during 1932 in the magazine Hollywood Filmograph, "Humphrey Pierson, one of Hollywood's best known writers was signed today by Joseph I Schnitzer and Samuel Schnitzner to do the adaptation and screenplay of "Greta, the Great", which is said to be based upon the life of Garbo." Earlier it had reported, "A number of feminine stars in Hollywood are said to be worried for fear that their private lives will soon be public since it has been revealed that Rilla Page Palmborg, author of the sensational 'Private life of Greta Garbo' is at work on a second book. It is not known whether or not this book will be a 'private life' although the book is said to concern Hollywood." Close Up magazine during 1932 also reviewed the biography, "But Rilla Page Palmborg in The Private Life of Greta Garbo got dope from Garbo's private servants. For the first time one learned that Garbo buys all the fan magazines and asks for her money back if there is nothing in them about herself. For the first time one learns that Garbo's favorite breakfast is grape fruit, creamed dried chipped beef, fried potatoes, an egg, home made coffee cake and coffee." Biographer John Bainbridge goes so far as to quote Gustaf and Sigrid Norin and after giving a similar account of Garbo reading, and returning fan magazines adds to that her bringing her lunch to the studio in a brown paper bag. "She also made a point of seeing every film directed by Ernst Lubitsch and Eric von Stroheim- in her opinion two of the most gifted directors in Hollywood. She usually saw her own pictures two or three times, on different occaisions." To the account is added that she avoided beauty shops and that she rinsed her hair after shampooing with camomile tea, which the housekeeper brewed from camomile seeds. Although Adrian had visited the house and had arranged its living room furniture and decorated its interior, the butler is quoted as having remarked that Garbo was apathetic about it and the making of purchases for it. During the filming of Sign of the Cross, Movie Classic quoted the film's director, without him expressing any further interest in the mysterious Garbo, and yet there is an allusion to the seductive roles that she was trying to ascend in his typifying her as a woman that could gain power through sensuality, "'The most voluptuous-looking woman in Hollywood,' adds DeMille. "is Greta Garbo. She has true voluptuousness- not of body, but of mind.'". To end the silent era, two months before Greta Garbo's last silent film, The Kiss (Feyder, 1929), Clarence Sinclair Bull became the gallery photographer of Greta Garbo, photographing her through several years, only in costume and only on the (closed) set. Author Mark A Vieira writes, "She liked him because, like Clarence Brown, he spoke softly, if at all." In an e-mailed correspondence with the present author, Mr. Vieira sent still photographs scanned from their original negatives in two seperate letters, their having been mostly left over and unused from the editorial decisions during the publication of his biography Greta Garbo, A Cinematic Legacy. One of the portraits taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull, as the reader will notice, is the one used on the cover of Mr. Vieira's biography without the publisher's title lettering. Vieira, who was an apprentice of Clarence Sinclair Bull, quotes Greta Garbo, "As she said, 'I had it all my own way and did it in my own fashion.' This is what ended her career and what makes her cinematic legacy the exquisite thing that it is."
One portrait of Greta Garbo included in the Estate of Greta Garbo auction was a gelatin silver print on double-weight matte paper with Clarence Sinclair Bull's blind stamp from the film Susan Lennox Her Rise and Fall. Motion Picture Magazine during the release of Susan Lennox Her Rise and Fall was explicit, perhaps perfunctory, in its publishing a portrait of Greta Garbo by Clarence Sinclair Bull with the caption, "The One- and Only" Underneath read, "There's only one gown in the world like this, just as there is only one Greta Garbo. It was designed by Adrian. An exquisite portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull appeared in Modern Screen Magazine in 1931 with the caption, "Although almost everyone in Hollywood knows where Greta Garbo lives, the swedish star hasn't moved for some time. Perhaps she's getting used to inquisitive fans peering through the hedges. She takes long hikes everyday and is usually accompanied by a woman companion." 1932 saw the article Garbo is like Lindbergh, written by R. Fernstrom and published in New Movie Magazine."Garbo is like Lindbergh. They act alike toward publicity.They shy away from reporters. Garbo is like the King of Sweden in many ways- kind, but aloof to everyone."
Greta Garbo It is a gendered spectatorship that places Garbo as a Cleopatra, who, as an alluring Queen, is looking at wealth as an abstraction in that to her it is aphrodisiac, her displaying herself as desirable admidst a backdrop of opulence; to know the secrets of her body is to be allowed by her within the solitude of grandeur. After Victor Sjostrom had returned to Sweden, Robert Herring, writing in Close Up magazine on Uno Henning in En Natt, a classic early Swedish sound film directed by Gustaf Molander, abruptly interrupted his essay to enter into a legnthy discourse on Greta Garbo, it being glaring that the section on Garbo is displaced in the essay, as if by overenthusiasm, to where he compares Garbo to Bridgette Helm only to stall with more on Greta Garbo before returning to Molander's film, "For with Garbo, too, there is the same sense of being linked to something more than one's personal life. Of carrying on and of being carried. Garbo in love, uses her lover as a means of reaching that land, that mood, that peace she requires. That is what is so difficult for her leading men, and so hard to find scenarios in which her leading man can continued to be wooed...Garbo has never lost this, this restless quiet..It is what makes her sometimes tired, which the movies try to turn into langorousness; it is what makes her dynamic, determined...Garbo astonishes people by being alternatively strangely careless and suddenly precise, right and assured." Film Daily reviewed the film Inspiration, "Greta Garbo dominates every situation and is the Garbo the fans want....Miss Garbo brings to the screen all the great possibilities of her talents with a combination of heart-gripping emotion and carefree indifference." With the superlative photography of Clarence Sinclair Bull, Greta Garbo inherited Photoplay Magazine journalist Katherine Albert, who summarized her writing during 1931 by herself paraphrasing her, "I'm bored with Garbo.", her looking at and foreward to the sensation differently with the articles Did Brown and Garbo Fight and Exploding the Garbo Myth, the former concerned with "the carefully guarded walled in stage where Garbo was starring in Inspiration, the latter making an event of Greta Garbo objecting to a line of dialouge on the set of the film Romance, including a photocaption which read, "the writer, who knows hers says there is not mystery about Greta Garbo". After explaining how successful artisticlly the work of Clarence Brown and Greta Garbo had been it asks what happenned during the filming of Inspiration, "The piece is an adaptation of Sappho. The book is now old fashioned. So is the play. A new script had to be written and neither Garbo nor Brown were entirely satisfied, but there was nothing to do but experiment on the set and see how it read. In order to get anything out of it, they must rehearse and rehearse and change and change. That's where the trouble began. Garbo would not rehearse." Photoplay reviewed the release of the film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox, "If you like your romance thick, your passion strong and your Garbo hot, don't miss this...M.G.M. stuck closely to the tale, modernizing it of course, and adding a trick ending. Garbo does her utmost with the tile role, natural for her." Although the announcement may seem odd to this century, The New Movie Magazine in 1931 had reported, "King Vidor has selected Ernest Torreace for one of the important roles in The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox, Greta Garbo's current picture." During 1932 it was well within the knowledge of "all the more studious Garbo fanatics" (Picture Play) that Greta Garbo was on the screen with Clark Gable, Their attraction to each other is understandable, their antagonism predestined, and their desperate reunion at the end of the picture holds no hope of tranquility." Picture Play thought highly of Greta Garbo adding, "Nor does she triumph in spite of her picture. it is a story entirely worthy of her." Richard Corliss includes Mata Hari with those films in which Greta Garbo's performance had been reviewed as "intentionally, or perhaps artisticly, lethargic". "M.G.M. had put Garbo through so many variations on the beautiful spider falling in love with the idealistic fly that the actress could have performed this part in her sleep- and more than one critic accused her of doing just that." During 1932 Regina Cannon directly quoted Ramon Novarro in New Movie Magazine in The Most Eligible Couple Will Never Marry, "Garbo is my ideal woman, but I shall never marry." The "startling frank article continued, "No other woman has impressed me so much; not even Barbara La Marr. Greta is everything that man desires. She has beauty, lure, mystery and aloofness that only men understand, for it is a quality which is usually to be found only in men. It is not coldness either. It is emotion." Journalist Ralph Wheelridge chronicled the making of Mata Hari for Photoplay magazine, "Announcements of the co-starring assignnment for Mata Hari sounded signal guns for rumors, conjecture and prognostication of all description. Those who have seen Miss Garbo about the lot during the making of the picture commented upon the gorgeousness of her costume and her unruffled contentment." The author mentions that her co-star had only met Greta Garbo socially on one or two occaisions, "On her dressing room table that morning Garbo found a huge mound of pink roses." He had sent a card reading, "I hope that the world will be as thrilled to see Mata Hari as I am to work with her- Ramon Novarro." Ben Maddox announced during the middle of his article Garbo and Novarro Together, Has Garbo found her Perfect Screen Lover at Last published in Screenland Magazine that he "had a long talk with Ramon during the making of Mata Hari. Ostensibly, little of it was about Greta Garbo, his quoting Novarro as having said, "Popularity is fleeting. So why should I be dazzled with a material success that is bound to end...However, I was delighted to do Mata Hari, it gives me an excellant role, one for which I am fitted. To me, the play is the thing. I like the co-starring plan. When one person alone is featured, the story is distorted to stress one character. And as a result the picture cannot be dramaticly effective..After thirty something happens to you. You get a more serious outlook on life."

Scott Higgins, currently. Professor of Film at Wesleyean University and recently the editor of Arnheim for Film and Media draws a portrait of Arnheim as an outdated, archaic formalist lacking vision, but notes that the author, a proponent of the visual as the basis of aesthetic theory, maintained that "an action can gain expressive power through 'indirect representation'. This may be in part evident in Arnheim's 1934 piece on Motion, "When in Grand Hotel Greta Garbo walked through the lobby with a springy, dynamic gait, she produced not only the most beautiful moment of the film, but also the most telling characterization of the dancer, whose part she was playing. Sr risk of doing an injustice to the most animated face in the history of film art, it may be said that Greta Garbo could give equally strong expression to the human soul by the rhythm of her gait, which depending on the Occaisionalism was victorious Nd energetic, transfigured, or tied, broken anxious and feeble."

Richard Corliss describes the work of Greta Garbo with director George Fitzmaurice, "As You Desire Me begins with a fascinating premise, and reworks a Pirandello play that seems intriguingly relevant to the creation of Garbo the star. indeed the film has everything going for it but good writing, acting and directing. Gor most of the film, Garbo looks as if she's simply finishing out her five year contract." Photoplay Magazine gave an eerie, perhaps unsettling, review of the film, " 'This may be the last Garbo picture you see' but at this moment she will not make any more now...if ever...And Garbo has never been more marvelous....The love scenes between Douglas and Garbo are the high points of the film and they Re almost equal to the ones played so long ago by Gilbert and Garbo. if this must be her last picture, we are glad it is such a fitting swan song. And you don't need us to tell you not to miss the film."

Film Daily tersely, perhaps succinctly, announced during 1932, "Greta Garbo, who gets more publicity by trying to avoid it, is reported due today with intentions of sailing on the liner Grispholm for Sweden. At the M.G.M. home office yesterday, nobody had any idea as to the whereabouts of the Glamorous Greta." It followed later with. "Greta Garbo wearing horn-rimmed spectacles and accompanied by the Countess Wactmeister has been reported in Paris for the last week shopping. She is expected to return to Stockholm this week. Hollywood Filmograph during 1932 chronicled that, "Greta Garbo, while in Djuisholm, Sweden, refused to see American reporters. But the door was opened to Rene Kraus, German writer. Greta told Mr. Kraus that she would not be back in Hollywood for two years. That Maurice Stiller had not left her any money. That she had not played a part in Ivar Kruger's life. That she was only a friend to Newspaperman Sorensen. That she had no intention of getting married." The magazine later continued, "WILL GARBO RETURN seems to be a much mooted question with the executives as well as the fans debating the question since the Swedish star left our shores, but she's still elusive." Movie Classic in 1932 reported that the United States was on tenterhooks as Greta Garbo neared the shores of Sweden, "She permitted a young American poet, named Philip Cummings to share her society- and even to laugh with her. And when her boat docked at Gothenburg, she was so excited that she actually summoned reporters to her! She told them- with a smile- that she was not afraid of reporters...but that she was tired of being written about so much. She added that she was not returning to America in the near future...She said she could tell no one her future plans." Movie Classic reported that while talking to reporters Garbo had to admit to the eventuality of her returning to the Hollywood screen. John Bainbridge gives an account of the events around Greta Garbo and her having departed for Sweden for an entirety of eight months. "Besides arranging to have her name omitted from the ships passenger list, she quietly slipped aboard the liner the night before it sailed. She had spent a period of weeks on an island swimming and sunbathing before returning to Stockholm, where she was visited by Mercedes de Acosta. She had read a biography of on encouragement of Salka Viertel about the throne of Sweden and of one who, during her reign, her "distaste of marriage was profound, she had swarms of lovers...she rewarded her favorites lavishly with money, land and titles...She also gave away half the crown lands." Garbo read the completed script to Queen Christina written Viertel and a colleague, it being made a stipulation of the renewal of her contract. She was met by Viertel on her return to the United States. Greta Garbo Nearing the end of 1933, Hollywood Filmograph reported. "The famous Lola Montez- will be the next character that Greta Garbo will try as M.G.M have bought a story of the dashing Lola that vamped The King of Bavaria. The title of the story Heavenly Sinner, which has a glamorous, picturesque background and should exactly fit the mysterious one. That year the periodical published Looking through the Telescope, by Lal Chand Mehra, which outlined filmic spectatorship as being concerned with "the channels of the mystery of knowledge" and that the spectator remained distant and aloof so as to mystify the view, "Greta Garbo's greatest appeal in my humble opinion lies in the fact that this consummate actress always leaves an air of mystery about her. Even though she has portrayed ordinary human characters in all her pictures, she has carried an aloofness that the audiences never understand. This very distance has made Miss Garbo an attractive character...Her human portrayals are mystically beautiful. This question is- what can she do in a real mystic part?" Rilla Page Palmborg, the journalist, who has on several occaisions been credited with having created the initial "Mysterious Stranger" image of Greta Garbo in regard to the interpretations of Greta Garbo's personal life and how they were or were not neccesarily translated on to the screen, returned to Photoplay in 1933 to write the article "Now Its $12,500 a week", the title coming from Garbo's apparently wondering if there would be an early retirement she would enter and if he current salary would compensate for her being neglected, "However that may be, Garbo is now busy with her friend, Mrs. Berthold Viertel, wife of the German motion picture director, hunting a house and otherwise getting established. Metro is humming with excitement- and these matters stand untill the next development." Garbo had returned from Sweden and "She didn't know whether she'd care to make pictures next year." To begin 1934, in Hollywood Reporter it was reported that, "M.G.M has quietly shelved The Paradine Case by Robert Hichens. Story was wrangled over as a possible vehicle for Greta Garbo, but no go, owing to a character problem that could not be cracked, to which it within months added, "M.G.M. cannot make up its mind as to the cast decisions for Indo-China, originally scheduling it under Bernie Hyman's wing for Constance Bennet, but now giving it serious consideration as possible Greta Garbo vehicle."

New Movie Magazine anticipated the release of Queen Christina in Advanced News of Films in the making, "The Garbo set, as usual, was closed to all but the people actually working on it...Miss Garbo's schedule during production never varies a minute. You could set your watch by the entrance of her limousine through the front gates each morning at seven forty five. She spends an hour studying her lines and being made up. At nine o'clock on the dot she arrives on the set. At nine thirty, the first scene rehearsed or made, she disappeares into her portable dressing room and has fruit juice and tea, her breakfast" New Movie went on to outline the rest of her predictable day of shooting. During 1934, Photoplay succinctly encapsulated the onscreen Greta Garbo, "in Queen Christina, Greta Garbo and John Gilbert have a rendezvous in an inn. To Christina, all the inanimate things in their chummy room become very dear, due to their association with her romance. One sequence consists of Garbo hovering about the room, caressing various objects while Gilbert watches silently. She takes her time too." The caption of a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull published in Photoplay during 1934 read, "Greta Garbo as Queen Christina is impressively beautiful." In Three Weeks with Garbo, published in 1936, Leon Surmelian began with, "After twelve years of entertaining the public as the screen's No 1 glamour gal, my and your weakness, the incomparable Garbo remains the same elusive shadow, the same lovely enigma to the world that worships her at her feet...It was during the filming of the memorable Queen Chistina when Katerine Hepburn tried to crash Garbo's stage as an extra and failed where I succeeded. And now I will give you an intimate closeup of the Swedish Sphinx out of my won personal observations." Greta Garbo It reviewed the film, "The magnificient Greta, after an abscence of over a year, makes a glorious reappearance on the screen...on the whole, Rouben Mammoulian's direction is admirable; S.J. Behrman's dialouge is scintillating; settings and costumes are rich." Tucked away in a secluded corner of a 1933-4 issue of Cinema Quarterly is a review of Queen Christina written by Paul Rotha. "I do not find it in me to write about this picture, but I must write instead about Garbo, who contrives, though Heaven knows how, to surpass all the badness they thrust upon her...Here a lithe figure sheathed in men's breeches and stamping boots, she strides into our prescence and again reveals her dynamic personal magneticism. She is a woman, it seems, destined to contrive in a world that spells misunderstanding...Queen Christina perhaps comes nearest; with its great close-ups and sublime fading shot. But the showman tricks of Mamoulian and the falseness of the environment conspire against her." Cinema Quarterly was also a magazine that published The Film Critic of Today and Tommorow, by Rudolph Arnheim, who wrote, "In an essay....Mamoulian was blamed for having allowed himself to be influenced by the "innocent vanity" of Greta Garbo. Almost simultaneously there appeared in a German newspaper, an interview in which Greta Garbo said, "You ask whether I am satisfied with the Christina film? Not at all. How could you think that? If I had any say in the matter, it would be quite different. But what one would like oneself is never realized. I shall never act the part of which I have dreamed." After continuing to write that he and his readers were not to be concerned "with a defence of Greta Garbo", Arnheim notes a creative dichotomy between actor and director, much like the one posited by silent film historians that saw the two reel film evolve into the eight reel during the time of Bitzer and Griffith where the scenario and photoplay emerged and developed. Hollywood magazine during 1934 published an article titled, "Garbo Finds Love" without revealing the name of its author, the headline reading, "The budding and blossoming of Garbo's romance with Mammoulian, as seen through the eyes of an actress who worked with her in Queen Christina, but for obvious reasons must remain anonymous." It began, "As one of those who worked with Garbo in Queen Christina, I saw her romance with Rouben Mammoulian bud and grow and flower into love. And I, like the rest of Hollywood, believe they will soon marry." The cover Movie Classic magazine hosted the title, "Will Garbo marry her Director". Between the covers, underneath an oval photograph of Greta Garbo as Queen Christina, read the caption,"Portrait by Bull". It stated, "Greta Garbo and John Gilbert were only a few feet away from the city clerk and matrimony when she turned away, shaking her head. 'I have changed my mind.', she said. But now apparently the man for whom she has waited has now appeared. Rouben Mammoulian, the famous director of stage and screen, is that man." Journalist Dorothy Manners for New Movie Magazine that year asked, "Will Garbo Marry Mamoulian during an article in which she quoted the director, "Mamoulian only shrugs, 'The story that Miss Garbo and I plan to be married is absurd.'" Mamoulian, Greta Garbo and Salka Viertel had been dining together that evening. Silver Screen during 1934 observed, "The Garbo Mammoulian romance seems to develop steadily. The two have been quietly lunching at the Ambassador and dining at the Russian Eagle quite often lately." It was nestled on a page titled More Gossip-Whispers are Little Daggers. John Gilbert would make only one film after having been reunited with Greta Garbo in Queen Christina, The Captain Hates the Sea (1934). Bainbridge writes, "It was reported, erroneously, that when Garbo was informed of his death she said, 'What is that to me?' Actually she was vacationing in Stockholm when Gilbert died [1936] and was given the news by a Swedish reporter in the foyer of the Royal Dramatic Theater during an intermission. She refused to make any comment; shortly afterward she left the theater." There is one account, if not more, that the role in Queen Christina was first going to be offered to Lord Olivier and was given to John Gilbert on Greta Garbo's insistence. Greta Garbo Hal E. Wood contributed Garbo Frowns Again to Hollywood in 1934, "Greta Garbo is anything but pleased over the action of Metro in signing assigning Victor Fleming to direct her in the Painted Veil. In fasct there are rumblings to the effect that the Swede is dusting off." The magazine claimed that Garbo wanted to leave for Sweden due to her lack of director approval and that she favored making a second film with Mammoulian, to which it appended, "Greta's lonely again" in its News Slueth section, "It's all over between garbo and Rouben mammoulian if you take the word of the chatters...Incidently, the star has rescinded her demand that Mammoulian, who directed her in Queen Christina be named her guide through The Painted veil and has approved Richard Boleslavsly as her megaphonist" Milton Brown photographed Greta Garbo on the set of The Painted Veil for The New Movie Magazine during 1934. It pointed out, "Notice the raised boards Garbo walks on to increse her height." A second photograph taken on the set of The Painted Veil by Milton Brown accompanying Garbo Starts Her New Picture took up more than three fourths of two pages in Photoplay, "Take 1- which means the first scene in Greta's new Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film, The Painted Veil. The first call of 'Camera' for a Garbo picture is always a thrilling second. This time it stirred more excitement than ever before...All the sets for The Painted Veil were constructed on stilts, as this photograph reveals. The set has a ceiling, which is unusual from a scenic angle." Hollywood magazine during 1935 printed the article "Garbo's Cameraman Talks At Last, where William Daniels was quoted as having said, "She has been pictured as gloomy, aloof, frightened, imperious and a hundred other things as unlike her real self as are midnight and noon. The real Greta Garbo is the most sensible woman I have ever known. The keynotes of her character are intelligence, simplicity and absolute sincerity....Garbo likes to look through the camera to see what the scene is going to look like, but she does n't thrust her opinions on any of her fellow workers....She almost never troubles to look at the 'rushes' of her films, nor even at the first rough assembly of the picture. Instead she waits for the previews." In the article there is a photo caption reading, "Camerman Daniels wants to photograph Garbo in color. He believes her complexion is the loveliest he has ever filmed." William Daniels is quoted by journalist William Stoll as having related, "When it came time to film retakes on The Painted Veil, Director Boleslawski had been called away to another studio, so W.S. Van Dyke took charge. He is probably the breeziest, quickest shooting director in the business, he literally cuts and edits his pictures as he shoots them. Our first retake was a scene of Miss Garbo coming down a long flight of stairs. we made the shot- once. Van Dyke said to me, 'Okay-wrap it up! Now, let's move over here!' Miss Garbo's face was a study; then she slowly smiled and said,'Well, I suppose there is only one way to walk down stairs.'" Memory would be insufficient to serve in regard to the often related story about Greta Garbo's slippers as to whether it originated with Mauritz Stiller or William Daniels, but as Hollywood folklore, John Bainbridge whispers that it was Daniels, "Whenever possible, she wore an old pair of carpet slippers on the set for the sake of comfort. before a scene was shot she always asked Daniels, 'Is the feet in?'. If they were out of camera range, she kept the slippers on, regardless of what fabulous Adrain creations she was wearing." Perhaps, the wearing of slippers had prompted her remark to Daniels about how an actress should descend a staircase. Greta Garbo departed from her usual portrait photographers for four photos "posed exclusively for Photoplay", her reconfirming herself as a fashion model as the two page layout "Garbo's first fashion sitting in five years" described in detail three gowns that Adrian had designed for the film The Painted Veil. The first of which was a gray silk teagown, with pleated organiza jabot and deep dolman type sleeves. The second article photograph was described as "the sports type of thing Garbo loves- nonchalance in the swagger lines of a white flannel coat" whereas the third included "a new version of the famous Garbo pillbox hat," and a corded felt with jade ornament. Richard Corliss writes, "Boleslawski's visual effects here are adept without being ostentatious- as when Garbo looks distractedly into a window, and the reflection shows a much more disturbed face." Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Photoplay during 1935 almost couldn't have seemed more inaccurate, it having printed, "Garbo from all indications to make Hollywood her home on her return. She's going to bring her two brothers with her." Silver Screen toward the end of 1935 reported, "From Stockholm comes news that Garbo is busy these days finishing up a scenario based on the life of a saint. Her fondest dream has been to star in a picture with a religious theme, and the studio offering her none, she has written her own script." In regard to the mystery of Greta Garbo, Stockholm reported in Motion Picture Daily during early March of 1936, "Greta Garbo will leave here tommorow aboard the Drottingholm." More than two weeks later, in the same periodical, Gottenburg reported, "Greta Garbo is expected to sail tommorrow for the United States on the Gripsholm." The periodical soon amended, "Greta Garbo, who arrived Sunday on the Gripsholm from Sweden is shifted to leave for Hollywood this afternoon." but with very little explanation spotted Greta Garbo in Chicago, "Greta Garbo and Berthrold Viertol had an exciting time here between the arrival of the Twentieth Century and The Chief. They went to the Field Museum and looked over the mummies." Photoplay provided a brief review of Greta Garbo in Anna Karenina during 1936, "The persuasive genius of Greta Garbo raises the rather weak picture into the class of art. Fredrick March is unconvincing as the lover for whom Greta sacrifices everything." It later rewrote its review, "This picture is really a weak and dull picture. yet the persuasive genius of Garbo raises it into the class of art. What should be moving seems dated, though the production is magnificient...But Frederick March seems stuffy." Film Daily reviewed the film not unsimilarily, "Greta Garbo in a sympathetic role that fits her admirably...with a fine appreciation of the poignant drama with all its subtle evaluations....Garbo has never appeared more human and appealing." Motion Picture Daily's review of the film included the assessment, "The Tolstoi novel of Russia, containing as it does dramatic elements repeated time without end in many and far less distinguished pictures, make a fitting vehicle for the screen's leading tragedienne...Anna Karenina, slightly ponderous perhaps from the view of story, is nevertheless, a thoroughly worthwhile motion picture directed by Clarence Brown with pronounced ability." Picture Play magazine looked at the film as a remake, "So old that it served Garbo before she broke her silence and lapses into her present perfect speech. Then it was called Love. The new version is more interesting because it is more painstakingly done, speech giving it new refinements and subtleties. meticulous costumes and seetings complete a marvelous reproduction of St Petersburg society." Motion Picture Daily early in the year reported, "Basil Rathbone intends to leave for Hollywood in six weeks. He has turned down an offer by M.G.M. to appear in Anna Karenina with Greta Garbo and Frederick March. Rathbone is anxious to play the Sidney Carlton role in Tale of Two Cities, but he will most likely be signed by a company other than M.G.M." A month later it announced, "Reginald Denny goes in to Anna Karenina, which stars Greta Garbo at M.G.M." Basil Rathbone wrote of his aquaintance with Greta Garbo in his autobiography In and Out of Character- one of my copies mysteriously had the Players Cigarette Card featuring the actor from 1938 scotched taped to the inside cover, which, not unlike the persian slipper, the present author still keeps in my wallet- "I first met Miss Garbo in 1928 when Ouida and I were invited to lunch one Sunday." Rathbone and his wife had been present at the premiere of the film The Flesh and the Devil. There is an account that it had been Adrian that had designed the costume that Greta Garbo had worn to a party given by Basil Rathbone and Ouida Bergere during 1929. She had attended Mrs. Rathbone's affair as Hamlet. Of his starring in the film Anna Karenina with her he wrote, "And so upon the morning previously arranged I called upon Miss Garbo. The house, a small one, was as silent as a grave. There was no indication that it might be occupied." The atmosphere may not quite have been as conducive to a seance that Valentino would have attended as Rathbone may have made it out to be. Jane Ardmore's biography of Mae Murray, The Self Enchanted- Mae Murray: Image of an Era only briefly mentions Basil Rathbone or Greta Garbo, but it is an account of off-screen Hollywood, there having been a diegetic and non-diegetic aspect to the extra-textual as well. Rathbone had starred with Mae Murray in The Masked Bride (Christy Cabbane, 1925, six reels). "Every fourth Sunday, Mae threw open her house for lavish entertainment...Jack Gilbert brought Greta Garbo. They were in love and radiant, but Greta worried about the studio, she was shy, there seemed such commotion, her energies were sapped. 'You should have a dressing room as I do, Darling," Mae had told her. Mae Murray would later be attending a birthday party for Rudolph Valentino given by Pola Negri. On learning that Greta Garbo had already had the film Mata Hari in production, Pola Negri deciding between scripts that were in her studio's story department chose A Woman Commands as her first sound film, in which she starred with Basil Rathbone. Of Rathbone, she wrote in her autobiography, "As an actor I suspected basil Rathbone might be a little stiff and unromantic for the role, but he made a test that was suprisingly good. In an article titled Hissed to the Heights- That's Rathbone, written during 1936, Motion Picture quoted the actor, "Before I played Karenin I was puzzled about the technique of film acting, and wasn't satisfied at all with what I had been doing. During the filming of Anna Karenina I watched Garbo and learned from her what I think is the secret of good screen acting; play your part with the least possible movement and the greatest possible mental projection. It is different on the stage. There your whole body is constantly exposed to the audience and you must have perfect coordination from head to foot....And Garbo has this power of mental projection to a superb degree...I first met her in 1928. I found her very intelligent and charming. I didn't meet her again untill 1935, when we were cast in the same picture. She wasn't the same person, she had changed. You know I think Garbo suffers a great deal for being typed typed. Her camerman thinks so too." "And now in Anna Karenina she becomes newly romantic." To the left of a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull, a caption read, "And on her return from Sweden, she may do Camille." Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo

Screenland magazine made the fantastic announcement, "And here's another thing that concerns Miss Garbo. for years Fred Niblo has been trying to interest the financial powers at Metro in a story by Barney Glazer on the Emperess Josephine. unlike other yarns that mention Napoleon, he is to be, in this, a secondary character. it being women's day, the author feels the women of history should have their due. now it looks as though the deal will go through, and Greta will play Josephine." Screenland printed the article in August of 1930! M.G.M's own advertisements featuring Greta Garbo in Motion Picture Daily during 1937 told audiences, "Garbo and Boyer in Beloved. You'll hear plenty about it." During 1937 The Film Daily chronicled the interest Clarence Brown held in the script of Conquest, "Countess Walewska, M.G.M. Greta Garbo picture has literally become a 'Clarence Brown production'. Valuable tapestries, silver candlesticks and tableware that once graced Sat, August 8, 2015 - 7:21 PM permalink
Greta Garbo A suitable story for director Mauritz Stiller, famous Swedish director who just began work under M.G.M. contract is now being sought and will be announced at an early date. Greta Garbo, who has also just arrived in America will be assigned a suitable vehicle sometime this month." -Exhibitor's Trade Review, 1925Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo arrives from Europe

When refilmed, her hollywood screentest would by filmed by Mauritz Stiller and purportedly spliced into the rushes of Torrent and was then, in turn, seen by Monta Bell, who insisted the script be given to Garbo. Greta Garbo's second screentest had been photographed by Henrik Sartov, who later explained that the earlier test had lacked proper lighting and that a lens he had devised had allowed him to articulate depth while filming her. Cameraman William Daniels had photographed the earlier test. Lillian Gish relates a conversation between her and Sartov where Gish asked him if he could photograph a screentest of Garbo, "Garbo's temperment reflected the rain and gloom of the long, dark Scandinavian winters." At first Garbo was reluctant to accept a role in the film, although it was a large role that had been considered for Norma Shearer, whom Bell had directed in the film After Midnight (1921). Mauritz Stiller advised, "It can lead to better parts later." to which Garbo replied, "How can I take direction from someone I don't know?". John Bainbridge writes that in the beginning Garbo spent most of her time with Mauritz Stiller, quoting him as having said, "You will see that something will become of her." It would be ten weeks before the studio would show any marked interest in her, this mostly at the behest of Stiller and in light of his second series of screentests. "She was especially fond of Seastrom's children," Bainbridge writes, "and brought little present to them." Victor Sjostrom's daughter is the Swedish actress Guje Lagerwall. Begnt Forlund notes that the filming of Anna Karenina had at first been thought for actress Lillian Gish, who in Sweden, Greta Garbo had seen the film White Sister. In her autobiography, Gish wrote, "I often saw young Garbo on the set. She was then the protege of the Swedish director Mauritz Stiller. Stiller often left her on my set. He would take her to lunch and then bring her back, and Garbo would sit there watching." John Bainbridge reiterates this while writing on The Torrent, "Stiller did not appear on the set, but every evening he rehearsed Garbo in the next day's scenes, coaching her in every movement and every expression...Stiller delivered Garbo to the studio every morning and called for her every night." He quotes a letter written to Sweden by Stiller, "Greta is starting work for a well-known director and I think she has got an excellant part." Richard Corliss adds, "Though out of her element and seperated from Mauritz Stiller, Garbo gives fine performance, full of feeling and technical precocity. her first Hollywood kiss is one to remember." Swedish actor Lars Hanson attended the premiere of the film and reflected, "We all thought the picture was a flop and that Garbo was terrible...In our opinion it didn't mean anything." Bainbridge makes the observation that Mauritz Stiller and Victor Seastrom were also at the premiere. He writes, "The picture did perhaps contain a few imperfections, such as Garbo's costumes." As a biographer, Bainbridge is enjoyable to read in one sense, not only for his prose synopsis of the film, but that he plays a guessing game by quoting a Swedish actress who was then in Hollywood without disclosing her name, the reader to wonder if she was in fact Karen Molander, wife of Lars Hanson who journeyed to Hollywood with him. The accuracy of Hollywood reporting during the Twenties, or Jazz Age, on which Bainbridge seems to base his historical references was admittedly referred to by Picture Play magazine and journalist William H. McKegg in Three Sphinxes, which compared Jetta Goudal, Ronald Colman and Greta Garbo, who, as of 1929, were three people that "puzzle Hollywood" It opined, "Of course rumors have been spread bu those who "know". Some say that Garbo was a waitress in one of the open air cafés in the Swedish capital. They add that the poverty and sorrow she underwent made her fearful of life. Only those who have experienced poverty really know hoe cruel human beings can be to one another. some say she was a singer. Who cares?"The subtitle to one section of The Story of Greta Garbo as told to Ruth Biery, published in Photoplay during 1929 reads, "Tempermental of misunderstood". In it Greta Garbo relates the events that led up to her having left the studio for what would only be less than a week, "Then it was for months here before I was to work for Mr. Stiller. When it couldn't be arranged, they put me in The Torrent, with Mr. Monta Bell directing. It was very hard work, but I didn't mind that. I was at the studio every morning at seven o'clock and untill six every evening." She goes further explaining that there was a language barrier that would later contribute to Mauritz Stiller being also taken off her next picture, "Mr. Stiller is an artist...he does not understand the American factories. He always made his own pictures in Europe, where he is the master. In our country it is always the small studio." Stiller had in fact written to Sweden to say, "There is nothing here of Europe's culture." It is of note that in regard to Stiller's relationship to the studio, and Thalberg, Lars Hanson has been quoted as having said, "And Stiller, because he could speak hardly any English, wasn't able to explain what he was doing and how to satisfy them.": it was on the set of The Torrent that author Sven-Hugo Borg was introduced to Stiller, who in turn then informed Garbo that he was assigned translator under Monta Bell's direction. In The Private Life of Greta Garbo By Her Most Intimate Friend, Borg recounts that Bell had turned to him and had said of her, "What a voice! If we could only use it." Of the film he notes, "Of course she was constantly with Stiller, spending every possible moment with him; but thought that when the camera's eye was flashed upon her, (that)the picture would decide her fate began, (that) he would not be there terrified her." Borg continued as the interpreter for Greta Garbo untill 1929. Author Richard Corliss remarked upon the performance in the film by Greta Garbo, "Though out of her element and separated from Mauritz Stiller, Garbo gives a fine performance. Her first Hollywood kiss is one to remember...There are to be sure moments early in the film when Garbo works too hard with her eyes; overstating emotions rather than expressing them, dropping nuances like anvils, registering filial devotion...but she grows in the role...by the final scenes..she is utterly convincing as an actress and a star." Corliss continues stating that there are flashes of the later Garbo as though she were many-talented and in retrospect it was present but would later develop more fully, "By the end of The Torrent he face seems more severely contoured, her eyes more glacially clear, her head lifted upward by the chinstrap of spiritual pride. The phenomena is that of a star creating her own myth within the time-space of a single film." Photoplay magazine quoted Greta Garbo, "Greta Garbo was having her pictures taken by Ruth Harriet Louise. During one of the close up shots her eyes blinked, 'Oh, I'm so sorry, Miss Louise,' Greta apologized, 'But I twinkled.'" The production stills of Greta Garbo during the filming of The Torrent were photographed by Ruth Harriet Louise. Ruth Harriet Louise had also published an early full photograph of Greta Garbo in Motion Picture Classic Magazine during May of 1926. Before photographing Greta Garbo, Louise had created her "first published Hollywood image", that of Vilma Banky from the film Dark Angel in the September 1925 issue of Photoplay and during 1926 she contributed a particularly romantic blue-titnted portrait of Pauline Stark and Antonio Moreno to Photoplay from the film Love's Blindness. During 1928 Louise contributed to Screenland Magazine a portrait of Lars Hansen and Lillian Gish, "the lovers in the forthcoming special production The Wind", directed by Victor Sjostrom under the name Victor Seastrom. For those susceptible to the fantasy of Hollywood, it might feel like one of those rare fleeting sightings of Harriet Brown but it in fact that Robert Dance and Bruce Robertson introduce the photographer in their volume Ruth Harriet Louise and Hollywood Glamour Photography. The authors include a photograph of Greta Garbo taken by Ruth Harriet Louise, who had invited her back to her studios for another photo shoot after the filming of The Torrent had come to its completion, late December of 1925. Harriet Brown, now in fact Harriet Brown and company, the owner of the photograph is none other than "senior management and market executive" Scott Reisfield, whom, and I quote, "Developed museum exhibit of photographs with the Santa Barbra Museum of Art. The exhibit subsequently was toured to four additional venues. Developed a book published by Rizzoli in conjunction with the museum exhibit." The picture of Greta Garbo in a chair seated next to a lion, Garbo photographed outdoors on what at first appears to be a bench and the lion posing with his feet elevated on a log, as it was first published in Motion Picture Magazine during 1926 must have been a publicity test, by a publicity department that may have named her The Swedish Sphinx during the silent era, as it left her not only silent but unidentified, without printing her name; the caption reads, "$10.00 for the best title of this picture." There are twenty three photographs of Greta Garbo taken by the photographer Arnold Genthe in the United States either on July 25, or July 27. Often unseen by the public and for the most part belonging to public domain, the were part of his estate and are presently housed at the library of congress. Biographer Norman Zeirold, who used a photograph of Greta Garbo taken by Genthe for the cover of his wonderful volume has written that, "Garbo's plasticity made it possible for her to reflect the fantasies of her screen audiences, in the sense she functioned as a receptacle for the emotions of others." An attempt on the present author to include the subject of Greta Garbo while corresponding with Norman Zierold, now a professor, was mostly unsuccessful. In keeping with the Greata Garbo that was nearly unknown to movies audiences for her personal life off-screen despite its being highly remarked upon by extra-diegetic text, the Garbo that had lurked in the shadows of museum-art-house screenings as a recluse after her retirement, the Garbo that had blindfolded her firing squad as she smoked a cigarrette as though at any time she could be sitting right beside any us us during any of her films while as spectators we made identifications with each interpellated nuance, I added, "These emotional structures are created within each particular film, often by subject and spectator positioning that exploits the combination of tragic seductress, the viewer, and the film's other characters often in relation to her pre-talkie, before sound, body in an objectification of sexual mystery, as when her body within the frame creates space between two other characters in front of the camera, isolating them near a specific visual motif, or when Greta Garbo briefly moves into the emotion of a particular solitude." But then clearly, the relationship between character and landscape and its interaction with subject positioning and or spectatorial positioning can also differ widely from one director to another, almost to the point where it includes stylization, as when comparing the film's of Victor Sjostrom and Carl Th. Dreyer- the relation of character to landscape during the appearances of Greta Garbo is a relation, or inverse relation, to modernity within the object arrangements of mise-en-scene and female sexuality. It it clearly for emotion that Garbo posed for the soft-focus series of portraits, almost in as much as the close up in film is used to depict the significant detail of the shot. During December 1925, a photograph of greta Garbo by Arnold Genthe was published in Picture Play magazine with the caption From the Land of the Vikings, it announcing that she was the "latest arrival" from Scandinavia, a "statuesque blond, very reserved in manner." Picture Play Magazine during 1927 used a full page photograph taken by Arnold Genthe to figurehead the article Rebellion Sweeps Hollywood, written by Aieleen St. John Brennon, following it within pages by a portrait of Lars Hanson by Ruth Harriet Louise, it's caption noting that he had "amassed a large following since his forceful performance in The Scarlett Letter and now has the title role in Captain Salvation. Greta Garbo The entire review of The Torrent in Photoplay runs as follows: "Monta Bell stands well in the foreground of those directors who can take a simple story and fill it with true touches that the characters emerge real human beings and the resulting film becomes a small masterpiece. Such work has he created in The Torrent and for fans who are slightly grown up, this picture will be a visual delight. Greta Garbo, the new Swedish importation is very lovely." To provide a timeline, it appears on the same page as a review of The Devil's Circus (Benjamin Christensen). Tucked away in a later Photoplay issue was a more candid reviewer, "Greta Garbo exerts an evil fascination- on the screen. True, her debut was not auspiciously placed in The Torrent, which is in reality a babbling brook that runs on forever, now-she-loves-him-now-she don't until the end of the film and beyond." The reviewer then complements her as being attractive, surveying her eyes, lips and nostrils in, perhaps, a "gender-specific" paragraph. And yet Eugene V. Brewster began the watching of Greta Garbo on the part of Motion Picture Classic magazine with his own secular view, "At Metro Goldwyn Studios they showed me a few reels of Greta Garbo's unfinished picture. This striking young Swedish actress will doubtless appeal to many but somehow I couldn't see the great coming star in her the company expects." Frederick James Smith continued for Motion Picture Classic with Greta Garbo Arrives, "The newcomer is a slumber-eyed Norsewoman, one Greta Garbo, who seems to have more possiblities than anyone since Pola Negri of Passion...She isn't afraid to act. That she was able to stand out of an infererior story, poorly directed, is more than her credit...The Ibanez story is full of claptrap, including the dam that bursts without having anything to do with the story. Monta Bell tossed it in the film form without any apparent interest." It quickly followed with the article, "The Northern Star, The Screen's Newest Meteor is a Moody daughter of Sweden", written by Alice L. Tildelsey, who decidedly felt more at liberty to Greta Garbo than interviewers that came later. She relates that the actress had said, "I love the sea, yes. It understands me, I think...it is not happy, it is always yearning for something that it cannot have." Garbo purportedly referred to herself as "poor little Sweden girl" during the interview. "Now for my new picture I must learn to dance the tango and to ride the horse." Tidesley refers to Garbo as "a moody young thing, Greta Garbo, with the temperment of the true artist." The article imparts how Greta Garbo was introduced to Mauritz Stiller, who had seen her performing Ibsen and had had her called in to his office. The photograph of Garbo was taken by Ruth Harriet Louise. National Board of Review magazine, although literate, may have remained true to form as it typified the film with, "The story preserves a European atmosphere in which parents still have the least say about their children's marriages." Biographer Richard Corliss fairly accurately assesses Greta Garbo's first of several silent films, "Not only does it prefigure many of the morals and motifs of her later pictures, but it avoids many of those films pirouettes into the ludicrous. All things considered (the times. the material, the studio, The Torrent is a suprisingly adult piece of work." While reading Corliss the reviewer as essayist, there is a slight temptation to see him presenting the synopsis of each story and the characters as being antiquated, that it is a reevaluation of our film and its incidents but, written while it was a given that Garbo was leading a solitary life, it is kept within Garbo being a mystery, that if the stories were outdated, they could be looked at with curiousity and inquiry, as the fantasies they were meant to be, and in that way the reviews of Richard Corliss only contain a hint of being outdated in their being questioning without necessity. To compare and contrast, if Corliss is writing about the versatility of Greta Garbo, John Bainbridge reverberates the sentiment, "What was to become known as the Garbo manner was but faintly discernable in The Torrent, but there were intimations." Bainbridge seems to keep his secret that much of the material for his biography was derived from fan magazines, albeit he conducted interviews. Biographies on Greta Garbo the sensation began to appear, almost in droves, as soon as the actress had spoken in sound film, many explaining how she reached the screen in Hollywood in the first place while adding spoonfuls of data about Mauritz Stiller. This was to nearly culminate in 1938 with Modern Screen's 15 pages of biography, The True Life Story of Greta Garbo, written by William Stewart. It summarized, "The picture was The Torrent, originally slated for Aileen Pringle but given to Garbo as a test of her ablility...It pleased her, but for final praise she awaited Stiller's word. "It is good.', he said, and those three encouraging words were sufficient."





Greta Garbo Greta Garbo in The Temptress Greta Garbo in Flesh and the Devil insert banner Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo and Victor Seastrom insert garbo banner
Sat, August 8, 2015 - 7:21 PM permalink
originally published at Greta Garbo
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For those familiar with the history of Danish Silent Film Lady of the Camellias, (Kameliadamen, Camille) adapted from the novel by Dumas, was filmed by Viggo Larsen, who starred in front of the camera as well as creating from behind it, as he was often won't to do, the film also starring Oda Alstrup, Robert Storm Petersen and Helga Tonnesen. It was produced by Nordisk Film and Ole Olsen and it's cinematographer was Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen.





The Divine Bernhardt that was immortalized as a model for Alphonse Mucha exists, the plays that Louis Mercanton adapted for the screen, Jeanne Dore (1915, three reels), starring Madame Tissot with actress Sarah Bernhardt and shown in the United States by Bluebird Photoplays, and Adrienne Lecouvveur (1913, two/three reels), do not, and belong to the province of Film Preservation, if not Lost Films, Found Magazines, a vital part of From Stage to Screen, the transition of the proscenium arc to visual planes achieved by film editing and composition having been relegated to desuetude. By all accounts there still is a copy of Sarah Bernhardt performing Camille on film.



Camille (J. Gordon Edwards, 1917) starring Theda Bara is, like The Divine Woman (Victor Seastrom), a lost silent film, there being no surviving copies of it. Motography not I coincidentally revealed, "Theda Bara in a sumptuous picturization of Camille is the latest announcement of William Fox to the public...Theda Bara as the unhappy Parisian girl who sacrifices herself on the altar of convention, has surpassed all her previous work. This production...Parisian life is followed in every detail so that the atmosphere of the story fits admirably with the acting in it." Surepetitiously, Motion Picture News used the exact same wording, it concluding with, The tears it caused were genuine and the emotions it stirred were deep."



It was a year during which Goldwyn Pictures had spotlighted Mary Garden in Thais, Jane Cowl in The Spreading Dawn(Basil King) and Mae Marsh in Sunshine Alley. Metro Pictures Corporation touted Ethel Barrymore in The Lifted Veil.







Using a still where the two lovers were in embrace on a couch, reminiscent of John Gilbert and Greta Garboin Flesh and the Devil, captioned with "Armand pours out his love to the adored Camille, Picture Play magazine during 1927 introduced the film starring Norma Talmadge and Gilbert Roland as "the latest screen version of the Dumas' masterpiece." Motion Picture magazine noted that it was a film in which Norma Talmadge would wear her hair bobbed, the studio having reported to the magazine that it would be an adaptation located in the then present day Paris of Gerturde Stien, Fitzgerald and Hemmingway and that the cast of the film would also include Lilyan Tashman.





The 1915 screen version of Camille was scripted by Frances Marion. the five reel film starred Clara Kimbal Young under the direction of Albert Cappellani.

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Sat, August 22, 2015 - 11:17 AM permalink
The photo caption beneath Einar Hanson's photograph Picture Play Magazine read, "Einar Hanson, who, made his debut in Corinne Griffith's Into her Kingdom is romantic adventurous, much more like a Latin than Scandinavian." In the article Two Gentlemen from Sweden, Myrtle Gebhardt relates about having dinner with him, her having at first hoped to interview Lars Hanson and Einar Hanson together in the same room. "For it appeared that Einar was working not for Metro, but for First National...Two evenings later I ringed spaghetti around my fork in a nook of an Italian cafe with Einar Hansen...Prepared for a big, blond man, whose bland face would be overspread with seriousness, I was startled by his breathtaking resemblance to Jack Gilbert. "Ya," he admitted, "Down the street I drive and all the girls call, 'Hello Yack' and I wave to them."



Motion Picture News announced the decision for the directorial assignment to the film with Director or Interpreter, "Svend Gade, the Danish director now making Into Her Kingdom is wondering whether he is engaged as a megaphone weirder or interpreter. In directing Miss Griffith, of course, he uses English; but Einar Hanson receives his instructions in Swedish" Meanwhile it also introduced Griffith's co-star, "Einar Hansen, 'The Swedish Barrymore' has arrived in Hollywood to appear opposite Corinne Griffith in her newest First National starring vehicle, Into Her Kingdom, by Ruth Comfort Mitchell." it had been announced by the magazine during early 1926 that, "Corinne Griffith is already planning to start work the first week of March on Into Her Kingdom though now she is only now finishing Mlle. Moditte, both of which are to be First National releases.

motion Picture Magazine in 1927 published an oval portrait of Einar Hansen with the caption, "In Fashions for Women, Einar is the first man to be directed by Paramount's first woman director. How's that for a record? Incidentally, Einar has become a popular leading man as quickly as anyone that ever invaded Hollywood." The caption to the somber portrait published in Picture Play magazine that year held a more sundry description, "Einar Hansen, the young man from Sweden who looks so like a Latin has fared well during his year in this country. he is now under contract to Paramount and has the lead opposite Esther Ralston in Fashions For Women." The film was the first directed by Dorothy Azner, who had worked uncredited with Fred Niblo on Blood and Sand.



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Silent Film
Thu, August 20, 2015 - 5:42 PM permalink


Victor Seastrom-Greta Garbo

"The Image Makers see their images emerge out of the story. And then suddenly: darkness."- Per Olov Enquist in Bildmakarna, a fictional account of Victor Sjostrom, Julius Jaenzon, Tora Teje and Selma Lagerlof
"The stylistic changes brought about by Sjostrom's moving to Hollywood may not have been as definite as film history would have it according to the paradigm. Still the story of Sjostrom was transformed by his transition to Seastrom"- Bo Florin
An actress tells a film director, with whom she is having a brief affair, that he is not the author of the film he is making, "Hon menar att det ar hennes bok Victor. Inte din. Du mekar bara."/ "She means that it is her book Victor. Not yours. You are just tinkering with it."- Lynn R Wilkinson on the film Bildmakarna
While evaluating, or comprising, a filmography of silent film of the Swedish directors of Svenska Bio and Svenska Filmindustri; Mauritz Stiller, Victor Sjostrom, John Brunius and Georg af Klerker, and with them the camerman Julius Jaenzon, It was refreshing to find that author Astrid Soderberg Widing tries to agree with film critic Leif Furhammar that Georg af Klerker, who began as a filmmaker at Svenska Biografteatern, can be placed with Sjostrom and Stiller as being an autuer of the pioneering art form, in that, although he seldom wrote scenarios, he added a "personal signature" to filmmaking contemporary to the other two directors- during the centennial of the two reeler in the United States  and of Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller having become contemporaries at Svenska Bio. "Of the utmost importance is an appreciation of film, film as a visual literature. film as the narrative image, and while any appreciation of film would be incomplete without the films of Ingmar Bergman, every appreciation of film can begin with the films of the silent period, with the watching of the films themselves, their once belonging to a valiant new form of literature. Silent film directors in both Sweden and the United States quickly developed film technique, including the making of films of greater length during the advent of the feature film, to where viewer interest was increased by the varying shot lengths within a scene structure, films that more than still meet the criterion of having storylines, often adventurous, often melodramatic, that bring that interest to the character when taken scene by scene by the audience." The study of silent film is an essential study not only in that the screenplay evolved or emerged from the photoplay, but in that it is imperative to the appreciation of film technique. In my earlier webpage written before the death of Ingmar Bergman I quoted Terry Ramsaye on filent film,"Griffith began to work at a syntax for screen narration...While Griffith may not have originated the closeup and like elements of technique, he did establish for them their function." Director Ingmar Bergman  had been among those who had spoken on the death of the Swedish actor- American director Victor Sjostrom

While Ingmar Bergman was not unknown for his efforts toward film preservation- Widding credits hism with having preserved the film Nattiga Toner directed by Georg af Klerker- Gosta Werner painstaking restored Swedish Silent Films "frame by frame", taking thousands of frames from envelopes and reassembling them before copying them into a modern print, his enlarging prints made on bromide paper and then in order to reconstruct their shot structure, comparing them to stills from several films to insure the director's sense of compostition, his also recommending the searching for of all material on the film, including a synopsis of the plot and other descriptions of what the film contained. Essential to the viewing Swedish Silent film is the evaluation of the thematic technique of conveying a relationship between man and his environment, the character to the landscape, but before even introducing this the present author would share that there is an interesting quote form Gosta Werner the archivist from his having examined the restoring the films The Sea Vultures (Sjostrom), The Death Kiss (Sjostrom), The Master Theif (Stiller) and Madam de Thebes (Stiller), "In pre-1920 films, close ups were very rare, as were landscapes devoid of actors. Actually, shots without actors were very rare. Almost every shot included an actor involved in some obvious situation. The film told its story with pictures, but they were pictures of actors." It is with that appreciation of the art that the present author would look toward the photoplays that, with the development of both their dialogue and expository intertitles, became cinematic novels during the silent era. Werner further analyzes the early films and their mise-en-scene, making them seem as though they were in fact part of the body of work produced in the United States, "Many sequences begin with an actor entering the room and with the main actor (not always the same one) leaving the set." It is also of interest that the last film of the twenty seven that he restored was one of the most difficult in that it was a Danish detective film that lacked intertitles. Particularly because I found the cutting on the action of the actor leaving the frame of interest, if I can connect the quote to one from my own previous webpages on silent film, before reading Werner I had written, "The aesthetics of pictorial composition could utilize placing the figure in either the foreground or background of the shot, depth of plane, depth of frame, narrative and pictorial continuity being then developed together. Compositions would be related to each other in the editing of successive images and adjacent shots, the structure; Griffith had already begun to cut mid-scene, his cutting to another scene before the action of the previous scene was completely finished, and he had already begun to cut between two seperate spatial locations within the scene." It is now difficult to overlook the importance of Gosta Werner's having directed the short film Stiller-fragment in 1969. Produced by Stiftelsen Svenska Filminstitutet it showcased surviving footage from several silent films made by Mauritz Stiller in Sweden, including Mannekangen (1913) with Lili Ziedner, Gransfolken (1913) with Stina Berg and Edith Erastoff, Nar Karleken dodar(1913) with Mauritz Stiller behind the lens and George af Klerker and Victor Sjostrom both in front of the camera, Hans brollopsnatt (1914) starring Swedish silent film actresses Gull Nathorp and Jenny-Tschernichin-Larson and Pa livets odesvager.

It may be fitting that, although a film version of the novel the Atonement of Gosta Berling had been planned by Skandinavisk Film Central, a company that had merged the Danish Silent Film companies Dania Biofilm and Kinogram into Palladium, between 1919 and 1921, the first part of The Saga of Gosta Berling, during March of 1924 premiered in Stockholm at The Roda Kvarn, it's second part having premiered a week later- not only is the art-deco, art-nouveau theater famous as having continued into the twenty first century, but when constructed in 1915 by Charles Magnusson, included in the first films screened in the art-house theater were those directed for Svenska Biografteatern by Mauritz Stiller, particularly, the 35 minute film Lekkamraterna, written by Stiller and photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, which starred Lili Bech, Stina Berg and Emmy Elffors, and the 65 minute film Madame Thebes, written by Mauritz Stiller and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, which starred Ragnar Wettergren, Martha Hallden and Karin Molander. It is often written that Swedish silent film before Molander had paid devout attention to Scandinavian landscape and its effect upon the characters in the drama, there also being an underlying sense that the conception of space, traveling through space according the the seasonal, played a transparent part during the recoding of the now ancient, therefore runic, Prose and Poetic Eddas. true to form the daughter of Ingmar Bergman, Journalist Linn Ullmann, included the historical place of Swedish Filmmaking in her second novel, Stella Descending. "The once thriving ostrich farm in Sundbyberg was sold, taken over by two rival companies, Svensk Bio and Skandia, who joined forces to build Rasunda Filmstad, home of the legendary film studios. Here the filmmakers Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller worked alongside such stars as Tora Teje, Lars Hanson, Anders de Wahl, Karin Molonder and Hilda Bjorgstrom. Greta Garbo turned in an impressive performance in Gosta Berling's Saga in 1924, "giving us hope for the future" to quote the ecstatic critic in Svenska Dagbladet. I can well imagine how Elias must have cursed the day his parents put their money in ostriches rather than the movies....And so it passed that Elias was part of the audience that evening in February 1934 to see When We Dead Awaken."
Swedish Film-Victor Sjostromsilent-film


Scott Lord-Silent Film Victor Sjostrom: Swedish Silent Film
Mauritz Stiller Peter Cowie writes of a voice that was described to Vilgot Sjoman as being "so nice and gentle" it having "a quiet huskiness that makes it interesting". "'Yes, this is Stiller's room, I know for sure.'

After Greta Garbo took off her glasses to show Ingmar Bergman what she looked like, her watching his face to measure the emotion of the director, she excitedly began discussing her acting in The Saga of Gosta Berling. When they returned to the room, one that had also been used by Molander, Bergman poeticlly studied her face." It had been Gustaf Molander, during 1923 while director of the Royal Dramatic Academy, who had been asked by Mauritz Stiller to decide upon two students to appear in his next film. Mona Martenson was already in Molander's office when Greta Garbo was called in and asked to report to Svenska Filmindustri's studios the following morning. Garbo went to Rasunda to meet Stiller for a screen test to be filmed by Julius Jaenzon, whom she happenned to meet on the train, it almost to presage the unexpected encountering she had years later with Swedish director ragnar Ring while crossing the Atlantic. While waiting for Stiller to arrive, cinematographer Julius Jaenzon told Greta Garbo, "You are the lovliest girl I've ever seen walk into the place." While visiting Stockholm during 1938, Garbo asked view the film The Saga of Gosta Berling, her having said to William Sorensen it was "the movie I loved most of all." Not incidentally, Bary Paris has since chronicled that it was Kerstin Bernadette that had brought Garbo to meet then renowned Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman, his having requested it in order for her to return to the screen in his film The Silence. One of the smaller theaters, one with 133 seats, at Borgavagen 1, is named after Mauritz Stiller, another one with 14 seats named after Julius Jaenzon, cameraman for Svenska Bio. Biografen Victor, with its 364 seats is a permanent tribute to Victor Sjostrom and the 363 ghosts that at anytime may accompany him to, perhaps in search of a new Strindbergian theater known as filmed theater, step into the past. My earlier webpages, which often noted film festivals in Scandinavian, namely Sweden, had mentioned that, "In previous years Cinemateket has screened the films of Mauritz Stiller, it having published with Svenska Filminstituet the volume Morderna motiv-Mauritz Stiller I retrospektiv, under Bo Florin, to accompany the screenings. Bo Florin and the Cinematecket have also published Regi:Victor Sjostrom= Directed by Victor Seastrom with the Svenska Filminstituet." It also noted that at that time that the silent films of Sweden were also being screened on Faro, where resided the Magic Lantern and the dancing skeletons that appear when lights are lowered, possibly representative of the magician-personnas we only for a brief time borrow, identify with, while spectators; Ingmar Bergman had added a screening room to Faro that sat fifteen with a daily showing at 3:00.
During her Photoplay interview, Greta Garbo continued on the film remarking that,' Lars Hanson played my leading man...but there were no love scenes, not even a kiss.' About Lars Hanson, after having seen The Saga of Gosta Berling, Lillian Gish wrote, 'When I saw it I thought that he would be the ideal Dimmesdale.' There is a similar earlier account written before her autobiography where she is quoted as having said that she had been told to go into the projection room to watch The Saga of Gosta Berling specificly to decide whether Lars Hanson would be aquirred by the studio to play against her in an adaptation of Hawthorne's novel, "The moment Lars Hanson appeared on the screen, I knew he was the man we wanted." Mauritz Stiller in 1921 had directed Lars Hanson in the film The Emigrants (De landsflyktiga) with Karin Swanstrom, Jenny Hasselquist and Edvin Adolphson. The script was co-written by Stiller with Ragnar Hylten Cavallius, it having had been being an adaptation of the modern novel Zoja, written by Runar Schildt. There also seems to have been an unused screenplay written by Ture Newman. Photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, it was the first film in which Tyra Ryman was to appear. Exhibitor's Trade Review during 1922 listed the film under the title In Self Defence, it also appearing as Guarded Lips. It wrote, "It has a closing of real power. And by power, we mean the final thousand feet...It is a generally sombre role that falls to Miss Hasselquist, but it is played with fine feeling and excellant judgement." Interestingly, actor Lars Hanson had been briefly mentioned in the United States in Pantomine magazine during March of 1922, in Out of the Make Up Box, On to the Screen, written by Helen Hancock. "Lars Hanson, who is one of the most versatile actors on the screen, and one of the most versatile artistic breakers of the hearts of the Swedish flapper, is an adept in the art of make-up." An appreciation of the film made by Hanson in Sweden was displayed by photos of Hanson not only as himself, but in greasepaint as men much older than himself, it including stills from Bluebeard's Eighth Wife, Andre the Red and The Lodge Man. Helen Hancock had only months earlier in Pantomine praised Swedish Silent Filmstar Lars Hanson in the article How About those Viking Ancestors, A little Talk about Swedish Matinee Idols. The photo caption read, "He looks mild- but dare him to do something" It reads, "A star of the legitimate stage, where for a number of years he has has been one of the principal attractions at the Intima Theatre, Stockholm, this virile specimen of manhood is best known for his psychological characterizations." The author then praised Hanson for his doing his own stunts, acting on screen without a stuntman. To highlight this, the magazine The Film Daily later reviewed the performance of Lars Hanson opposite Lillian Gish, "Hanson may lack looks, but is a splendid dramatic actor." During 1929, Photoplay Magazine reviewed the release of The Legend of Gosta Berling, "the only European film appearance of Greta Garbo before she was sold down the river to Hollywood..It need only be said that Hollywood has made The Glamorous One...You won't die in vain even if you miss this one." Greta Garbo was interviewed in Sweden during the filming of Gosta Berling's Saga by for the magazine Filmjournalen (Filmjournal) by Inga Gaate, who had interviewed Mauritz Stiller in 1924, Garbo in the article having praised Stiller for his direction and having referred to him as Moje. Greta Garbo appears on the cover of Filmjournalen 8, bareshouldered, in 1925. Stiller, incidently, had invited Sten Selander, a poet rather than actor, to Rasunda before his having decided upon Lars Hanson for the film. Jenny Hasselquist also appears in the film- Hasselquist was much like modern Swedish actress Marie Liljedahl in that she was a ballerina, her having been  introduced to readers in the United States in 1922 through Picture-Play Magazine with a photograph it entitled The Resting Sylph. Sven Broman has quoted Greta Garbo as having said, 'We sat in a lovely drawing room and Selma Lagerlöf thanked me for my work in Gosta Berling's Saga and she praised Mauritz Stiller...She also had very warm and lovely eyes.' While filming Gosta Berling's Saga, Stiller had said, 'Garbo is so shy, you realize, she's afraid to show what she feels. She's got no technique you know.', to which the screenwriter to the film, Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius, replied, 'But every aspect of her is beautiful.' To those either fascinated by her, or, bluntly, merely erotically stimulated by her body, one possible reason for this was alighted upon by biographer Raymond Durgnat, "The obverse of Garbo's divinity was her shyness. There were few close ups of her during Gosta Berling's Saga because of her nervous blink." He added that it continued into her filming with G.W. Pabst, who speeded up the camera to adjust for it. "Years after his death Garbo still spoke of him in the present tense: 'Maurice thinks...'" Appearing seperate to the hard cover biography titled Garbo written by John Bainbridge was his work published in magazine form, which was titled, "Garbo's Haunted Path to Stardom. A hypnotic director made over her very soul." In it he gives an account of Mauritz Stiller's first session with Greta Garbo at Rasunda, where he asked her to act in front of the camera, Stiller having been quoted as having said, "Have you no feelings. Do you know nothing of sadness and misery? Act, miss, act." Stiller instructed that there be close ups of Garbo shot and this is thought by Bainbridge to be the reason Stiller remarked upon Garbo's shyness. An eerie not arose in 1962 as the author of a volume entitled The Stars claimed John Bainbridge to be "Garbo's best biographer". The author of the now out of print volume used a quote acquired by Bainbridge from "a woman who workded at Svenska Filmindustri, particularly, "Stiller was always teaching and preaching, Greta solemnly listening and learning. I never saw anyone more earnest and eager to learn. With the hypnotic power he seemed to have over her he could make her do extraordinary things. But we had little idea that he was making over her soul." The author portrays Greta Garbo in retirement, adding "Perhaps the last sentence is hyperbolic but the essence of the reminiscence is true." More eerie still is the foregone conclusion that Greta Garbo had sealed herself into a crypt of retirement, the article published as though her comeback was out of the question, despite the amount of truth in that there may have been- a photo of Greta Garbo, middle adged, perhaps thin with her facial skin drawn a little tighter than in most photos, with dark sunglasses, the author adding, "There is reason to believe that Garbo knows her career was mismanaged, and that from time to time the knowledge still disturbs her."

During its filming Greta Garbo and Mona Martenson had stayed in the same hotel together. The beauty of Mona Martenson is miraculous, a deep beauty that can only be seen as wonderous. In The Story of Greta Garbo, a rare interview with Ruth Biery published in Photoplay during 1928, Garbo relates of Martenson's being in Hollywood and of her planning to later return to Sweden. Karin Swanstrom, who had already directed her first film, also appears in The Saga of Gosta Berling. Gloria Swanson, when asked what she enjoyed in literature by Picture Play magazine during February of 1926 replied, "Just now I am greatly interested in Gosta Berling by Selma Lagerlof. I first read it in the hospital in France during my illness and brought it home with me." By the time Stiller had begun co-writing the script to Gosta Berling's Saga, he and Selma Lagerlöf had begun to disagree in regard to how her novels were to be adapted. Lagerlöf had asked that Stiller be removed from the shooting of the film before the script had been completed, her having as well tried to acquire the rights to the film to vouchsafe its integrity as an adaptation. During the filming Stiller went further; he then included a scene that had not appeared in either the novel or the film's script. After Victor Sjostrom had directed several stories based on the writing of Selma Lagerlof, while in the United States he had been interviewed by the publication Scenario Bulletin Digest and had seemed to broach the subject of film adaptation that had brought a rift between Mauritz Stiller and Selma Lageloff, "'Some great works of literature should not be attempted in motion pictures yet,' says Victor Seastrom, famous European director now with Goldwyn. He says further that one should not try to film a masterpiece unless the picture can be made as fine as the book." Iris Barry briefly reviewed the film by Maurtiz Stiller in 1926, "In Sweden, the creative impulse has not some much died down as been bled away" and from that context sees a film that, "shows a gloomy and unusual subject, full of sincere passion and conflict and with the fine somber, photographic quality peculiar to the Scandinavian cinema." There is an account of Mauritz Stiller having introduced Greta Garbo to author Selma Lagerlof and an account of Lagerlof having complimented Garbo on her beauty and her "sorrowful eyes." In particular, Sven Broman has quoted Greta Garbo as having said, "We sat in a lovely drawing room and Selma Lagerlof thanked me for my work in Gosta Berling's Saga and she praised Mauritz Stiller...She also had very warm and lovely eyes." Although far from being a playwright or sceenwriter, Selma Lagerlof flourished as a novelist during the silent film era, despite many of her novels having had having remained unfilmed, including the earlier Invisible Links (1894), The Queens of Kungahalla (1899) and The Miracles of the Antichrist (1897). After her contemporary, Swedish poet Gustaf Froding, had died in 1911, a year during which Lagerlof had published Liljecrona's Home (Liljecrona's Hem), Lagerlof went on to publish Korkalen (Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness, one of the most important novels included in the screen adaptations of the silent era as it appeared on the screen in 1920 directed by Swedish director Victor Sjostrom, in 1911, and Trolls and Men (Troll och manniskor. During 1918 she included the novel The Outcast (Bannlyst) and published a second volume to Trolls and Men in 1921. It was during the filming of Lagerloff's The Phantom Carriage that an ostrich farm that had fallen into desuetude in Rasunda was converted into the Svenska Filmindustri studio, and with that named Filmstaden. Lagerlof wrote the autobiographical novel Marbacka in two parts, her concluding the volume in 1930 and publishing The Diary of Selma Lagerlof in 1932. Victor Sjostrom had met Selma Lagerlof when she had invited him to Flaun during January of 1917.

After The Saga of Gosta Berling was shot, Greta Garbo briefly returned to Sweden to the Royal Dramatic Theater before being brought to Berlin for its premiere- Stiller was also with Greta Garbo for the premiere of The Joyless Street Like Greta Garbo, actress Mary Johnson travelled from Sweden to Germany. Mary Johnson had starred with Gosta Ekman in the first film directed by John W. Brunius, Puss and Boots (Masterkattan i stovlar) in 1918 for Film Industri Inc Scandia. The film was co-written by John W. Brunius and Sam Ask and was the first in which actress Ann Carlsten was to appear. The following year Scandia merged with Scandia to team Charles Magnusson with Nils Bouveng to run AB Svensk Filmindustri. Having been an actress for several films directed by George af Klerker, Mary Johnson was also that year to appear in the Swedish silent film Stovstadsfaror, directed by Manne Gothson and photographed by Gustav A. Gustafson. Appearing with Johnson in the film were Agda Helin, Tekl Sjoblom and Lilly Cronwin. Actress Mary Johnson returned to the screen to act for director John W. Brunius and cameraman Hugo Edlund in 1923 for the film Johan Ulfstjerna in which she starred with Anna Olin, Einar Hansson and Berta Hilberg. To add a sense of the film as a vehicle for the actress, author Forsyth Hardy has written, "Brunius could work effectively on a large canvass." Significantly, that same year Johnson starred for silent film director Mauritz Stiller and cameraman Julius Jaenzon in the film Gunnar Hedes Saga, in which she starred with Pauline Brunius, Stina Berg, and Einar Hansson. The screenplay was co-written by Stiller and Alma Soderhjelm and it is what appears to be her only screenplay. The film was an adaptation of the novel Herrgarssagen. Forsyth Hardy on Gunnar Hedes Saga writes, "Again there is a distinctive combination of a powerfully dramatic story and a magnificent setting in the northern landscape.When reviewed in the United States during 1924 while screened as The Blizzard although the film was reported as an adaptation of "The Story of a Country House", the review featured two stills and the subtitle "Swedish Production is Entertaining."; it ran, "This is highly dramatic and interesting, with several excellant scenes of reindeer swimming across a wide stream and following their leader blindly. The stampede is most realistic and well filmed. The rest of the film is quite ordinary and drags near the end." A second review from the United States seemed all too similar, "unusual entertainment through a strong dramatic story. A bit gruesome but splendidly acted...Drama bordering on tragedy...It is unusual in theme and from a dramatic standpoint, a thoroughly strong and forceful theme." The reindeer stampede was hailed for its "genuine thrills" which were "splendidly pictorial" but from that point onward in the plotline, the story was said to "drag slightly." and its interest said to begin to disappear. While the direction of Mauritz Stiller was seen as "unusually good; displays great sense of dramatic values", "Mary Johnson is pleasing though rather lacking in expression." Einar Hanson appeared as Gunnar Hede on the cover of Filmnyheter during 1923; it is an issue in which there is an article that reads "Mary Johnson, var Svenska Filmingenue framfor kameran". One source, perhaps resource, of beautiful material on the film is the Svenska Filminstituet Biblioteket. On reviewing Mauritz Stiller'sSir Arne's Treasure/Snows of Destiny in 1922, Exceptional Photoplays wrote, "Mary Johnson, if she has a chance to become known on the American screen, will show us what it is to be lovely without being vapid, with the magic of a child and the magic of a woman- tenderness and sweetness that is not chiefly a product of simpering smiles and fluffy curls." Forsyth Hardy looks at the entire film, "Herr Arne's Penger was essentially visual in expression. Mauritz Stiller and Gustav Molander, who collaborated in writing the scenario, appeared to have absorbed the values of the Lagerlof story and translated them imaginatively into film form. The film had dramatic balance. It also had a visual harmony absent from some of the earlier films where the transition from interior to exterior was too abrupt." Kwaitkoski, in his volume Swedish Film Classics, writes, "Stiller and his scriptwriter Molander simplified the meandering plot of the story, making the narration more consistent and building up tension in a logical way justified by the development of events."

Swedish Silent Film Swedish Silent FilmMauritz Stiller-Silent Film



While Garbo was finishing the The Temptress, Stiller, having written the script before the script department had reworked its plot, had begun shooting Hotel Imperial (1927, eight reels) for Paramount; she went to the preview of the film. Greta Garbo had said, 'Stiller was getting his bearings and coming into his own. I could see that he was getting his chance.' The conversation between the two actresses related in retrospect by Pola Negri may almost seem eerie, her account beginning with a telephone call from Mauritz Stiller, "May I be permitted to bring along a friend? She does not know many people here yet. Greta Garbo." After dinner Negri gave Garbo advice in creating for herself a unique personna, something individual, her going so far as to say, "Never be aloof or private" with Garbo adding the rejoinder without noting that they were both actresses that had worked abroad that they were in fact both remaining private while in Hollywood and Negri telling Garbo that she would soon have to film without Stiller. Negri writes, "She held her head high. A look of intense interest was spreading over that perfectly chiseled face, making it the one thing that one would not have thought possible: even more beautiful." In a letter to Lars Saxon, Greta Garbo wrote, "Stiller's going to start working with Pola Negri. I'm still very lonely, not that I mind, except occaisionally." Motion Picture Classic gives a jarring account of Stiller's new assignment, "It's just one director after another with Pola Negri...And the blame has rested equally on the mediocre stories given her and on the directors. The latter have failed to understand her...So Pola, according to my spies on the Coast, will give Mauritz Stiller a chance to understand her moods and make the best of them. The tempermental swedish director has been given a verbal barrage of bouquets by the other foreigners who handle the megaphone. Practically all of them proclaim him the master of them all." It went on with a severity to explain that the director and star were forever joined by their being tempermental, and that that in fact was the reason Stiller was dismissed from The Temptress, it claiming "maybe it needs temperment to combant temperment." Paramount, having had been being reluctant to allow Stiller to direct, at the insistence of the producer relented and granted his artistic license and freedom to create with the other branches of the studio. "He wrote the scenario for the film in nine days." Biographer John Bainbridge quotes Lars Hanson as having said, "I saw Stiller when he was ready to shoot Hotel Imperial', Lars Hanson has recalled, "He was bursting with energy. He showed me the script of some of the scenes he was preparing to do- mass scenes of people in a square. According to the script, that was to take three weeks of shooting. Stiller did it in three days." The biographer continues later by writing that after Hotel Imperial Stiller told Lars Hanson he then intended, for financial reasons and for commercial success to make only one more film in the United States. Greta Garbo had intimated words very much to the same effect, "'I'm not staying here much longer,' she told the Hansons when they talked about leaving Hollywood, 'Moje and I will go home soon.'"

Of Stiller's camerawork in the film, Kenneth MacGowan wrote, 'Hung from an overhead trolley, his camera moved through the lobby and the four rooms on each side of it.' In a brief review of the film R.E. Sherwood complimented Stiller on his use of camera postion and shot structure, but while praising Stiller as a director and the film's "visual qualities", which included "trick lighting" among its camera effects, which according to the author harken back to earlier "photo-acrobatics" from silent film director F.W. Murnau, Sherwood sees a lack of depth or meaning in the film's screenplay or its message as an organic whole in its having moment. Maurits Stiller Whether or not the United States can be viewed as imperial, as it is as seen by Dianne Negra, she writes about Pola Negri's character in Stiller's film, her almost connecting thematically the difference between Negri's role in the film and earlier vamp roles with the film's ending and its reuniting of Negri and her lover in a plotline similar to that of Sjöstrom's The Divine Woman (En Gudomlig Kvinna). 'The film closes with its most emphatic equation of romance and war as a close up of a kiss between Anna and Almay fades to the images of marching troops.' Mauritz Stiller, when invited to a private screening of Hotel Imperial for Max Reinhardt had said, 'Thank you. But if not for Pola, I could not have made it.'

Photoplay Magazine reviewed the film favorably, "Here is a new Pola Negri in a film story at once absorbing and splendidly directed...Actually, "Hotel Imperial" is another variation of the heroine at the mercy of the invading army and beloved by the dashing spy. This has been adroitly retold here, untill it assumes qualities of interest and supspense...Miss Negri at last has a role that is ideal..."Hotel Imperial" places Stiller at the foremost of our imported directors." Motion Picture Magazine reviewed the film with, "It accomplishes almost to perfection those photographic effects which directors have been striving for; and so simply and directly that one is unconscious of the freakishness of the camerawork in one's absorption in the dramatic unfolding of the plot, with rapid succession...It is a smooth, eloquent tale told in an entirely new language- a thrilling language of pictures...Though one is ever conscious that it is essentially a war story, and the menace of wartime is (constantly) present, there are no actual battle pictures. It is almost altogether a story of the reactions of individuals to war." Motion Picture News during 1927 looked at the view, "The story could be stronger, yet its weakness is never manifested so expertly has the director handled it. The plot disntegrates toward the finish principally because it is so difficult to keep it so compact all the way. The story centers around The Hotel Imperial...Pola Negri plays the servant with splendid feeling and imagination." Under its section on Theme, the magazine summarized, "Drama of intrigue and decepetion revolving around hotel maid outwitting commander of army and finding happiness with her bethrothed."

In The Negri Legend, A new view of Pola Negri written by one who really knows her, Helen Carlise of Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "In Hotel Imperial we see a world figure who having sufferred much, having learned much, can with her great gift of artistry portray the soul of a Woman." When reviewed by Film Daily it was deemed that, "Although the vehicle does not offer her anything particularly fine, Pola Negri makes a fairly unimportant role outstanding...There is ready made exploitation in the star's name and the mention of her latest production." Paul Rotha writes, "Not only was it the comeback of Miss Negri, but it was a triumph of a star in a role that asked no sympathy." Paul Rotha extensively quotes Mr. L'Estrange Fawcett, but because The Film till Now is out of print, the present author will requote it here, "Some may remember the use of the travelling camera in Hotel Imperial...the stage accomodating the hotel was one of the largest in existence, and eight rooms were built complete in every detail...Suspended above the set were rails along which the camera mounted on a little carriage moved at the director's will. Scenes (shots) could be taken of each room above from every point of view...to experiment with angle photography, representing impressions of scenes taken from the point of view of a character watching the others...the story could be filmed in proper sequence. In Hotel Imperial, an attempt was made to build up cumulative dramatic effect following the characters swiftly from one room to another by means of several cameras and rolling shots." For those who may have seen the subjective camera of Carl Dreyer in Vampyr, the quote is intriguing.

Stiller also directed Pola Negri, and Clive Brook, in Barbed Wire (Ned med vapen 1927, seven reels). Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "Again in Barbed Wire, Pola Negri proves herself one of our great screen artists. It would seem that Pola is to match the European pictures in which we first knew her, after her appearing in countless poor American productions." Barbed Wire was adapted from the novel The Woman of Knockaloe by Sir Hall Caine. Author and curator Jan-Christopher Horak writing about scriptwriter Lajos Biro in Film History chronologically follows Barbed Wire with a script directed by Victor Fleming, "His next film was to be The Man Who God Forgot (released as The Way of All Flesh, 1927), again to be directed by Mauritz Stiller, which went into preproduction as Emil Jannings' first American film. Pommer and Stiller both disagreed with studio executives about the script." This, according to the author, lead to Pommer's resignation and to Stiller's dismissal from the studio. When Stiller directed the actress Pola Negri again, with Einar Hanson in The Woman on Trial (En kvinnas bekannelse 1927, six reels), Photoplay reviewed the film as "An unusually fine story and one that offers Pola Negri a chance for penetrating character study. Not for children." Motion Picture News reviewed the film as being "well-suited" for Pola Negri, "Having done pretty well by Pola Negri with Hotel Imperial, Mauritz Stiller takes her in tow and guides her through a likely melodrama- one in which she makes a strong bid for sympathy...The director uses the cutback method in building the plot. but he gets away from the obvious plan by refraining from flashing to the woman...the characters are sharply contrasted and as the cutbacks develop it is easy to guess...it is logically told and builds progressively. Miss Pola Negri gives a sincere performance and succeeds in establishing a sympathetic bond with her audience. The late Einar Hanson delivers some elegant pathos as the sick lover." During 1927, Film Daily foreshadowed, quietly and not ominously enough, that, "Immediately following The Woman of Trail, Pola Negri is planning a vacation trip to Europe." It had earlier that year reported that "Cortez Opposite Negri, Ricardo Cortez will play opposite Pola Negri in Confession." A month later it reported, "Pola Negri began work yesterday on A Woman on Trial with Mauritz Stiller directing and Ricardo Cortez and Lido Mannetti in the lead roles" That year Paramount advertised Negri as "The Empress of Emotions". Negri was in Paris during the early Spring while Stiller was viewing the rushes and working on the cutting. It was reported that upon her return from Europe that she would make one more picture for Paramount before filming and already decided film slated to be filmed with Rowland V. Lee- it was elaborated that, "Although she is now a princess by virtue of her recent marraige, Pola Negri will not retire from the screen." She had by then wedded Prince Devani. The previous year Pola Negri had starred in the films The Crown of Lies (Buchowetski, five reels) and Good and Naughty (Malcom St. Clair, six reels). In her autobiography, Memoirs of a Star, Pola Negri describes her first meeting with Greta Garbo.'To tell the truth, I was also very curious about the girl...She smiled wistfully, as we shook hands...Through dinner she was resolutely silent...', her then giving an account of their conversation and of her having given Garbo advice. There is also an account of her attending a dinner party that Pola Negri had "given in her honor" "She had her hair waived and arranged in a novel style resembling a half-open parasol. Her gown for the occasion was equally sensational, being a silk green creation that had been to the cleaner's and shrunk so that the hem was at her knees." All four films that Stiller had begun directing at Paramount had been a collaboration between him and cameraman Bert Glennon. It was through Stiller that Greta Garbo became acquainted with Emil Jannings, who in turn had brought Garbo together with director Jacques Feyder, with whom Garbo often met with socially. Motion Picture News during 1927 published a photograph of "a little Sunday afternoon group of celebrities" in front of the home of Emil Jannings, the group consisting of Mauritz Stiller, F.W. Murnau, Jannings, and actor George O'Brien. That year the trade magazine reported that Emil Jannings' second starring film for Paramount, tentatively titled Hitting for Heaven, "was started last Monday under the direction of Mauritz Stiller." The Street of Sin (Syndens gata 1928, seven reels) starring Fay Wray and Olga Barclanova was begun by Stiller and finished by the director Joseph von Sternberg. It would be Stiller's last attempt to film in the United States before returning to Sweden in late 1927 and presently there are no copies of the film. Motion Picture Magazine during 1927 reported that, "Maurice Stiller, who was slated to direct Jannings in his first picture, will not be given that pleasure. Stiller is to handle megaphone work on Pola Negri's next production." Kenneth MacGowan writing about the film notes, 'The film was more distinguished for its players-Jannings and Olga Barclanova- than for its script by Joseph Sternberg. Paul Rotha wrote, "Taking shots through hanging iron chains did not establish the atmosphere of place, although it may have created pretty pictorial compositions. Sternberg seems lodged in this gully of pictorial values. He has no control over his dramatic feelings (Street of Sin and very little idea of the filmic psychology of any scene that he shoots. He has, however some feeling for the use of women. His contrast of Betty Copson and Olga Baclanova in the latter film was good." (It might be asked if this criticism is lacking in regard to the symbolic scenework of Ingmar Bergman, and that if his "pretty pictorial compositions" have been given just enough dramatic ambiguity to become symbolic in their being arbitary, a personal obscurity accepted as having layers of meaning.) Sternberg's work on Stiller's film has been credited as having secured his position as the writer and director of the silent films The Last Command (1928) with Evelyn Brent and The Case of Lena Smith (1929) with Esther Ralston. During 1928, actress Olga Barclanova also appeared in the films The Man Who Laughs (Paul Leni, ten reels), The Dove (Roland West, nine reels), Forgotten Faces (Victor Schertzinger, eight reels), Avalanche (Otto Brower, five reels) and Three Sinners (Rowland V. Lee, eight reels). Three Sinners, with Warner Baxter was the second film to pair Olga Backlanova and Pola Negri, their both having appeared in the film Cloak of Death in 1915. During 1928, Photoplay Magazine announced, "Lucy Doraine, of Hungary has been signed by Paramount. She is reported to be the successor to Pola Negri." During 1928, Fay Wray appeared in the films Legion of the Condemned (William Wellman, eight reels), The First Kiss (Rowland V. Lee). It was the year she began her lengthy first marriage to playwright screenwriter John Monk Saunders. Legion of the Condemned also that year appeared in bookstore. The Grosset Dunlap Photoplay Edition advertised John Monk Saunders as having been the author of Wings and published the film as a novel rewritten from one narrative form into another by Eustace H Ball, with illustrations from the film. Ball himself was an author, his having written the mystery novel The Scarlet Fox and had previously adapted into novel form the photoplay of the Douglas Fairbanks film The Gaucho. Pola Negri during 1929 had starred in The Secret Hour (eight reels), directed by Rowland V Lee.

The death of Mauritz Stiller is more frequently encountered when discovering the reaction of Greta Garbo, whom had heard of his passing while on the set with Nils Asther. Sjostrom, who had been with Stiller the night before and had telegrammed Garbo, described his last time seeing the then ill Stiller after his release from the hospital, "Then Stiller got desperate. he grabbed my arm in despair and would not let me go. 'No,no', he cried. 'I haven't told him what I must tell him!' The nurse separated us and pushed me toward the door. I tried to quiet and comfort him, saying that he could tell me tommorow. But he go more and more desperate. His face was wet with tears. And he said, 'I want to tell you a story for a film. It will be a great film. It is about real human beings, and you are the only one who can do it.' I was so moved I didn't know what to say. 'Yes, yes, Moje,' was all I could stammer. 'I will be with you the first thing in the morning and then you can tell me.' I left him crying in the arms of the nurse. There was no morning." Close Up magazine marked the director's passing, "The death of Mauritz Stiller has been a genuine loss to the whole cinema world. The great Swedish director, poineer of the artistic film, did more for the screen than people will realize. While others were despairing the lowly medium, when it was given over exclusively to vulgarity akin to that of the penny novelellete, Stiller was froming his conception of a great art, developing its potenialities, seeing far into the future. He was a great artist, working with profound care and intensity. His intensity may have been impart responsible for his early demise." Among the events of 1924 had been a visit by silent film stars Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks to Stockholm, Sweden. The two had that year appeared on the September cover of Motion Picture Magazine in the United States. There are accounts that while in Sweden, Pickford and Fairbanks sailed on the small vessel The Loris with Greta Garbo and Mauritz Stiller, their departing from Lilla Skuggan, and before arriving in Saltsjobaden, their passing where Charles Magnusson lived at Skarpo. As he was wont to do, biographer John Bainbridge quoted an unknown source in order to indirectly quote Garbo, possibly lifted from a fan magazine, or perhaps actually from a personal interview, "Content with her little circle of friends, Garbo resolutely refused to anything to do with the conventional social life of the film colony. When Mary Picford invited her to a dinner in honor of Lord Montbatten...Miss Garbo declined with thanks. Miss Pickford then wrote Miss garbo a long letter...This pleading missive brought no results. 'It would be the same old thing,' Garbo said to one of ther friends. 'Strangers staring at me and talking about me. I would be expected to dance and I despair dancing. I can't do it.'" Marion Davies laso gave a similar dinner for Lord Montbatten where Garbo also declined her invitation.

In the United States, Exceptional Photoplays, in an article titled The Swedish Photoplays distinguished the film of Svenska Bio for their "quality of composition" and "imaginative presentation" by introducing Mortal Clay, "Costume plays are often unconvincing on the screen because they fail to reproduce period atmosphere, but Mortal Clay (banal in nothing but its name) has succeded in creating for us the spirit of the Twelfth century...The plot is dramaticlly sound and absorbingly interesting. But the real claim to greatness which the picture posesses lies in the splendid composition of its scenes and incomparable lovliness of its lighting effects. There is a certain architectural magnificence in the picture". The magazine noted that Victor Seastrom was both actor and director and commended a "fineness of shading" in his performance. In the United States, during 1923 it was reported that the Sjostrom film Mortal Clay was screened by Little Theaters Inc, "an organization recently formed to boost the artistic standards of motion pictures." (Film Daily). That year the films Sjostrom had made in Sweden were becoming more widely reviewed in the United States- in an article that compared the no longer new art form of film to painting, Majorie Mayne, in The New Masters published in Pictures and PictureGoer, wrote, "And the director went to picture galleries for his data; Victor Seastrom reincarnated Renaisance art in his Love's Crucible, scene after scene of which remains an unforgettable memory, and in Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness, pictures of a different, thoroughly compelling type abounded." During January of 1922, Victor Sjostrom was already known in the United States as Victor Seastrom. Apparently he was then the object of the desire of the female spectator, which is reflected in the extratextual discourse of Helen Hancock, in Pantomine Magazine, who wrote, "We have kept Victor Seastrom untill the last. Because perhaps Mr. Seastrom might not like to be called a matinee idol- leaving that phrase to younger and perhaps handsomer men. But he is one, just the same...Of the heavy, rugged type, portraying men of strong emotions and virile personalities." She claims he was one of the foremost directors and a pioneer, and then compliments him on being an actor of the legitimate stage. Director Victor Sjostrom had left Sweden for Hollywood in 1922 upon the completion of the film The Hellship. Victor Seastrom Victor Seastrom The title of the book on Victor Sjostrom written by Bo Florin is fitting; the idea that Victor Sjostrom's coming to Hollywood to film would entail some type of transition and transformation was prefigured in Scenario Bulletin Digest, the Open Forum between the Writer and Studio, published by the Universal Scenario Corporation in 1923 when Sjostrom had first signed his contract with Goldwyn and the need to keep his artistic integrity was formulated by Sjostrom himself before he had toured the studio. The article illustrates the theme of Florin's book on Sjostrom by outlining the expectations of Sjostrom and Goldwyn, "The arrangement gives him a free hand in the artistic making of photodramas. The assurance that Mr. Seastrom will be unhampered in the development of his art is one of the most significant features of his connection with Goldwyn." The magazine quoted Sjostrom at a time when he had just only arrived in Hollywood and it would have been suprising that the quote had not come to the attention of Bengt Forslund, a biographer who had chronicled Sjostrom's transitions while becoming a revered, hallowed director of Swedish Silent Film and later through letters Sjostrom had sent while in Hollywood. "'No definite plans have been made as of yet,' he said, but I am to make pictures in the best way I am able, to satisfy myself as nearly as possible. That is all there is to it.'" He is again quoted,"The most striking attribute of American made motion pictures,' he continued, 'is their humanness. It is my hope that I will be able to develop this remarkable quality of humanness on the screen. It is this quality, i think that has made the popularity os so many American pictures abroad.'" It then profiled the director with, "Mr. Seastrom, who is also one of the most noted actors on the screen, has not decided, he said, whether or not he will appear in his productions in this country...Although Mr. Seastrom's fame has been more closely associated in this country with the grimmest sort of screen dramas. beautifully photographed, (some of his double exposure effects, notably in The Stroke of Midnight, never have been equalled) he has had striking success in his country with comedies." The Film Daily during January of 1923 announced that Sjostrom had signed with Metro: Victor Sjostrom had become Victor Seastrom, "Seastrom under the contract signed is understood to have the right to act in as well as direct his productions." Three months later it announced that Paul Bern was engaged to write continuity for The Master of Man. While noting that Name the Man had not been Sjostrom's Photoplay, Bo Florin records that while in Hollywood, where the techniques of Griffith and Ince had differed as to the details included in a shooting script, Sjostrom created from behind the camera, Paul Bern having had drawn the storyline into its treatment. "When compRing the script to the film, it becomes clear that these details consist of stylistic devices which Sjostrom in Sweden had been used to including at the script stage, but which are now added afterwards. Thus, Name the Man contains a dissolve combined with a cut across the line which shows exactly the same space from the reverse angle. While the dissolve remains quite conventional in its function, bridging a spatial transition, it's combination with the violation of the 180 rule creates an interesting effect." Oddly, as the studio was using Seastrom's name before filming had completed to advertise that "Golddwyn is doing big things.", the publication added to the extratextural discourse with "Americanizing Sweden by Films, Victor Seastrom, in a recent address stated that Sweden is fast becoming Americanized by American motion pictures." Early in June of 1923, it tersely reported, "Victor Seastrom has started shooting on Master of Man and later that month, if only to allow itself to be more concise, reported, "Edith Erastoff, a popular Swedish dramatic star, and wife of Victor Seastrom is en route to the Pacific Coast to join her husband who is Master of Man for Goldwyn." Exhibitor's Trade Review in March, 1923 reported similarly, "Another recent addition was the signing of Victor Seastrom, director and actor with Swedish Biograph to come to this country and direct productions for it. hat his first picture will be is not known." In April of that year it printed that he had selected The Master of Men, "The story selected is of such unusual dramatic quality that it will be worth all of the energy and directorial genius that Mr. Seastrom brings to bear upon his productions...The leading members of the cast are now being selected and the sets are being built." The film stars Mae Busch, Bo Florin noting that Sjostrom had not wanted Mae Busch for the lead, but that she had appeared in an earlier film, The Christian, an adaptation of the novel by Sir Hall Caine by Maurice Tourner- according to the studio, Sjostrom had to relent. Film Daily had avoided speculation for months before announcing, "Nagel replaces Schildkraut. Conrad Nagel will play the leading masculine role in Master of Man, which Victor Seastrom is now making for Goldwyn. Joseph Schildkraut was originally cast for the role." It soon added that "Hobart Bosworth will have an important role" before reporting in September that Sjostrom had finished while Alan Crosland was nearing the completion of his film Three Weeks. Motion Picture Magazine had a similar, but conflicting report during 1923, "Gost Ekman, matinee hero of Stockholm is coming over for the first American picture to be made by Victor Seastrom, the famous Swedish director...He plays in stock during the winter months- in pictures every summer. Seastrom's wife, Edith Erastoff, who usually plays opposite Ekman is coming to Hollywood to be with her husband. He has not stated whether she will go in the movies." During 1924 Carl Sandberg reviewed the film Name the Man (eight reels), his remarking upon Sjostrom's use of lighting, which, whether or not it may have had been a use of realism or naturalism, seemed underplayed to Sandberg and based on the enviornment rather than made more elaborate or as being artificial. "He was an actor, rated as Sweden's best, and his voice leads actors into slow, certain moods." Iris Barry is timely writing in 1924, imparting to the readers of Lets Go to The Movies, "Victor Seastrom, who had made Swedish pictures before Germany had begun its work (and too good to be popular) went last and they had they idiocy to put him to turning one of Hall Caine's intensely stupid stories into moving pictures. He did the best he could and played about a bit with the Yankee studio devices." And yet rather than providing a synopsis to the film, Motion Picture Magazine in 1923 relegated the novelization of the film to Peter Andrews. "She half rose as he returned and his bathrobe which she had flung around her slipped down, perhaps farther than it needed to." It was accompanied by a table explaining the cast of the film directed by Victor Seastrom and a capition which read, "told in short story form by permission from the Goldwyn Production of the scenario by Paul Bern." In his volume The Film Till Now, author Paul Rotha resonates a tone that can be likened to other critics his contemporary, "I cannot recall any example of a European director, who, on coming to Hollywood, made film better, or even as good as he did in his own surroundings." After mentioning Murnau, Leni and Lubitsch, the opines, "Sjostrom's Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness is preferable to Name the Man."

During 1923, Sjostrom wrote from the United States that he thought he might be given a script by Elinor Glyn to adapt into a photoplay, "I told them that I knew a film like that would succeed on her name, but that I didn't believe it was the kind of stuff I should do." He also writes that the novel Born av tiden (A Simple Life, written by Knut Hamsun, at that time could have been a possibility. 1922 had been the year during which appeared the second film directed by Gustaf Molander, Amatorfilmen, the first film in which actress Elsa Ebbengen-Thorblad was to appear, brought actress Mimi Pollack to Swedish movie audiences. Molander had made the film The King of Boda (Tyrranny of Hate, Bodakungen) in 1920. It was the first film to be photographed by Swedish cinematographer Adrian Bjurman and starred Egil Eide and Wanda Rothgardt. Karin Molander had in 1920 starred in two films by Mauritz Stiller, in When We Are Married (Erotikon) with Lars Hanson, Tora Teje, and Glucken Cederberg, and in Fiskebyn. She also that year appeared in the film Bomben, directed by Rune Carlsten. And yet Karin Molander would only later be mentioned to audiences in the United States, Photoplay Magazine noting in 1926 that she was no longer in Sweden and no longer married to Gustaf Molander, "With Lars Hanson came his wife, Karin Nolander, leading woman in the Royal State Theater of Stockholm and billed as 'Sweden's most beautiful woman' She hasn't appeared on the screen yet, but it shouldn't be long now with so many good Scandinavian directors over here." Karin Molander had been married to the Swedish director between 1910-1919, her and Lars Hanson having been paired together under the direction of Victor Sjostrom during 1917. Pictured together, a 1927 photocaption from Photoplay Magazine read, "When Mr. and Mrs. Lars Hanson worked for Swedish companies, Mrs. Hanson was popular on the European screen as Karin Nolander. But now that her husband has made a hit in this country, she has retired and decided to let his gather all the glory for the family." After their return to Sweden the Molander's were invited to a dinner party with Garbo acquaintance Knut Martin by visiting journalist Jack Cambell, who quoted Karin Molander in the article "I am the Unhappiest Girl in the World- says Greta Garbo", published by The New Movie Magazine. After Hanson related that he had lately seen very little of Greta Garbo, Karin Molander described the actress, "She was always a timid girl. terribly shy. Even in the old days in Hollywood, she used to go right home from the studio and go to bed. she'd never see anybody...You must admire her for the way she has fought herself upward, all alone, since Stiller." Picture Play magazine printed the article Two Gentlemen from Sweden, which was to comparatively interview both Einar Hansen and Lars Hanson. It read, "To crush flappers hopes, I regret that I must report he is happily married to Karen Nolander, formerly an actress in Sweden.She is charming and a lovely lady, whose sparkle and quaint naïveté have intrigued Hollywood." Victor Sjostrom wrote an article entitled The Screen Story of the Future, published by The Story World and Photodramatist in July, 1923, in which he advised, "The screenwriter must first of all have something to say, and secondly, the vitality and the sincerity that will enable him to say it in a deeply human way. But technique is vastly essential." As an act of spectatorship, Iris Barry looked at film directors in the United States, "Seastrom, the Swedish director, is a man whom America has ruined. In Sweden, one cannot help feeling the cinema has steered its own sweet course irrespective of a desire to please the people at all costs...There has been much poetry and a great deal of fancy in Swedish films." The Film Daily advised, "Keep your eye on Seastrom. He is liable to do some things that will make him one of the most important directors in this country." Readers in Sweden can affectionately know that it added, "Incidentally, if they can prevail upon him to act in one of of his productions he will also prove suprising." Photoplay magazine featured a magnificient photo Victor Sjostrom during 1923 in which he is holding a megaphone while standing next to his camera and camera crew in a foot of water while on location, shooting a scene from the middle of a stream; it is the same photo that appeared in Screenland Magazi Thu, August 20, 2015 - 4:28 PM permalink
Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo talar!

The private life of Greta Garbo escapes the slightest scrutiny of Richard Corliss, the earliest acting done by Greta Gustafsson only intimated as biography by a still photograph from the film Peter and the Tramp. By his own admission, Corliss only writes about the films Greta Garbo appeared in, as one of us, her many spectators, and keeps in front of the screen as a moviegoer in a theater. Referred to as peerless by Time Magazine, Corliss nevertheless acknowledges writes of biography as acquaintances that were brought to him though the study of actress Greta Garbo, among them being Ray Durgnant, Andrew Sarris and Molly Haskell, added to which are the names John Bainbridge, Kevin Brownlow, Pauline Kael and Norman Zierold that appear in his bibliography, which also attempts to add Parker Tyler, Georges Sadoul and Bosley Crowther. Nancy Gibbs, editor of Time Magazine reported the death of film critic Richard Corliss during the middle of 2015. These are the film's of Greta Garbo reviewed by Corliss, editor of Film Comment, for their value as films along with the interest in them and in the Greta Garbo that helped create them that was left unevaluated by the prolific film reviewer.



In the "First Interview She has Granted to any Magazine in Months", Greta Garbo in "The Swedish Sphinx Speaks" broke "her long silence" about when she would exit the silent film era, interviewed by Raplph Wheelwright in Screenland Magazine during 1929. "'I hated talking pictures when they first came out,' said Greta, stimulating a shudders guesture by way of adding emphasis to her words. 'They screeched and scratched. They were neither of the stage nor screen. Just monstrous nightmares. I thought to myself, I I have to appear in anything like that I ought to go home to Sweden and stay there. ugh! Now-' and Greta threw back her head and laughed. I am bored to death when I see a silent picture. It seems that something is lacking: life is gone when the players fail to speak their lines."

In the article Greta Garbo discussed there having had been being rapid technological developments in sound film while she had been in Sweden and mentioned her ability to fluently speak English, perhaps with little no Swedish accent. Not yet entirely completely refusing to be seen or quoted in public, she continued, "The public likes or dislikes a player solely upon what it sees of the player on the screen. I do not think a star's private life exposed in intimate detail serves any purpose than to satisfy curiosity. I am just a human being like anyone else. I resent prying into my personal affairs just as much as anyone in any other station or position rightfully resists similar intrusions.'" It was a monthly issue in which Helen Ludlam had introduced The New John Gilbert and Fashion Editor Adrain had introduced himself, authoring an article that was accompanied by one of his sketches and a photograph of himself with Greta Garbo taken three years earlier.

"Greta Garbo portrays the torments of love, but little else" was one photcaption that had accompanied Greta Garbo through the pages of fan magazines during 1930, specifically Picture Play Magazine, that had pages earlier praised sound film for having improved John Gilbert's image as a lover. Although correctly referred to a a hold-out for M.G.M, along with Lon Chaney, by author Richard Corliss, by then Greta Garbo by all accounts had made three sound tests, one from a monologue from Goethe's Faust, one a selection from Peer Gynt delivered in Swedish, and the other from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as Ophelia, the speech delivered in English. Norbert Lusk of Picture Play magazine was the film critic author Richard Corliss chose while deciding whom to select to relate the phenomenon of "The Voice: Greta Garbo's Sound films". To look at the article further and expand Corliss's quote, Lusk, who had serialized the photo plays of two reelers into fictional magazine adaptations, merely becomes perplexed by the baritone of Greta Garbo as the mystery of the Swedish Sphinx was to become more enigmatic and reach higher into the firmament reclusively. Significantly, or more significantly than is often viewed, by July of 1930, Talking Screen magazine has been added to the newsstand extra textual discourse. It read, "Gridley has fired. The Sphinx speaks! Greta Garbo has made a talkie. And the great myth of the movies- the legend of Hollywood- has received another tremendous impetus that will mean millions to M.G.M and it's sequestered Swede....according to director Clarence Brown...List to the oracle: 'I consider Greta Garbo one of the three Greta actresses the world has known, Bernhardt, Duse, and now Garbo.'" Author Herbert Cruikshank continued with his article Garbo Myth of the Movies More Amazing Than All the Mystery Stuff Is the Truth-Presented Herewith-Concerning Greta'" If not typical of the sentiment of the new adventure with sound, Talking Picture Magazine also went into publication as a proponent of the new moving, and talking, picture.

Greta Garbo





"Gorgeous Greta Garbo has swept into a national acclaim accorded few people in all of show history. The Phrase 'Greta Garbo Talks'- was blazoned from thousands of theaters. And ticket buyers came in droves." advertisement circulated by MGM to announce Greta Garbo in her second talking picture Romance, 1930




"Greta Garbo will have Charles Bickford as leading man in Clarence Brown's production of Anna Christie for M.G.M. and not John Gilbert as was first reported." After announcing the coming of a new Greta Garbo film, Motion Picture News printed an extensive series of advertisements by Metro Goldwyn Mayer on the new season of film. "Greta Garbo will appear in two all talking and one silent picture" appeared above the full page advertisement in Motion Picture News paid for by Metro Goldwyn Mayer. It ran below, "Greta Garbo in Anna Christie. Her first All-Talking picture! There's a title that will blaze mightily from marquees all over this broad land in the coming season. Greta Garbo, the divine beauty talking to her vast public!..In addition to the All-Talking picture Anna Christie, Greta Garbo will appear in a second All-Talking Drama, title shortly to be announced. This second speaking role for Miss Garbo is a vividly colorful characterization uniquely suited for her extraordinary beauty and talents. It will also be a silent production." "Garbo talar!!" was the title decided upon for the webpage authored by Louise Lagerstrom of the Swedish Film Institute. If it does seem more post-climatic than anti-climatic, actor John Barrymore had literally tried it first in an earlier film with synchronization, Pickford and Fairbanks both leaving their individual projects to co-star together shortly thereafter; Picture Play magazine speculated, "The Garbo Voice. What will it sound like? The Whole World waits to her the Swedish enchantress for the first time in Anna Christie." And yet, while audiences were waiting not all movie theaters were available for sound film and M.G.M divided their advertisement into a "Summary 16 Pictures Available for Theatres Without Installation: Greta Garbo, the flaming orchid whose seductive personality has made her an audience draw will appear in one silent picture, title of which is to be announced." While John Gilbert was scheduled to appear in his first sound picture Olympia, "Olympia:Title to Be Changed", Redemption, an adaptation of Tolstoy was being advertised as "A Fred Niblo Production, Screenplay by Dorothy Farnum". Before continuing to its advertisement of films "For Wired Houses", it included, "Lon Chaney in three thrilling silent pictures, the first Bugle Sounds. Titles of two more Lon Chaney silent pictures to be announced." Early during 1929, M.G.M. advertised Greta Garbo in Wild Orchids, "Sound or Silent", her having been assigned to "the most gripping story she's ever appeared in", and John Gilbert in Thirst "Equipped for Silent or Sound". Fred Niblo, introduced by a photo of Dorothy Sebastian in front of a microphone while filming one of her "new style scree tests, one for voice and one for photographic qualities", was attributed with having written the articles Crashing the Soundgates for Screenland magazine during 1929. The silent film director Niblo, noted in the photcaption for having directed Ben Hur, wrote, "Breaking into the talkie racket raises the ratio two thousand to one." Beneath them was a septagonal portrait of Greta Garbo Motion Picture News reported in July of 1929 that Greta Garbo was in rehearsals for Anna Christie, "her first talker". Picture Play magazine awaited the film, "At the very height of the talkie excitement, M.G.M. risked Garbo in an all silent picture in The Single Standard. It was a hit. Following her experiment in dialogue with Anna Christie, she may return to the silent fold, and I for one will not mourn. Garbo is a shadow. She suggests mystery, a mystery that has been in silence. What then will the spoken, tangible thought have to do with this peculiar appear? An out of character voice will ruin Garbo. She must speak as she looks- soft, alluring, and yet with a huskiness which her sophistication suggests...Always a good actress, Lilyan Tashman's throaty contralto has increased her prestige and emphasized her individuality. The talkie has given Conrad Nagel a new lease on popularity."

In 1930, Katherine Albert penned the article Is Jack Gilbert Through for Photoplay Magazine. She outlined Jack Gilbert's power of script approval, notifying audiences that his first sound film, Redemption had been "shelved by the studio." and that she wondered if it would ever be shown in theaters. The article reviewed his performance as having been "nervous", "too highkeyed and "sel-conscious". In the same issue, Photoplay released stills from Anna Christie, "This Clarence Brown filming of the O'Neil play for M.G.M. is eagerly awaited by Garbo fans everywhere. Garbo's first talkie is bound to be one of the sensations of the next few months."

Greta Garbo eludes, Greta Garbo evades

"There are many things in your heart you can never tell a person. They are you. Your joys and sorrows- and you can never, never tell them. It is not right that you should tell them. You cheapen yourself, the inside of yourself when you tell them."

Silent Film actress Greta Garbo

While waiting for the release of Anna Christie (Brown/Feyder, 1930), Picture Play magazine included a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull. Edwin Shallelert wrote, "Greta Garbo has gone to the extreme when exacting it within the studio itself...Greta Garbo has pursued the same phantom. The ordinary news gatherer, and the majority of the extraordinary, are not permitted on her set. It is told that once even some of her countrymen of the press came to visit and were ritzed, or felt they were." New Movie magazine devoted a page to Greta Garbo's first sound film, "Elsewhere in this issue Herbert Howe refers to Greta Garbo as the Hollywood Sphinx. But the Sphinx speaks in her next Metro Goldwyn picture, a new talkie version of Eugene O'Neil's Anna Christie once done by Blanche Sweet. Clarence Brown is introducing the Swedish Star to the microphone." The magazine also featured a portrait of Garbo dressed for tennis captioned, "The exotic Swedish star plays a great game of tennis. This isn't a posed sport picture. It's the real thing." Motion Picture News reviewed the film during 1929, "Her work is a sensation. Garbo has an exceptional talking voice, recording with a rich mellowness that exactly conveys her personality. A fine delivery of lines coupled with a splendid performance classes her among the finest of dramatic actresses...Clarence brown handled his direction with a deft hand that sustains the fullest interest in dramatic movement. His work is superb and the individual characterizations are particularly fine, with a small cast of four principals presenting sterling performances." It added, "Just as audiences repeat for Garbo in silent form, it is predicted the will do the same in her talker productions." "She was not pleased with the Anna Christie, writes John Bainbridge about a film that Garbo had first seen in the company of director Jacques Feyder and Wilhelm Sorensen, "'Isn't it terrible?' she whispered to them time and again as the picture unfolded. 'Whoever saw Swedes act like that?'" Although she apparently left early during the screening she visited actress Marie Dressler the following day with Chrysanthemums. Sorensen, after appearing in the refilming reversed their position, or emotion rather, "Garbo thinks this is one of the best pictures she has ever made, and she gives most of the credit to Jacques Feyder." Greta Garbo had worked out dialogue changes with the director during her second filming of Anna Christie. The character played by Dressler would in the second film be reenacted by Salka Viertel, who became, along with Mercedes de Acosta, one of Greta Garbo's more devoted companions during the period of early sound film, Feyder having returned to Europe after making the film, as had Hanson and Sjostrom. Garbo, who without entirely disappearing as though mysteriously, purportedly was travelling under the name of Gussie Berger, would infrequently be seen with Lilyan Tashman. After retiring from film, Garbo would later register at hotels as Mrs Harriet Brown. The magazine Hollywood Filmograph traced the early stardom of the entrance of Greta Garbo into sound film during 1930. It reported, "Niblo had planned to film Red Dust with Greta Garbo, but Romance was put on schedule ahead of this, so he will direct the Haines picture first, then Red Dust, according to present plans." It followed with the heading "Garbo in a new talkie", which read, "Forsaking the Swedish accent of Anna Christie for Italian dialect and garbed in crinolines in place of sweaters and oilskins, Greta Garbo has started work on her second talking picture. Romance, an adaptation of the famous stageplay...Clarence Brown, who filmed Garbo's first talkie for Metro Goldwyn Mayer, is directing." Hollywood Filmograph then alluded to Garbo's then next film, "Greta Garbo will be seen in at least three productions during the coming season, the first of which will be Red Dust. This is based on William Collison's story and presents the magnetic Swedish star as a Parisian." It later reported, "Fred Niblo, having just completed directing Easy Going starring William Haines at M.G.M., is right now preparing to direct Greta Garbo in her next story Red River which Fred De Grease is writing and adapting for the screen." Motion Picture News during 1930 echoed with a similar report on Red Dust, "M.G.M is preparing Red River as Greta Garbo's next talker following her current picture Romance. Fred Niblo is to direct upon finishing Easy Going. Red River is an original by Fred De Greasac and was formally known as Red Dust." With this was also, "M.G.M switches Niblo from Red Dust to Haines film- Fred Noblo will direct William Haines in the latter's next film for M.G.M, N original titled Easy Going...Niblo was originally scheduled to direct Red Dust with an all star cast but this has been postponed to follow the Haines picture so that Greta Garbo can take the starring assignment in Red Dust." The magazine later reverted to the title having had been being Red Dust and it having been based on a story by Wilson Collison, but it also carried an advertisement from M.G.M. itself, which read, "Greta Garbo in Red Dust" which claimed it would be Greta Garbo's third sound film. "The most unusual part she has ever played. On a Chinese rubber plantation her past in Paris is forgotten- gorgeous Greta Garbo gives the talking screen a performance such as you've never witnessed. This stageplay by Wilson Collison has the power of Sadie Thompson. It's going to be one of the year's greatest." The New Movie Magazine during 1930 looked at Garbo in regard to fashion. "The glamorous Garbo, away from the studio, affects dull tweeds and flat heel shoes. No expensive wardrobe for Miss Garbo. Yet she is Hollywood's most lavish purchaser of lovely lingerie. She spends thousands every year on fancy underthings. Above the photo of Garbo was a caption reading, "Spend between $5,000 and $25,000 on clothes." It continued pages later, "For evening Garbo is magnificent...She goes so little to social functions that one can do little speculating as to the number of outfits shew has, but the writer has seen a magnificent ermine wrap, with white fox trimming and several elaborate white satin, white lace, white chiffon, and white moiree gowns that could not cost less than three hundred dollars a piece." Within months the magazine added, "She wore a tan beret and a tan overcoat with a high collar and a pair of horn rimmed glasses. As time goes on the great Garbo seems to become more and more like a hermit." Another item read, "Greta Garbo loves spaghetti and never eats in the studio lunch room. Three years later the magazine interviewed the make-up girl at M.G.M., Lillian Rosini, "Greta Garbo has never used anything but the thinnest dusting of flesh-coloured powder, rather pinkish, and pale lip-rouge; nothing on her eyes at all. And by they way if I get anymore letters asking me if Garbo's eyelashes are artificial, I'll scream...I've been making her up for nine years...I ought to know her lashes are real.

Greta Garbo Advertisements sent by M.G.M. itself to Motion Picture News during 1930 relied upon the theme expressed on the cover of Exhibitors herald World, which almost comicly announced, "Greta Garbo talks again in Romance. Its her greatest"; after acknowledging the fame that Garbo had acquired by returning to the screen in a sound film, it depended on the recognition of her as an investment and it was discernably giving her press of its own, "Already the word comes out of Hollywood that Miss Garbo's new Talking picture Romance is destined to overshadow Anna Christie by far. There's no figure in all studioland whose screen activities are of such widespread interest. Long before a Greta Garbo attraction reaches the screen the magazines of the nation are heralding its approach, the public is breathless with anticipation. Its nice to have a Greta Garbo under contract to your theater. In 1930-31, the first of her three vehicles will Red Dust." Motion Picture Classic during 1930 noted in "Garbo at her best" that "It is probable that her latest and greatest photoplay, Romance marks the zenith of Greta Garbo's career. Garbo plumbs new dramatic depths. She adds new charm to her attractions, and is very much the star of the production...The selection of Gavin Gordon is less fortunate, but the shadow of the great Garbo softens the glare of his defects." Directed by Clarence Brown, the screenplay to the film was written by Bess Meredyth and Edwin Justus Mayer. Richard Corliss saw "recognizable curtain lines" that were to almost harken back to the proscenium arc of "filmed theater" during the cinema of attractions, deeming the blocking of the film playlike, "It was as if Clarence Brown, the admirable technician, had died with the coming of sound, and most of his later films were directed not by his spirit, but by his shade. The result is a feature-length series of static two shots, of statuesque poses instead of felt guestures." The portrait of Greta Garbo in costume from the set of Romance published in Motion Picture magazine was photographed by George Hurrell. Adela Rogers St. Johns, writing in New Movie magazine gave a portrait of Greta Garbo that veers from her being a recluse in The Heart of Garbo, How the Plight of her Leading Man Touched the Sympathies of the Star Who Walks Alone, Gavin Gordon went to Hollywood because he found out that Garbo lived and made pictures in the distant land of which he had heard so much." A still of them in the film Romance accompanies the article with the explanation of how Garbo insisted that he be in the cast and that she sent him roses, it quoting the actor, "'And she helped me through those scenes so wonderfully.' he said,'She didn't think of herself and how it would be for her. She was so kindly, she always made it possible for me to do each scene.'"

"Love?" She laughed softly, "Of course I have been in love. Love is the last and first of a women's education. How could you express love if you have never felt it? You can imagine, but its not like the feeling- who hasn't been in love?"

Greta Garbo- Photoplay magazine
Greta Garbo Faith Service, who had for more than a decade been writing about silent film and adapting photo-plays into magazine short-stories, printed the article "Garbo Never Sleeps- This is Her Tragedy- The Real Explanation of her strange life and her Broken Romance." Interesting to read, it contains what seems to initially be a plausible theory that begins to explain the mystery of Greta Garbo with, "The reason why she does what she does, the reason why she doesn't do the things other people do, the reason for her famous eccentricities and hermit-like existence, her lack of response to a social life, her lack of response to eager lovers is this- Garbo is an insomniac. She never sleeps." The article claimed that Mauritz Stiller had experienced bouts of sleeplessness before his death and go back and forth between rooms before finding a suitable bed, and that Garbo too had had mild instances on occaision that she was now using "constant sunbaths" and "endless walks up and down the beach" to preempt. It continued that John Gilbert's heart was still broken- "Garbo, too tired to love." Motion Picture Classic magazine during 1930 instructed, "To locate Greta Garbo, take out your binoculars and study the sun. Discover the hottest ray, locate where it strikes Hollywood and with the aid of a compass seek the spot. There you will find the mysterious one sunbathing. She never misses, so you will not have wasted a minute." New Movie Magazine during 1931 reported, "Greta Garbo seems to be emerging from her mysterious seclusion. She gave Malibu quite a thrill lately when she came down and spent a whole afternoon on the beach with friends." Journalist Cary Wilson later gave a portrait of the Greta Garbo he had met in Photoplay during 1936 claiming that he referred to her as "Fleck", which was short for "Svenskaflecka" and that he had first been introduced to her when she was standing on her head; she had been playing tennis which was then in turn followed by an hour's swimming and then another hour of hiking, "she still contained so much physical exuberance that standing on her head, on a sofa pillow, seemed to be the simple and desirable thing to do." Garbo had been winning at tennis after only having been playing for seventeen days. The extra-textural discourse depicting the off screen activities of motion picture actors, and sometimes directors, and more than often not the enigmatic ghostlike swirlings of the Swedish Sphix, Greta Garbo, who was by then established as the most reclusive actress in Hollwood, included an announcement during 1932 in the magazine Hollywood Filmograph, "Humphrey Pierson, one of Hollywood's best known writers was signed today by Joseph I Schnitzer and Samuel Schnitzner to do the adaptation and screenplay of "Greta, the Great", which is said to be based upon the life of Garbo." Earlier it had reported, "A number of feminine stars in Hollywood are said to be worried for fear that their private lives will soon be public since it has been revealed that Rilla Page Palmborg, author of the sensational 'Private life of Greta Garbo' is at work on a second book. It is not known whether or not this book will be a 'private life' although the book is said to concern Hollywood." Close Up magazine during 1932 also reviewed the biography, "But Rilla Page Palmborg in The Private Life of Greta Garbo got dope from Garbo's private servants. For the first time one learned that Garbo buys all the fan magazines and asks for her money back if there is nothing in them about herself. For the first time one learns that Garbo's favorite breakfast is grape fruit, creamed dried chipped beef, fried potatoes, an egg, home made coffee cake and coffee." Biographer John Bainbridge goes so far as to quote Gustaf and Sigrid Norin and after giving a similar account of Garbo reading, and returning fan magazines adds to that her bringing her lunch to the studio in a brown paper bag. "She also made a point of seeing every film directed by Ernst Lubitsch and Eric von Stroheim- in her opinion two of the most gifted directors in Hollywood. She usually saw her own pictures two or three times, on different occaisions." To the account is added that she avoided beauty shops and that she rinsed her hair after shampooing with camomile tea, which the housekeeper brewed from camomile seeds. Although Adrian had visited the house and had arranged its living room furniture and decorated its interior, the butler is quoted as having remarked that Garbo was apathetic about it and the making of purchases for it. During the filming of Sign of the Cross, Movie Classic quoted the film's director, without him expressing any further interest in the mysterious Garbo, and yet there is an allusion to the seductive roles that she was trying to ascend in his typifying her as a woman that could gain power through sensuality, "'The most voluptuous-looking woman in Hollywood,' adds DeMille. "is Greta Garbo. She has true voluptuousness- not of body, but of mind.'". To end the silent era, two months before Greta Garbo's last silent film, The Kiss (Feyder, 1929), Clarence Sinclair Bull became the gallery photographer of Greta Garbo, photographing her through several years, only in costume and only on the (closed) set. Author Mark A Vieira writes, "She liked him because, like Clarence Brown, he spoke softly, if at all." In an e-mailed correspondence with the present author, Mr. Vieira sent still photographs scanned from their original negatives in two seperate letters, their having been mostly left over and unused from the editorial decisions during the publication of his biography Greta Garbo, A Cinematic Legacy. One of the portraits taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull, as the reader will notice, is the one used on the cover of Mr. Vieira's biography without the publisher's title lettering. Vieira, who was an apprentice of Clarence Sinclair Bull, quotes Greta Garbo, "As she said, 'I had it all my own way and did it in my own fashion.' This is what ended her career and what makes her cinematic legacy the exquisite thing that it is."
One portrait of Greta Garbo included in the Estate of Greta Garbo auction was a gelatin silver print on double-weight matte paper with Clarence Sinclair Bull's blind stamp from the film Susan Lennox Her Rise and Fall. Motion Picture Magazine during the release of Susan Lennox Her Rise and Fall was explicit, perhaps perfunctory, in its publishing a portrait of Greta Garbo by Clarence Sinclair Bull with the caption, "The One- and Only" Underneath read, "There's only one gown in the world like this, just as there is only one Greta Garbo. It was designed by Adrian. An exquisite portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull appeared in Modern Screen Magazine in 1931 with the caption, "Although almost everyone in Hollywood knows where Greta Garbo lives, the swedish star hasn't moved for some time. Perhaps she's getting used to inquisitive fans peering through the hedges. She takes long hikes everyday and is usually accompanied by a woman companion." 1932 saw the article Garbo is like Lindbergh, written by R. Fernstrom and published in New Movie Magazine."Garbo is like Lindbergh. They act alike toward publicity.They shy away from reporters. Garbo is like the King of Sweden in many ways- kind, but aloof to everyone."
Greta Garbo It is a gendered spectatorship that places Garbo as a Cleopatra, who, as an alluring Queen, is looking at wealth as an abstraction in that to her it is aphrodisiac, her displaying herself as desirable admidst a backdrop of opulence; to know the secrets of her body is to be allowed by her within the solitude of grandeur. After Victor Sjostrom had returned to Sweden, Robert Herring, writing in Close Up magazine on Uno Henning in En Natt, a classic early Swedish sound film directed by Gustaf Molander, abruptly interrupted his essay to enter into a legnthy discourse on Greta Garbo, it being glaring that the section on Garbo is displaced in the essay, as if by overenthusiasm, to where he compares Garbo to Bridgette Helm only to stall with more on Greta Garbo before returning to Molander's film, "For with Garbo, too, there is the same sense of being linked to something more than one's personal life. Of carrying on and of being carried. Garbo in love, uses her lover as a means of reaching that land, that mood, that peace she requires. That is what is so difficult for her leading men, and so hard to find scenarios in which her leading man can continued to be wooed...Garbo has never lost this, this restless quiet..It is what makes her sometimes tired, which the movies try to turn into langorousness; it is what makes her dynamic, determined...Garbo astonishes people by being alternatively strangely careless and suddenly precise, right and assured." Film Daily reviewed the film Inspiration, "Greta Garbo dominates every situation and is the Garbo the fans want....Miss Garbo brings to the screen all the great possibilities of her talents with a combination of heart-gripping emotion and carefree indifference." With the superlative photography of Clarence Sinclair Bull, Greta Garbo inherited Photoplay Magazine journalist Katherine Albert, who summarized her writing during 1931 by herself paraphrasing her, "I'm bored with Garbo.", her looking at and foreward to the sensation differently with the articles Did Brown and Garbo Fight and Exploding the Garbo Myth, the former concerned with "the carefully guarded walled in stage where Garbo was starring in Inspiration, the latter making an event of Greta Garbo objecting to a line of dialouge on the set of the film Romance, including a photocaption which read, "the writer, who knows hers says there is not mystery about Greta Garbo". After explaining how successful artisticlly the work of Clarence Brown and Greta Garbo had been it asks what happenned during the filming of Inspiration, "The piece is an adaptation of Sappho. The book is now old fashioned. So is the play. A new script had to be written and neither Garbo nor Brown were entirely satisfied, but there was nothing to do but experiment on the set and see how it read. In order to get anything out of it, they must rehearse and rehearse and change and change. That's where the trouble began. Garbo would not rehearse." Photoplay reviewed the release of the film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox, "If you like your romance thick, your passion strong and your Garbo hot, don't miss this...M.G.M. stuck closely to the tale, modernizing it of course, and adding a trick ending. Garbo does her utmost with the tile role, natural for her." Although the announcement may seem odd to this century, The New Movie Magazine in 1931 had reported, "King Vidor has selected Ernest Torreace for one of the important roles in The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox, Greta Garbo's current picture." During 1932 it was well within the knowledge of "all the more studious Garbo fanatics" (Picture Play) that Greta Garbo was on the screen with Clark Gable, Their attraction to each other is understandable, their antagonism predestined, and their desperate reunion at the end of the picture holds no hope of tranquility." Picture Play thought highly of Greta Garbo adding, "Nor does she triumph in spite of her picture. it is a story entirely worthy of her." Richard Corliss includes Mata Hari with those films in which Greta Garbo's performance had been reviewed as "intentionally, or perhaps artisticly, lethargic". "M.G.M. had put Garbo through so many variations on the beautiful spider falling in love with the idealistic fly that the actress could have performed this part in her sleep- and more than one critic accused her of doing just that." During 1932 Regina Cannon directly quoted Ramon Novarro in New Movie Magazine in The Most Eligible Couple Will Never Marry, "Garbo is my ideal woman, but I shall never marry." The "startling frank article continued, "No other woman has impressed me so much; not even Barbara La Marr. Greta is everything that man desires. She has beauty, lure, mystery and aloofness that only men understand, for it is a quality which is usually to be found only in men. It is not coldness either. It is emotion." Journalist Ralph Wheelridge chronicled the making of Mata Hari for Photoplay magazine, "Announcements of the co-starring assignnment for Mata Hari sounded signal guns for rumors, conjecture and prognostication of all description. Those who have seen Miss Garbo about the lot during the making of the picture commented upon the gorgeousness of her costume and her unruffled contentment." The author mentions that her co-star had only met Greta Garbo socially on one or two occaisions, "On her dressing room table that morning Garbo found a huge mound of pink roses." He had sent a card reading, "I hope that the world will be as thrilled to see Mata Hari as I am to work with her- Ramon Novarro." Ben Maddox announced during the middle of his article Garbo and Novarro Together, Has Garbo found her Perfect Screen Lover at Last published in Screenland Magazine that he "had a long talk with Ramon during the making of Mata Hari. Ostensibly, little of it was about Greta Garbo, his quoting Novarro as having said, "Popularity is fleeting. So why should I be dazzled with a material success that is bound to end...However, I was delighted to do Mata Hari, it gives me an excellant role, one for which I am fitted. To me, the play is the thing. I like the co-starring plan. When one person alone is featured, the story is distorted to stress one character. And as a result the picture cannot be dramaticly effective..After thirty something happens to you. You get a more serious outlook on life."

Scott Higgins, currently. Professor of Film at Wesleyean University and recently the editor of Arnheim for Film and Media draws a portrait of Arnheim as an outdated, archaic formalist lacking vision, but notes that the author, a proponent of the visual as the basis of aesthetic theory, maintained that "an action can gain expressive power through 'indirect representation'. This may be in part evident in Arnheim's 1934 piece on Motion, "When in Grand Hotel Greta Garbo walked through the lobby with a springy, dynamic gait, she produced not only the most beautiful moment of the film, but also the most telling characterization of the dancer, whose part she was playing. Sr risk of doing an injustice to the most animated face in the history of film art, it may be said that Greta Garbo could give equally strong expression to the human soul by the rhythm of her gait, which depending on the Occaisionalism was victorious Nd energetic, transfigured, or tied, broken anxious and feeble."

Richard Corliss describes the work of Greta Garbo with director George Fitzmaurice, "As You Desire Me begins with a fascinating premise, and reworks a Pirandello play that seems intriguingly relevant to the creation of Garbo the star. indeed the film has everything going for it but good writing, acting and directing. Gor most of the film, Garbo looks as if she's simply finishing out her five year contract." Photoplay Magazine gave an eerie, perhaps unsettling, review of the film, " 'This may be the last Garbo picture you see' but at this moment she will not make any more now...if ever...And Garbo has never been more marvelous....The love scenes between Douglas and Garbo are the high points of the film and they Re almost equal to the ones played so long ago by Gilbert and Garbo. if this must be her last picture, we are glad it is such a fitting swan song. And you don't need us to tell you not to miss the film."

Film Daily tersely, perhaps succinctly, announced during 1932, "Greta Garbo, who gets more publicity by trying to avoid it, is reported due today with intentions of sailing on the liner Grispholm for Sweden. At the M.G.M. home office yesterday, nobody had any idea as to the whereabouts of the Glamorous Greta." It followed later with. "Greta Garbo wearing horn-rimmed spectacles and accompanied by the Countess Wactmeister has been reported in Paris for the last week shopping. She is expected to return to Stockholm this week. Hollywood Filmograph during 1932 chronicled that, "Greta Garbo, while in Djuisholm, Sweden, refused to see American reporters. But the door was opened to Rene Kraus, German writer. Greta told Mr. Kraus that she would not be back in Hollywood for two years. That Maurice Stiller had not left her any money. That she had not played a part in Ivar Kruger's life. That she was only a friend to Newspaperman Sorensen. That she had no intention of getting married." The magazine later continued, "WILL GARBO RETURN seems to be a much mooted question with the executives as well as the fans debating the question since the Swedish star left our shores, but she's still elusive." Movie Classic in 1932 reported that the United States was on tenterhooks as Greta Garbo neared the shores of Sweden, "She permitted a young American poet, named Philip Cummings to share her society- and even to laugh with her. And when her boat docked at Gothenburg, she was so excited that she actually summoned reporters to her! She told them- with a smile- that she was not afraid of reporters...but that she was tired of being written about so much. She added that she was not returning to America in the near future...She said she could tell no one her future plans." Movie Classic reported that while talking to reporters Garbo had to admit to the eventuality of her returning to the Hollywood screen. John Bainbridge gives an account of the events around Greta Garbo and her having departed for Sweden for an entirety of eight months. "Besides arranging to have her name omitted from the ships passenger list, she quietly slipped aboard the liner the night before it sailed. She had spent a period of weeks on an island swimming and sunbathing before returning to Stockholm, where she was visited by Mercedes de Acosta. She had read a biography of on encouragement of Salka Viertel about the throne of Sweden and of one who, during her reign, her "distaste of marriage was profound, she had swarms of lovers...she rewarded her favorites lavishly with money, land and titles...She also gave away half the crown lands." Garbo read the completed script to Queen Christina written Viertel and a colleague, it being made a stipulation of the renewal of her contract. She was met by Viertel on her return to the United States. Greta Garbo Nearing the end of 1933, Hollywood Filmograph reported. "The famous Lola Montez- will be the next character that Greta Garbo will try as M.G.M have bought a story of the dashing Lola that vamped The King of Bavaria. The title of the story Heavenly Sinner, which has a glamorous, picturesque background and should exactly fit the mysterious one. That year the periodical published Looking through the Telescope, by Lal Chand Mehra, which outlined filmic spectatorship as being concerned with "the channels of the mystery of knowledge" and that the spectator remained distant and aloof so as to mystify the view, "Greta Garbo's greatest appeal in my humble opinion lies in the fact that this consummate actress always leaves an air of mystery about her. Even though she has portrayed ordinary human characters in all her pictures, she has carried an aloofness that the audiences never understand. This very distance has made Miss Garbo an attractive character...Her human portrayals are mystically beautiful. This question is- what can she do in a real mystic part?" Rilla Page Palmborg, the journalist, who has on several occaisions been credited with having created the initial "Mysterious Stranger" image of Greta Garbo in regard to the interpretations of Greta Garbo's personal life and how they were or were not neccesarily translated on to the screen, returned to Photoplay in 1933 to write the article "Now Its $12,500 a week", the title coming from Garbo's apparently wondering if there would be an early retirement she would enter and if he current salary would compensate for her being neglected, "However that may be, Garbo is now busy with her friend, Mrs. Berthold Viertel, wife of the German motion picture director, hunting a house and otherwise getting established. Metro is humming with excitement- and these matters stand untill the next development." Garbo had returned from Sweden and "She didn't know whether she'd care to make pictures next year." To begin 1934, in Hollywood Reporter it was reported that, "M.G.M has quietly shelved The Paradine Case by Robert Hichens. Story was wrangled over as a possible vehicle for Greta Garbo, but no go, owing to a character problem that could not be cracked, to which it within months added, "M.G.M. cannot make up its mind as to the cast decisions for Indo-China, originally scheduling it under Bernie Hyman's wing for Constance Bennet, but now giving it serious consideration as possible Greta Garbo vehicle."

New Movie Magazine anticipated the release of Queen Christina in Advanced News of Films in the making, "The Garbo set, as usual, was closed to all but the people actually working on it...Miss Garbo's schedule during production never varies a minute. You could set your watch by the entrance of her limousine through the front gates each morning at seven forty five. She spends an hour studying her lines and being made up. At nine o'clock on the dot she arrives on the set. At nine thirty, the first scene rehearsed or made, she disappeares into her portable dressing room and has fruit juice and tea, her breakfast" New Movie went on to outline the rest of her predictable day of shooting. During 1934, Photoplay succinctly encapsulated the onscreen Greta Garbo, "in Queen Christina, Greta Garbo and John Gilbert have a rendezvous in an inn. To Christina, all the inanimate things in their chummy room become very dear, due to their association with her romance. One sequence consists of Garbo hovering about the room, caressing various objects while Gilbert watches silently. She takes her time too." The caption of a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull published in Photoplay during 1934 read, "Greta Garbo as Queen Christina is impressively beautiful." In Three Weeks with Garbo, published in 1936, Leon Surmelian began with, "After twelve years of entertaining the public as the screen's No 1 glamour gal, my and your weakness, the incomparable Garbo remains the same elusive shadow, the same lovely enigma to the world that worships her at her feet...It was during the filming of the memorable Queen Chistina when Katerine Hepburn tried to crash Garbo's stage as an extra and failed where I succeeded. And now I will give you an intimate closeup of the Swedish Sphinx out of my won personal observations." Greta Garbo It reviewed the film, "The magnificient Greta, after an abscence of over a year, makes a glorious reappearance on the screen...on the whole, Rouben Mammoulian's direction is admirable; S.J. Behrman's dialouge is scintillating; settings and costumes are rich." Tucked away in a secluded corner of a 1933-4 issue of Cinema Quarterly is a review of Queen Christina written by Paul Rotha. "I do not find it in me to write about this picture, but I must write instead about Garbo, who contrives, though Heaven knows how, to surpass all the badness they thrust upon her...Here a lithe figure sheathed in men's breeches and stamping boots, she strides into our prescence and again reveals her dynamic personal magneticism. She is a woman, it seems, destined to contrive in a world that spells misunderstanding...Queen Christina perhaps comes nearest; with its great close-ups and sublime fading shot. But the showman tricks of Mamoulian and the falseness of the environment conspire against her." Cinema Quarterly was also a magazine that published The Film Critic of Today and Tommorow, by Rudolph Arnheim, who wrote, "In an essay....Mamoulian was blamed for having allowed himself to be influenced by the "innocent vanity" of Greta Garbo. Almost simultaneously there appeared in a German newspaper, an interview in which Greta Garbo said, "You ask whether I am satisfied with the Christina film? Not at all. How could you think that? If I had any say in the matter, it would be quite different. But what one would like oneself is never realized. I shall never act the part of which I have dreamed." After continuing to write that he and his readers were not to be concerned "with a defence of Greta Garbo", Arnheim notes a creative dichotomy between actor and director, much like the one posited by silent film historians that saw the two reel film evolve into the eight reel during the time of Bitzer and Griffith where the scenario and photoplay emerged and developed. Hollywood magazine during 1934 published an article titled, "Garbo Finds Love" without revealing the name of its author, the headline reading, "The budding and blossoming of Garbo's romance with Mammoulian, as seen through the eyes of an actress who worked with her in Queen Christina, but for obvious reasons must remain anonymous." It began, "As one of those who worked with Garbo in Queen Christina, I saw her romance with Rouben Mammoulian bud and grow and flower into love. And I, like the rest of Hollywood, believe they will soon marry." The cover Movie Classic magazine hosted the title, "Will Garbo marry her Director". Between the covers, underneath an oval photograph of Greta Garbo as Queen Christina, read the caption,"Portrait by Bull". It stated, "Greta Garbo and John Gilbert were only a few feet away from the city clerk and matrimony when she turned away, shaking her head. 'I have changed my mind.', she said. But now apparently the man for whom she has waited has now appeared. Rouben Mammoulian, the famous director of stage and screen, is that man." Journalist Dorothy Manners for New Movie Magazine that year asked, "Will Garbo Marry Mamoulian during an article in which she quoted the director, "Mamoulian only shrugs, 'The story that Miss Garbo and I plan to be married is absurd.'" Mamoulian, Greta Garbo and Salka Viertel had been dining together that evening. Silver Screen during 1934 observed, "The Garbo Mammoulian romance seems to develop steadily. The two have been quietly lunching at the Ambassador and dining at the Russian Eagle quite often lately." It was nestled on a page titled More Gossip-Whispers are Little Daggers. John Gilbert would make only one film after having been reunited with Greta Garbo in Queen Christina, The Captain Hates the Sea (1934). Bainbridge writes, "It was reported, erroneously, that when Garbo was informed of his death she said, 'What is that to me?' Actually she was vacationing in Stockholm when Gilbert died [1936] and was given the news by a Swedish reporter in the foyer of the Royal Dramatic Theater during an intermission. She refused to make any comment; shortly afterward she left the theater." There is one account, if not more, that the role in Queen Christina was first going to be offered to Lord Olivier and was given to John Gilbert on Greta Garbo's insistence. Greta Garbo Hal E. Wood contributed Garbo Frowns Again to Hollywood in 1934, "Greta Garbo is anything but pleased over the action of Metro in signing assigning Victor Fleming to direct her in the Painted Veil. In fasct there are rumblings to the effect that the Swede is dusting off." The magazine claimed that Garbo wanted to leave for Sweden due to her lack of director approval and that she favored making a second film with Mammoulian, to which it appended, "Greta's lonely again" in its News Slueth section, "It's all over between garbo and Rouben mammoulian if you take the word of the chatters...Incidently, the star has rescinded her demand that Mammoulian, who directed her in Queen Christina be named her guide through The Painted veil and has approved Richard Boleslavsly as her megaphonist" Milton Brown photographed Greta Garbo on the set of The Painted Veil for The New Movie Magazine during 1934. It pointed out, "Notice the raised boards Garbo walks on to increse her height." A second photograph taken on the set of The Painted Veil by Milton Brown accompanying Garbo Starts Her New Picture took up more than three fourths of two pages in Photoplay, "Take 1- which means the first scene in Greta's new Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film, The Painted Veil. The first call of 'Camera' for a Garbo picture is always a thrilling second. This time it stirred more excitement than ever before...All the sets for The Painted Veil were constructed on stilts, as this photograph reveals. The set has a ceiling, which is unusual from a scenic angle." Hollywood magazine during 1935 printed the article "Garbo's Cameraman Talks At Last, where William Daniels was quoted as having said, "She has been pictured as gloomy, aloof, frightened, imperious and a hundred other things as unlike her real self as are midnight and noon. The real Greta Garbo is the most sensible woman I have ever known. The keynotes of her character are intelligence, simplicity and absolute sincerity....Garbo likes to look through the camera to see what the scene is going to look like, but she does n't thrust her opinions on any of her fellow workers....She almost never troubles to look at the 'rushes' of her films, nor even at the first rough assembly of the picture. Instead she waits for the previews." In the article there is a photo caption reading, "Camerman Daniels wants to photograph Garbo in color. He believes her complexion is the loveliest he has ever filmed." William Daniels is quoted by journalist William Stoll as having related, "When it came time to film retakes on The Painted Veil, Director Boleslawski had been called away to another studio, so W.S. Van Dyke took charge. He is probably the breeziest, quickest shooting director in the business, he literally cuts and edits his pictures as he shoots them. Our first retake was a scene of Miss Garbo coming down a long flight of stairs. we made the shot- once. Van Dyke said to me, 'Okay-wrap it up! Now, let's move over here!' Miss Garbo's face was a study; then she slowly smiled and said,'Well, I suppose there is only one way to walk down stairs.'" Memory would be insufficient to serve in regard to the often related story about Greta Garbo's slippers as to whether it originated with Mauritz Stiller or William Daniels, but as Hollywood folklore, John Bainbridge whispers that it was Daniels, "Whenever possible, she wore an old pair of carpet slippers on the set for the sake of comfort. before a scene was shot she always asked Daniels, 'Is the feet in?'. If they were out of camera range, she kept the slippers on, regardless of what fabulous Adrain creations she was wearing." Perhaps, the wearing of slippers had prompted her remark to Daniels about how an actress should descend a staircase. Greta Garbo departed from her usual portrait photographers for four photos "posed exclusively for Photoplay", her reconfirming herself as a fashion model as the two page layout "Garbo's first fashion sitting in five years" described in detail three gowns that Adrian had designed for the film The Painted Veil. The first of which was a gray silk teagown, with pleated organiza jabot and deep dolman type sleeves. The second article photograph was described as "the sports type of thing Garbo loves- nonchalance in the swagger lines of a white flannel coat" whereas the third included "a new version of the famous Garbo pillbox hat," and a corded felt with jade ornament. Richard Corliss writes, "Boleslawski's visual effects here are adept without being ostentatious- as when Garbo looks distractedly into a window, and the reflection shows a much more disturbed face." Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Photoplay during 1935 almost couldn't have seemed more inaccurate, it having printed, "Garbo from all indications to make Hollywood her home on her return. She's going to bring her two brothers with her." Silver Screen toward the end of 1935 reported, "From Stockholm comes news that Garbo is busy these days finishing up a scenario based on the life of a saint. Her fondest dream has been to star in a picture with a religious theme, and the studio offering her none, she has written her own script." In regard to the mystery of Greta Garbo, Stockholm reported in Motion Picture Daily during early March of 1936, "Greta Garbo will leave here tommorow aboard the Drottingholm." More than two weeks later, in the same periodical, Gottenburg reported, "Greta Garbo is expected to sail tommorrow for the United States on the Gripsholm." The periodical soon amended, "Greta Garbo, who arrived Sunday on the Gripsholm from Sweden is shifted to leave for Hollywood this afternoon." but with very little explanation spotted Greta Garbo in Chicago, "Greta Garbo and Berthrold Viertol had an exciting time here between the arrival of the Twentieth Century and The Chief. They went to the Field Museum and looked over the mummies." Photoplay provided a brief review of Greta Garbo in Anna Karenina during 1936, "The persuasive genius of Greta Garbo raises the rather weak picture into the class of art. Fredrick March is unconvincing as the lover for whom Greta sacrifices everything." It later rewrote its review, "This picture is really a weak and dull picture. yet the persuasive genius of Garbo raises it into the class of art. What should be moving seems dated, though the production is magnificient...But Frederick March seems stuffy." Film Daily reviewed the film not unsimilarily, "Greta Garbo in a sympathetic role that fits her admirably...with a fine appreciation of the poignant drama with all its subtle evaluations....Garbo has never appeared more human and appealing." Motion Picture Daily's review of the film included the assessment, "The Tolstoi novel of Russia, containing as it does dramatic elements repeated time without end in many and far less distinguished pictures, make a fitting vehicle for the screen's leading tragedienne...Anna Karenina, slightly ponderous perhaps from the view of story, is nevertheless, a thoroughly worthwhile motion picture directed by Clarence Brown with pronounced ability." Picture Play magazine looked at the film as a remake, "So old that it served Garbo before she broke her silence and lapses into her present perfect speech. Then it was called Love. The new version is more interesting because it is more painstakingly done, speech giving it new refinements and subtleties. meticulous costumes and seetings complete a marvelous reproduction of St Petersburg society." Motion Picture Daily early in the year reported, "Basil Rathbone intends to leave for Hollywood in six weeks. He has turned down an offer by M.G.M. to appear in Anna Karenina with Greta Garbo and Frederick March. Rathbone is anxious to play the Sidney Carlton role in Tale of Two Cities, but he will most likely be signed by a company other than M.G.M." A month later it announced, "Reginald Denny goes in to Anna Karenina, which stars Greta Garbo at M.G.M." Basil Rathbone wrote of his aquaintance with Greta Garbo in his autobiography In and Out of Character- one of my copies mysteriously had the Players Cigarette Card featuring the actor from 1938 scotched taped to the inside cover, which, not unlike the persian slipper, the present author still keeps in my wallet- "I first met Miss Garbo in 1928 when Ouida and I were invited to lunch one Sunday." Rathbone and his wife had been present at the premiere of the film The Flesh and the Devil. There is an account that it had been Adrian that had designed the costume that Greta Garbo had worn to a party given by Basil Rathbone and Ouida Bergere during 1929. She had attended Mrs. Rathbone's affair as Hamlet. Of his starring in the film Anna Karenina with her he wrote, "And so upon the morning previously arranged I called upon Miss Garbo. The house, a small one, was as silent as a grave. There was no indication that it might be occupied." The atmosphere may not quite have been as conducive to a seance that Valentino would have attended as Rathbone may have made it out to be. Jane Ardmore's biography of Mae Murray, The Self Enchanted- Mae Murray: Image of an Era only briefly mentions Basil Rathbone or Greta Garbo, but it is an account of off-screen Hollywood, there having been a diegetic and non-diegetic aspect to the extra-textual as well. Rathbone had starred with Mae Murray in The Masked Bride (Christy Cabbane, 1925, six reels). "Every fourth Sunday, Mae threw open her house for lavish entertainment...Jack Gilbert brought Greta Garbo. They were in love and radiant, but Greta worried about the studio, she was shy, there seemed such commotion, her energies were sapped. 'You should have a dressing room as I do, Darling," Mae had told her. Mae Murray would later be attending a birthday party for Rudolph Valentino given by Pola Negri. On learning that Greta Garbo had already had the film Mata Hari in production, Pola Negri deciding between scripts that were in her studio's story department chose A Woman Commands as her first sound film, in which she starred with Basil Rathbone. Of Rathbone, she wrote in her autobiography, "As an actor I suspected basil Rathbone might be a little stiff and unromantic for the role, but he made a test that was suprisingly good. In an article titled Hissed to the Heights- That's Rathbone, written during 1936, Motion Picture quoted the actor, "Before I played Karenin I was puzzled about the technique of film acting, and wasn't satisfied at all with what I had been doing. During the filming of Anna Karenina I watched Garbo and learned from her what I think is the secret of good screen acting; play your part with the least possible movement and the greatest possible mental projection. It is different on the stage. There your whole body is constantly exposed to the audience and you must have perfect coordination from head to foot....And Garbo has this power of mental projection to a superb degree...I first met her in 1928. I found her very intelligent and charming. I didn't meet her again untill 1935, when we were cast in the same picture. She wasn't the same person, she had changed. You know I think Garbo suffers a great deal for being typed typed. Her camerman thinks so too." "And now in Anna Karenina she becomes newly romantic." To the left of a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull, a caption read, "And on her return from Sweden, she may do Camille." Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Greta Garbo

Screenland magazine made the fantastic announcement, "And here's another thing that concerns Miss Garbo. for years Fred Niblo has been trying to interest the financial powers at Metro in a story by Barney Glazer on the Emperess Josephine. unlike other yarns that mention Napoleon, he is to be, in this, a secondary character. it being women's day, the author feels the women of history should have their due. now it looks as though the deal will go through, and Greta will play Josephine." Screenland printed the article in August of 1930! M.G.M's own advertisements featuring Greta Garbo in Motion Picture Daily during 1937 told audiences, "Garbo and Boyer in Beloved. You'll hear plenty about it." During 1937 The Film Daily chronicled the interest Clarence Brown held in the script of Conquest, "Countess Walewska, M.G.M. Greta Garbo picture has literally become a 'Clarence Brown production'. Valuable tapestries, silver candlesticks and tableware that once graced Sat, August 8, 2015 - 7:21 PM permalink
Greta Garbo A suitable story for director Mauritz Stiller, famous Swedish director who just began work under M.G.M. contract is now being sought and will be announced at an early date. Greta Garbo, who has also just arrived in America will be assigned a suitable vehicle sometime this month." -Exhibitor's Trade Review, 1925Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo arrives from Europe

When refilmed, her hollywood screentest would by filmed by Mauritz Stiller and purportedly spliced into the rushes of Torrent and was then, in turn, seen by Monta Bell, who insisted the script be given to Garbo. Greta Garbo's second screentest had been photographed by Henrik Sartov, who later explained that the earlier test had lacked proper lighting and that a lens he had devised had allowed him to articulate depth while filming her. Cameraman William Daniels had photographed the earlier test. Lillian Gish relates a conversation between her and Sartov where Gish asked him if he could photograph a screentest of Garbo, "Garbo's temperment reflected the rain and gloom of the long, dark Scandinavian winters." At first Garbo was reluctant to accept a role in the film, although it was a large role that had been considered for Norma Shearer, whom Bell had directed in the film After Midnight (1921). Mauritz Stiller advised, "It can lead to better parts later." to which Garbo replied, "How can I take direction from someone I don't know?". John Bainbridge writes that in the beginning Garbo spent most of her time with Mauritz Stiller, quoting him as having said, "You will see that something will become of her." It would be ten weeks before the studio would show any marked interest in her, this mostly at the behest of Stiller and in light of his second series of screentests. "She was especially fond of Seastrom's children," Bainbridge writes, "and brought little present to them." Victor Sjostrom's daughter is the Swedish actress Guje Lagerwall. Begnt Forlund notes that the filming of Anna Karenina had at first been thought for actress Lillian Gish, who in Sweden, Greta Garbo had seen the film White Sister. In her autobiography, Gish wrote, "I often saw young Garbo on the set. She was then the protege of the Swedish director Mauritz Stiller. Stiller often left her on my set. He would take her to lunch and then bring her back, and Garbo would sit there watching." John Bainbridge reiterates this while writing on The Torrent, "Stiller did not appear on the set, but every evening he rehearsed Garbo in the next day's scenes, coaching her in every movement and every expression...Stiller delivered Garbo to the studio every morning and called for her every night." He quotes a letter written to Sweden by Stiller, "Greta is starting work for a well-known director and I think she has got an excellant part." Richard Corliss adds, "Though out of her element and seperated from Mauritz Stiller, Garbo gives fine performance, full of feeling and technical precocity. her first Hollywood kiss is one to remember." Swedish actor Lars Hanson attended the premiere of the film and reflected, "We all thought the picture was a flop and that Garbo was terrible...In our opinion it didn't mean anything." Bainbridge makes the observation that Mauritz Stiller and Victor Seastrom were also at the premiere. He writes, "The picture did perhaps contain a few imperfections, such as Garbo's costumes." As a biographer, Bainbridge is enjoyable to read in one sense, not only for his prose synopsis of the film, but that he plays a guessing game by quoting a Swedish actress who was then in Hollywood without disclosing her name, the reader to wonder if she was in fact Karen Molander, wife of Lars Hanson who journeyed to Hollywood with him. The accuracy of Hollywood reporting during the Twenties, or Jazz Age, on which Bainbridge seems to base his historical references was admittedly referred to by Picture Play magazine and journalist William H. McKegg in Three Sphinxes, which compared Jetta Goudal, Ronald Colman and Greta Garbo, who, as of 1929, were three people that "puzzle Hollywood" It opined, "Of course rumors have been spread bu those who "know". Some say that Garbo was a waitress in one of the open air cafés in the Swedish capital. They add that the poverty and sorrow she underwent made her fearful of life. Only those who have experienced poverty really know hoe cruel human beings can be to one another. some say she was a singer. Who cares?"The subtitle to one section of The Story of Greta Garbo as told to Ruth Biery, published in Photoplay during 1929 reads, "Tempermental of misunderstood". In it Greta Garbo relates the events that led up to her having left the studio for what would only be less than a week, "Then it was for months here before I was to work for Mr. Stiller. When it couldn't be arranged, they put me in The Torrent, with Mr. Monta Bell directing. It was very hard work, but I didn't mind that. I was at the studio every morning at seven o'clock and untill six every evening." She goes further explaining that there was a language barrier that would later contribute to Mauritz Stiller being also taken off her next picture, "Mr. Stiller is an artist...he does not understand the American factories. He always made his own pictures in Europe, where he is the master. In our country it is always the small studio." Stiller had in fact written to Sweden to say, "There is nothing here of Europe's culture." It is of note that in regard to Stiller's relationship to the studio, and Thalberg, Lars Hanson has been quoted as having said, "And Stiller, because he could speak hardly any English, wasn't able to explain what he was doing and how to satisfy them.": it was on the set of The Torrent that author Sven-Hugo Borg was introduced to Stiller, who in turn then informed Garbo that he was assigned translator under Monta Bell's direction. In The Private Life of Greta Garbo By Her Most Intimate Friend, Borg recounts that Bell had turned to him and had said of her, "What a voice! If we could only use it." Of the film he notes, "Of course she was constantly with Stiller, spending every possible moment with him; but thought that when the camera's eye was flashed upon her, (that)the picture would decide her fate began, (that) he would not be there terrified her." Borg continued as the interpreter for Greta Garbo untill 1929. Author Richard Corliss remarked upon the performance in the film by Greta Garbo, "Though out of her element and separated from Mauritz Stiller, Garbo gives a fine performance. Her first Hollywood kiss is one to remember...There are to be sure moments early in the film when Garbo works too hard with her eyes; overstating emotions rather than expressing them, dropping nuances like anvils, registering filial devotion...but she grows in the role...by the final scenes..she is utterly convincing as an actress and a star." Corliss continues stating that there are flashes of the later Garbo as though she were many-talented and in retrospect it was present but would later develop more fully, "By the end of The Torrent he face seems more severely contoured, her eyes more glacially clear, her head lifted upward by the chinstrap of spiritual pride. The phenomena is that of a star creating her own myth within the time-space of a single film." Photoplay magazine quoted Greta Garbo, "Greta Garbo was having her pictures taken by Ruth Harriet Louise. During one of the close up shots her eyes blinked, 'Oh, I'm so sorry, Miss Louise,' Greta apologized, 'But I twinkled.'" The production stills of Greta Garbo during the filming of The Torrent were photographed by Ruth Harriet Louise. Ruth Harriet Louise had also published an early full photograph of Greta Garbo in Motion Picture Classic Magazine during May of 1926. Before photographing Greta Garbo, Louise had created her "first published Hollywood image", that of Vilma Banky from the film Dark Angel in the September 1925 issue of Photoplay and during 1926 she contributed a particularly romantic blue-titnted portrait of Pauline Stark and Antonio Moreno to Photoplay from the film Love's Blindness. During 1928 Louise contributed to Screenland Magazine a portrait of Lars Hansen and Lillian Gish, "the lovers in the forthcoming special production The Wind", directed by Victor Sjostrom under the name Victor Seastrom. For those susceptible to the fantasy of Hollywood, it might feel like one of those rare fleeting sightings of Harriet Brown but it in fact that Robert Dance and Bruce Robertson introduce the photographer in their volume Ruth Harriet Louise and Hollywood Glamour Photography. The authors include a photograph of Greta Garbo taken by Ruth Harriet Louise, who had invited her back to her studios for another photo shoot after the filming of The Torrent had come to its completion, late December of 1925. Harriet Brown, now in fact Harriet Brown and company, the owner of the photograph is none other than "senior management and market executive" Scott Reisfield, whom, and I quote, "Developed museum exhibit of photographs with the Santa Barbra Museum of Art. The exhibit subsequently was toured to four additional venues. Developed a book published by Rizzoli in conjunction with the museum exhibit." The picture of Greta Garbo in a chair seated next to a lion, Garbo photographed outdoors on what at first appears to be a bench and the lion posing with his feet elevated on a log, as it was first published in Motion Picture Magazine during 1926 must have been a publicity test, by a publicity department that may have named her The Swedish Sphinx during the silent era, as it left her not only silent but unidentified, without printing her name; the caption reads, "$10.00 for the best title of this picture." There are twenty three photographs of Greta Garbo taken by the photographer Arnold Genthe in the United States either on July 25, or July 27. Often unseen by the public and for the most part belonging to public domain, the were part of his estate and are presently housed at the library of congress. Biographer Norman Zeirold, who used a photograph of Greta Garbo taken by Genthe for the cover of his wonderful volume has written that, "Garbo's plasticity made it possible for her to reflect the fantasies of her screen audiences, in the sense she functioned as a receptacle for the emotions of others." An attempt on the present author to include the subject of Greta Garbo while corresponding with Norman Zierold, now a professor, was mostly unsuccessful. In keeping with the Greata Garbo that was nearly unknown to movies audiences for her personal life off-screen despite its being highly remarked upon by extra-diegetic text, the Garbo that had lurked in the shadows of museum-art-house screenings as a recluse after her retirement, the Garbo that had blindfolded her firing squad as she smoked a cigarrette as though at any time she could be sitting right beside any us us during any of her films while as spectators we made identifications with each interpellated nuance, I added, "These emotional structures are created within each particular film, often by subject and spectator positioning that exploits the combination of tragic seductress, the viewer, and the film's other characters often in relation to her pre-talkie, before sound, body in an objectification of sexual mystery, as when her body within the frame creates space between two other characters in front of the camera, isolating them near a specific visual motif, or when Greta Garbo briefly moves into the emotion of a particular solitude." But then clearly, the relationship between character and landscape and its interaction with subject positioning and or spectatorial positioning can also differ widely from one director to another, almost to the point where it includes stylization, as when comparing the film's of Victor Sjostrom and Carl Th. Dreyer- the relation of character to landscape during the appearances of Greta Garbo is a relation, or inverse relation, to modernity within the object arrangements of mise-en-scene and female sexuality. It it clearly for emotion that Garbo posed for the soft-focus series of portraits, almost in as much as the close up in film is used to depict the significant detail of the shot. During December 1925, a photograph of greta Garbo by Arnold Genthe was published in Picture Play magazine with the caption From the Land of the Vikings, it announcing that she was the "latest arrival" from Scandinavia, a "statuesque blond, very reserved in manner." Picture Play Magazine during 1927 used a full page photograph taken by Arnold Genthe to figurehead the article Rebellion Sweeps Hollywood, written by Aieleen St. John Brennon, following it within pages by a portrait of Lars Hanson by Ruth Harriet Louise, it's caption noting that he had "amassed a large following since his forceful performance in The Scarlett Letter and now has the title role in Captain Salvation. Greta Garbo The entire review of The Torrent in Photoplay runs as follows: "Monta Bell stands well in the foreground of those directors who can take a simple story and fill it with true touches that the characters emerge real human beings and the resulting film becomes a small masterpiece. Such work has he created in The Torrent and for fans who are slightly grown up, this picture will be a visual delight. Greta Garbo, the new Swedish importation is very lovely." To provide a timeline, it appears on the same page as a review of The Devil's Circus (Benjamin Christensen). Tucked away in a later Photoplay issue was a more candid reviewer, "Greta Garbo exerts an evil fascination- on the screen. True, her debut was not auspiciously placed in The Torrent, which is in reality a babbling brook that runs on forever, now-she-loves-him-now-she don't until the end of the film and beyond." The reviewer then complements her as being attractive, surveying her eyes, lips and nostrils in, perhaps, a "gender-specific" paragraph. And yet Eugene V. Brewster began the watching of Greta Garbo on the part of Motion Picture Classic magazine with his own secular view, "At Metro Goldwyn Studios they showed me a few reels of Greta Garbo's unfinished picture. This striking young Swedish actress will doubtless appeal to many but somehow I couldn't see the great coming star in her the company expects." Frederick James Smith continued for Motion Picture Classic with Greta Garbo Arrives, "The newcomer is a slumber-eyed Norsewoman, one Greta Garbo, who seems to have more possiblities than anyone since Pola Negri of Passion...She isn't afraid to act. That she was able to stand out of an infererior story, poorly directed, is more than her credit...The Ibanez story is full of claptrap, including the dam that bursts without having anything to do with the story. Monta Bell tossed it in the film form without any apparent interest." It quickly followed with the article, "The Northern Star, The Screen's Newest Meteor is a Moody daughter of Sweden", written by Alice L. Tildelsey, who decidedly felt more at liberty to Greta Garbo than interviewers that came later. She relates that the actress had said, "I love the sea, yes. It understands me, I think...it is not happy, it is always yearning for something that it cannot have." Garbo purportedly referred to herself as "poor little Sweden girl" during the interview. "Now for my new picture I must learn to dance the tango and to ride the horse." Tidesley refers to Garbo as "a moody young thing, Greta Garbo, with the temperment of the true artist." The article imparts how Greta Garbo was introduced to Mauritz Stiller, who had seen her performing Ibsen and had had her called in to his office. The photograph of Garbo was taken by Ruth Harriet Louise. National Board of Review magazine, although literate, may have remained true to form as it typified the film with, "The story preserves a European atmosphere in which parents still have the least say about their children's marriages." Biographer Richard Corliss fairly accurately assesses Greta Garbo's first of several silent films, "Not only does it prefigure many of the morals and motifs of her later pictures, but it avoids many of those films pirouettes into the ludicrous. All things considered (the times. the material, the studio, The Torrent is a suprisingly adult piece of work." While reading Corliss the reviewer as essayist, there is a slight temptation to see him presenting the synopsis of each story and the characters as being antiquated, that it is a reevaluation of our film and its incidents but, written while it was a given that Garbo was leading a solitary life, it is kept within Garbo being a mystery, that if the stories were outdated, they could be looked at with curiousity and inquiry, as the fantasies they were meant to be, and in that way the reviews of Richard Corliss only contain a hint of being outdated in their being questioning without necessity. To compare and contrast, if Corliss is writing about the versatility of Greta Garbo, John Bainbridge reverberates the sentiment, "What was to become known as the Garbo manner was but faintly discernable in The Torrent, but there were intimations." Bainbridge seems to keep his secret that much of the material for his biography was derived from fan magazines, albeit he conducted interviews. Biographies on Greta Garbo the sensation began to appear, almost in droves, as soon as the actress had spoken in sound film, many explaining how she reached the screen in Hollywood in the first place while adding spoonfuls of data about Mauritz Stiller. This was to nearly culminate in 1938 with Modern Screen's 15 pages of biography, The True Life Story of Greta Garbo, written by William Stewart. It summarized, "The picture was The Torrent, originally slated for Aileen Pringle but given to Garbo as a test of her ablility...It pleased her, but for final praise she awaited Stiller's word. "It is good.', he said, and those three encouraging words were sufficient."





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Sat, August 8, 2015 - 7:21 PM permalink
originally published at Greta Garbo
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Swedish Film 1909-1917

In part one of the Swedish Silent Film The Outlaw and His Wife (Berg Ejvind och hans hustru, 1918) Victor Sjostrom on screen portays a character that is introduced with an iris out, the previous scene which included secondary characters having concluded with an iris in; he is drinking from an Icelandic stream in medium close shot, the camera then cutting to a wider angle, it photographing him from the waist up to show more of the stream in the background. After a cut in, Sjöström cuts back to the shot, but only briefly, to show that his character is to the right of the screen, in profile, looking at what is offscreen to the left of the screen. Almost on action, he then abruptly cuts to a full shot in which the character has reversed the relation of his look to the side of the frame, his then cutting to a longshot as his character leaves the frame. He cuts to a vignette shot of his character facing the opposite direction that he does in the scene, and then to another accompanying a dialouge intertitle so that it is as though the line of dialouge has been delivered in close shot.

Throughout the rest of part one Victor Sjostrom carries the story forward, it introducing the woman he will marry in a sidelighted, near over the shoulder, near quarter shot, it being that she hires him for a month and then later makes him steward. While part two begins with establishing shots of the exterior, the horizon line often parallel to the top of the frame line ( a wall is later used to show a vertical division of frame as two lovers meet behind it), there is no interruption of continuity between it and part three, the two not linked by any camera device, but the scene is quickly moved to an interior. In part three she asks him to marry her and he tries to decline while declaring his love for her (Sjöström cuts back and forth between their dialouge and a retrospective scene during which he uses iris in and iris out to show ellipsis).

The rest of the film is of their journey together. In part four he cuts from a three quarter full shot of his character facing the right of the screen going towards her to embrace her to a shot of both of them in medium shot, her in his arms while he is facing the left of the screen. Rather than using suture between shot reverse shots, he holds the camera on them during the dialouge and concludes it by cutting to a closer angle of his character having lowered his body and putting his head on her stomach. During the dialouge which beings part seven an expository intertitle accompanies his interpolating a shot which would have been included in a previous scene and the shot from part four of his being near to her is repeated, their dialouge during while snowbound then continuing.

 Sjöström had written four hundred letters to his co-star Edith Erastoff, the woman he had married. About the film, Einar Lauritzen wrote, "But Sjöström never let the drama of human relations get lost in the grandeur of the scenery." Tom Milne sees the film as being an example of a director articulating "the sense of space and liberty in the use of landscape which was already one of the distinguishing marks of the Swedish cinema."

Par Lagerkvist published the essay Modern Theater (Teater) in 1918, it purporting, and possibly rightly so, that the theater of Ibsen lacked what was needed for then modern audiences. 1919 saw the publication of Par Lagerkvist's play The Secret of Heaven (Himlens hemlighet). Agnes von Krusenstjerna that year published the volume Helenas fösta karlek.

Bille August has recently filmed an adaptation of Lagerlof's Jerusalem- for Victor Sjöström and AB Svenska Biograteatern it became The Sons of Ingmar (Ingmarssonera,1918) starring Harriet Bosse and Tore Svennberg with the director and Karin, Daughter of Ingmar (Karin Ingmarsdotter 1920, six reels), starring Tora Teje, Harriet Bosse and Bertil Malmstedt with the director, thier having been filmed by cinematographer Julius Jaenzon and the screenplays to both film's having had been being Sjöström's; for Molander, Ingmar's Inheritance (Ingmarsarvet, 1925) with Marta Hallden and Mona Martensson and To the East (Till Osterland, 1926). Both star Lars Hanson and co-starring Molander. It had been Mauritz Stiller that had visited Selma Lagerlöf in Dalecarli to discuss the filming of adaptations to the novel. Sjöström had in fact hoped to film Liljecrona's Home rather than Jerusalem. Writing about The Sons of Ingmar, Bengt Forslund notes, "The most striking change that Sjöström introduces in his screenplay is to treat, daringly, the Kingdom of Heaven as a realistic setting...The scenery provides comic relief without seeming ridiculous. " Shooting the film mostly on location, "Sjöström developed dramatic moments that do not have the same intensity in the book" (Forslund). Forslund concludes by writing, "Otherwise, I still find The Sons of Ingmar less cinematic than The Outlaw and His Wife, less personal in its narrative technique." Of the actors in the film, he remarks, "Harriet Bosse seems a little miscast in the role of Brita, which certainly should have been played by an actress ten years younger."

While writing about the film Wild Strawberries, Jorn Donner notes that Ingmar Bergman's film is in part a tribute to Victor Sjostrom the director, "Many scenes have a tie-in with Victor Sjostrom's work. A smashed watch plays a part in Karin Ingmarsdotter."

In 1918, the first films to be directed by Sidney Franklin, who would later direct Greta Garbo in the silent film Wild Orchids, appeared in theaters, among them being Bride of Fear (five reels), The Safety Curtain (five reels) with Norma Talmadge, The Forbidden City (five reels) and Her Only Way (six reels), both films also starring Norma Talmadge. That year Fred Niblo, who would later direct Greta Garbo in the silent film The Mysterious Lady as well as Norma Talmadge in Camille (1927, nine reels), also began directing, his films having been The Marriage Ring, Fuss and Feathers (five reels), Happy Though Married (five reels) and When Do We Eat?. Director Paul Powell during 1918 teamed Rudolph Valentino and Marry Warren for the film All Night (five reels).

In 1919, Victor Sjöström wrote and directed His Lord's Will (His Grace's Will, Hans nads testamente) from the writings of Hjalmar Bergman. His Lord's Will (1940), starring Olof Sandborg, Barbro Kollberg and Alf Kjellin and scripted by Stina Bergman was directed by Per Lindberg. During 1919 the novel God's Orchid, written by Swedish playwright Hjalmar Bergman, would be published, followed in 1921 by the novel Thy Rod and Thy Staff and in 1930 by Jac the Clown.

Also in 1919, the Swedish director Ivan Hedqvist directed The Downy Girl. John W. Brunius that year directed the film The Girl of Solbakken (Synnove Solbakken), based on the novel written by Bjornstjerne Bjornson in 1857, the assistant director with Brunius having been Einar Bruun. Starring Lars Hanson and Karin Molander, it was the first film in which the actresses Ellen Dall, Ingrid Sandahl and Solveig Hedengran would each appear. The film reunited Sam Ask with John W. Bruinus, their both having co-written the script, as with Masterkatten i stovlar. Tytti Soila, in regard to the editing of the film writes, "The film's conflict of ideas is condensed in a sequence where there is cross-cutting between a religious revival meeting at Synnove's home and young people celebrating Midsummer by dancing in a meadow." That year Brunius also directed the film Oh Tommorow Night(Ah, i morron kvall), photographed by Hugo Edlund. Einar Bruun in 1919 directed the film Surrogatet, with Karin Molander for Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm. Danish Film director Robert Dinesen in 1919 filmed the first of two films in Sweden, Jefthas dottar, with Signe Kolthoff, the second having been Odets redskap with Astri Torsell and Clara Schonfeld filmed in 1922.

Griffith directed The Girl Who Stayed at Home ( 1919, six reels), photographed by Bitzer and starring Robert Harron, Carol Dempster, Richard Barthelmess and Clarine Seymour. He also directed Lillian Gish in True Heart Susie (six reels) with Robert Harron and Kate Bruce. Sidney Franklin in 1919 would again direct Norma Talmadge, her starring in the six reel film The Heart Of Wetona.

Conrad Nagel appeared in his first films, The Lion and the Mouse (Tom Terriss, five reels), Redhead and Little Women (H. Knoles, six reels), with Dorothy Bernard, Isabel Lamon and Lillian Hall. Theda Bara was to appear in A Woman There Was, directed by J. Gordon Edwards. She wrote "How I became a Vampire" for the June 1919 issue of Forum magazine and was interviewed by Olga Petrova for Shadowland Magazine in 1920 and for Motion Picture Magazine in 1922, both instances of one actor interviewing another.

The selcted poems of Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam were published in 1919. The Swedish poet had published the volume Nya Dikterin in 1915. He is the author of historical novel Karolinerna.

Sir Arne's Treasure (Herr Arne's pengar 1919, seven reels), with Mary Johnson, co-scripted by Molander, continued Sjöström's filming of the novels of Selma Lagerlöf, its director Mauritz Stiller. The film was photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Ingmar Bergman has said, "I think Stiller with his Erotikon and Herr Arne's Treasure is alot of fun. And his Atonement of Gosta Berling, too, is a fresh, powerful, vital film." There is an account of Stiller having introduced Greta Garbo to Selma Lagerlöf and an account of Lagerlöf having complimented her on her beauty and her "sorrowful eyes". Where Selma Lagerlof and Mauritz Stiller had differred was on adaptation; Stiller perhaps seeing film as more visual, or theatrical, Gösta Werner having written that "Stiller later regretted preserving the long winded intertitles copied from the novel" (Tytti Soila) while filming Sir Arne's Treasure, or it may have having had been being that Stiller, as a compliment to Lagerlöf, had begun searching for a connection to the theater that both he and Gustav Molander had studied in Helsinki and similarities within Scandanavian literature. Of the film, Robert Payne writes, "he employed every trick known to cinema: close ups, dissolves, masks, superimposed images, sudden changes of tempo- a slow dreamy pace for the visionary scenes and an unbelieveably fast pace for the scenes of fighting...The film was tinted, thus giving it a heightened sense of reality." Author on Scandinavian Film Forsyth Hardy remarked upon the editing of the film by writing, "It also had a visual harmony, absent from some of the earlier films where the transition from interior to exterior was too abrupt." Wanda Rothgardt also appears in the film.
The Song of the Scarlet Flower (Sangen om den eldroda blomman, 1919), was to star Lars Hanson and Edith Erastoff. The Song of the Scarlet Flower (1956) with Gunnel Lindblom and Anita Björk was directed by Gustaf Molander. The tinting of the first film provides a contrast between its individual scenes, moods and uses of nature as a background, its narrative following a structure of seperate chapters. Particularly interested in the interrelated components of each film being part of the film in its entirety, David Bordwell writing with Kristin Thompson, also regards the emotion of the spectator during any sequence of a film as being related to the viewing of the film in its entirety; seperate scenes that are tinted belong to the film in its entirety- the film after it has been edited. Narrative and stylistic elements in film form are often interrelated. Long before Bordwell, Raymond Spttiswoode had written, "The film director is continually analysing his material into sections, which, in a great variety of ways, can be altered to suit his purpose. At the same time he is synthesizing these sections into larger units which represent his attitude toward the world, and reveal the design he finds displayed in it. The analysis is an analysis of structure; of the filmic components which the director discerns in the natural world."

Lucy Fischer in fact remarks upon the narrative unity with Jacques Feyder's The Kiss, noting that to view the film as an entirety, the spectator must combine different events from seperate sequences, connecting the plot events centered around Garbo's character. Oddly, she later discusses the background to narrative as conveying the thematic, not in as much as man's relationship to nature can depict the emotion inherent within storyline, as often in the films of Stiller and Sjöström, but in that the mise en scene of the silent films of Greta Garbo, in its being dramatic, provides an embellishment of the narrative through its spatial composition of the image- it being Garbo that is crossing the set and sitting into the shot, it being a melodrama taking place within a world in which she can be otherworldly. Raymond Spottiswoode, writing in 1933, as well saw film as being comprised of its component parts. The sequence is seen as a series of shots that taken as part of the film as a whole add to its untiy. Spottiswoode describes there being implicational montage, where the sequences are seen in their entirety, their then containing within them content that has a relation to the film as a whole through implication, a series of shots producing its effect, creating its significance, in combination with other sequences in the film.
Greta Garbo photographer William Daniels continued his early career as second camerman under the direction of Eric von Strohiem, one film having had been being Blind Husbands (eight reels, 1919), starring Fay Holderness and Francellia Billington, another having been the film The Devil's Passkey (1920, seven reels), starring Una Tevelyan, Mae Busch and Maud George. Although one of the best films of the decade, the silent Blind Husbands, was concerned with marriage and the marital, one actress that had made several marriage dramas had been Katherine MacDonald. Of those she had appeared in were The Beauty Market (Campbell, 1919, nine reels), The Woman Thou Gavest Me, The Notorious Miss Lisle (1920) and Passion's Playground (1920). To add to any new look at marriage that was taking place as Hollywood peered through the keyhole into a modernity of what was being shown of the bedroom, DeMille in 1919 directed Why Change Your Husband (six reels), Male and Female (nine reels) with Lila Lee and For Better or Worse (seven reels), his having begun a series of films on marital relations in 1918 with Old Wives for New (six reels), each film scripted by Jeanie Macpherson. Macpherson, who had begun writing screenplays for DeMille with the 1915 film The Captive, starring Blanche Sweet, in 1920 continued with the director by scripting the film Something to Think About (seven reels), starring Gloria Swanson. Fred Niblo directed the film The Marriage Ring (five reels) in 1918. It has been offered that the films of DeMille are not only erotic comedies but reflect the becoming a commodity of matrimony and the reification of married life through the exchange values employed within suture and the syntax of shot reverse shot, the commodification of female sexuality within gendered spectatorship; within a model of the new woman a female subjectivity is constructed that is a result of consumerism. Whether or not the influence is direct, Einar Lauritzen has attributed the success of Mauritz Stiller's film Erotikon (When We Are Married, 1920), starring Lars Hanson, Tora Teje , Guken Cederborg and Karin Molander, to the films of DeMille. Added to that, in that there is a connection between the marriage dramas of De Mille and von Stroheim and the early film of Ernst Lubitsch, author Kenneth Macgowan having written that "in a wittier way" than the earlie two directors, Lubitsch had, "contributed to the delinquency of the screen", in particular with the silent film The Marriage Circle, in regard to the influence Mauritz Stiller may have had, Birgitta Steene writes, "They have often reminded foriegn critics of the comedies of Ernst Lubitsch, but actually the elegant eroticism characteristic of both Lubitsch and Bergman finds its source in the works of the Swedish motion picture director Mauritz Stiller." The film was photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. An emailed newsletter from Kino video during April of 2006 announced the release in the United States of Erotikon on DVD; the film is introduced by author Peter Cowie.

Mauritz Stiller is particularly noted for having directed Sjöström in two comedies for AB Svenska Biograteatern, Wanted A Film Actress,Thomas Graal's basta film, 1917), with Karin Molander, and Marriage ala mode (Thomas Graal's first child, Thomas Graal's basta barn, 1918). Rune Carlsten and Henrik Jaenzon both appeared on screen during Thomas Graal's Best Film. Molander continued as director and writer of Thomas Graal's Ward (Thomas Graal's mindling, 1922), photographed by Adrian Bjurman. Greta Garbo had seen the film Erotikon before her having met Stiller. Erotic comedy was later explored by the Finnish director Teuvo Tulio in his film You Want Me Like This (Sellaisena kuin sina minut balusit, 1944).

Victor Sjostrom-The Phantom CarriageWhen asked about Victor Sjöström, Ingmar Bergman had told Torsten Manns, "His films meant a tremendous lot to me, particularly The Phantom Carriage (The Phantom Chariot,Korkarlen, 1920, also listed as 1921) and Ingeborg Holm. The former, adapted from a novel by Selma Lagerlöf, directed by Victor Sjöström from his screenplay, has often been compared to the opening symbolic sequence to Bergman's Wild Strawberries. Bergman has written that while filming that it seemed to him that it soon became 'Victor's film', the film belonging more to the actor than the director, and yet, after Wild Strawberries (Simultronstallet, 1957) Bergman would begin to write films in which "dialouge and characterizations would take precedence over scenery and locations." (Cowie). In part, what may account for Bergman's feeling that the film had become more of a contribution that Sjöström had made rather than one of his own is the structure of the film's narrative, its use of a protagonist as narrative address-during an interview with Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns and Jonas Sima, Bergman had said, "Many of my films are about journeys, about people going from one place to another." Sima had noted shortly before that Wild Strawberries centers around the character portrayed by Victor Sjöström and "his relation to himself". Victor Sjöström in fact was not in the best of health during the filming of Wild Strawberries and reportedly had difficulty remembering lines of dialouge. There were scenes that had been filmed on indoor sets using backscreen projection to accomodate Sjöström.

Sjöström stars in both films. Photographed by Jaenzon, the film also stars Hilda Borgström, Mona Geifer-Falkner, Tore Svennberg. Signe Wirff and Helga Brofeldt also star in the film in what would be their first appearances on the silver screen. Einar Lauritzen wrote, "The double exposures in the graveyard scenes and in the scenes with the phantom chariot are beautifully executed, and, as always in Julius Jaenzon's photography, the interplay of light and shadow is superb." Quoted by the director of the Pordenone Film Festival, Peter Cowie has noted that during the scene, "Occasionally, as many as four images are superimposed on a single frame." The Phantom Carriage (Korkarlen) was filmed by Arne Mattsson in 1958.

Danish film director Lau Lauritzen directed five films in Sweden in 1920, En hustru till lans with Karen Winther, Flickorna i Are, with Kate Fabian, Karleck och bjornjakt with Si Holmquist, Vil de vare min kone-i morgen and Damernes ven. Although The President (Praesidenten, 1919), starring Elith Pio and Olga Raphael-Linden, is not distinguished as being remarkable, it is one of the only two that Carl Th Dreyer made in Denmark before his going abroad, his later establishing a small body of work that would be indelible upon filmmaking. His films are disparate stylisticly, differing in their use of technique; Dreyer has been quoted as having remarked upon his having tried to find a style.

The films of Clara Kimball Young were the springboard for scriptwriter Lenore Coffee, whose first films as a screenwriter, The Better Wife (William Earle, 1919,five reels) and The Forbidden Woman (1920) had starred the actress.

Finnish silent film director Erkki Karu directed two films for Suomen Biografi in 1920, both photographed by Finnish cinematographer Frans Ekebom, War Profiteer Kaikus Disrupted Summer Vacation (Sotagubishi Kaiun Hairitty Kesaloma) and Student Pollovaara's Betrothal (Ylioppilas Pollovaaran kihlaus).
One of the most beautiful silent films ever made by Mary Pickford, Pollyanna (Paul Powell, six reels) was filmed in 1920. The film also stars William Courtleigh. Pickford also that year made the film Suds (five reels) under the direction of John Francis Dillon. The film also stars William Austin. Mary Pickford was portrayed by Swedish actress Agneta Ekmanner in the 1974 teleplay Bakom masker, directed by Lars Amble and based on the play by Hjalmer Bergman. In a film that would almost seem a yardstick for many of the films that would comprise the rest of the silent film era, Douglas Fairbanks starred under the direction of Fred Niblo in the film The Mark of Zorro.

 
Covergirl for Photoplay Magazine, Norma Talmadge was also that year directed by Roy W. Neill in the film A Woman Gives (six reels). A Daughter of Two World (James Young, six reels) and She Loves and Lies were also to star Norma Talmadge that year. Norma Shearer appeared in films in the year 1920, among them being The Sign On the Door ( Herbert Brenon, seven reels), The Flapper (Alan Crosland, five reels), The Restless Sex (six reels) written by Frances Marion and The Stealers (seven reels, William Christy Cabanne).

That year D. W. Griffith directed Lillian Gish in The Greatest Question (six reels), photographed by G. W. Bitzer. Griffith also directed the films The Idol Dancer (1920, seven reels), with Richard Barthelmess, Clarine Seymour and Kate Bruce and The Love Flower (1920, seven reels), with silent film actress Carol Dempster. The following year Dempster again starred under the direction of D. W. Griffith in the silent film Dream Street. In 1920 Dorothy Gish not only starred in the film Little Miss Rebellion (five reels), directed by George Fawcett, but also had begun filming with the director F. Richard Jones, under whose direction she starred in Flying Pat (1920, five reels), with Kate Bruce, The Ghost in the Garret (1921) and The County Flapper (1922) with Glenn Hunter and Mildred Marsh. Lillian Gish writes about Garbo's later asking her to introduce her to Griffith, which she did, and of Garbo's asking her how she should dress. Garbo had said to her, "It would be nice to have dinner at your house."

Victor Sjöström wrote and directed The Monastery of Sendomir (The Secret of the Monastery, Kloster i Sendomir, 1920) with Tora Teje, Richard Lund and Tore Svennberg. Photgraphed by Henrik Jaenzon, the film was adapted by Sjöström from a novel by Franz Grillparzev. A screening of the film was offerred by the Norwegian Film Institute on July 17,2005 in the Cinemateket. During 1920 Sjöström also directed Master Samuel (A Dangerous Pledge,Masterman), in which he starred with Greta Almroth and Concordia Selander. Photographed by Julius Jaenzon, it was scripted by Hjalmar Bergman, as was the 1921 film Fru Mariannes friare, directed by Gunnar Klintberg and starring Astri Torsell, Inga Ellis and Aslaug Lie-Eide, the cinematographer to the film having been Robert Olsson. Gunnar Klintberg would continue by directing Astri Torsell in two other Swedish Silent films, The Love Child, with Julia Hakansson, and Lord Saviles brott. The Fishing Villiage (Chains, Fiskebyn) was filmed in 1920 by Stiller and Henrik Jaenzon, it starring Lars Hanson. Appearing in the film was Hildur Carlburg, who that year also appearred in the film The Witch Woman (Prastankan), shot in Sweden by Danish film director Carl Dreyer. Sölve Cederstrand directed his first film, Ett odesdigert inkognito, starring Tage Alquist and Signe Selid, in 1920. The Swedish director John W. Brunius was to direct The Wild Bird (En vindfagel, 1921), in which he starred with Pauline Brunius, Tore Svennberg, Mona Geifer-Falkner and Edvin Adolphson, The Mill (Kvarnen, 1921), starring Helene Olsson and Ellen Dall and photographed by Hugo Edlund, A Fortune Hunter (En Lyckoriddarre, 1921 six reels) starring Gösta Ekman, Mary Johnson, Hilda Forsslund and Greta Garbo, her appearing with her sister Alva Gustafsson in a scene that takes place in a tavern. In 1922 he directed Iron Wills (Harda viljor). Directed for Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm in 1920, the first three films by Pauline Brunius, De lackra skaldjuren, Ombytta roller and Trollslanden, were also the first three films in which the actress Frida Winnerstrand was to appear.

Rune Carlsten in 1920 wrote and directed A Modern Robinson (Robinson i skargarden) with Mary Johnson. He that year also directed Mary Johnson, with Tora Teje, in the film Family Traditions (Familjens traditioner), which he scripted as well. The film was produced by Svensk Filmindustri

Danish silent film director A. W. Sandberg in 1920 wrote and directed two films for the Nordisk Films Kompagni in which the actress Clara Wieth starred, House of Fatal Love (Kaerlighedsvalen) and A Romance of Riches (Stodderprinsessen), in which she starred with Gunnar Tolnaes. Sandberg also that year directed the film Adrift (Det dode Skib), with Valedmar Psilander, Stella Lind and Else Frolich.

Ivan Hedqvist in 1921 directed the film Pilgrimage to Kevlar (Vallfarten till Kevlaar) starring Jessie Wessel, which he followed in 1924 with Life in the Country (Livet pa landet), photographed by Julius Jaenzon.

In 1921, Pauline Brunius wrote and directed the film Lev livet leende and directed the film Ryggskott. Let No Man Put Asunder (Hogre andamal, 1921) starred Edith Erastoff, her director having been Rune Carlsten. Klaus Albrecht that year directed Lili Ziedner in the film The Bimbini Circus (Cirkus Bimbini).  Tyra Ryman was introduced to her later costar Greta Garbo in 1922 at PUB by Eric Petschler, who directed both in Luffar-Peter. Writing about another film directed that year by Mauritz Stiller, Tom Milne sees the film Johan as having contributed to the technique and to the look of the film The Bride of Gromdal directed by Carl Th. Dreyer.

Carl Th. Dreyer in 1921 directed the silent film Leaves from Satan's Book (Blade af Satans Bog).

In the United States during 1921, Mary Pickford continued acting with the silent filmLittle Lord Fauntleroy.

In 1922, Victor Sjöström wrote and directed the films Love's Crucible (Vem domer), with Gosta Ekman and Jenny Hasselqvist and Ivan Hedqvist, The Hellship, from a screenplay written by Hjalmar Bergman and starring Matheson Long and Jenny Hasselqvist and Julia Cederblad in the first film in which she was to appear, both films having had been being filmed by Julius Jaenzon. That year Sjöström also directed The Surrounded House (Det omringade huset), starring Wanda Rothgardt and Hilda Forsslund. The Swedish director Gustaf Edgren contributed The Young Lady of Bjorneborg (Froken pa Bjorneborg, 1922), photographed by Adrian Bjurman and starring Rosa Tilman, Elsa Wallin and the actress Edit Ernholm in her first film. Sigurd Wallen that year directed his first film Andessonskans Kalle with Stina Berg and Anna Diedrich, his following it with Andessonskans Kalle pa nya upptag with Edvin Adolphson, the debut film of Mona Martenson. John W. Brunius that year directed A Scarlet Angel (Eyes of Love, Karlekens ogon), photographed by Hugo Edlund. That year Ragnar Ring wrote and directed En Vikingafilm, with Harald Wehlnor and Sigrid Ahlstrom.

Karin Boye, the Swedish poet began publishing in 1922 with the volume Clouds. She continued in 1924 with Hidden Lands and in 1927 with The Hearths. Swedish poet Birger Sjoberg in 1922 published Frida's Songs.

Writing about the 1922 Finnish Silent Film, Tytta Soila notes, "Perhaps one might say that the fortune of Suomi-Filmi, and thus the future of Finnish cinema, was established by portraying the lives of two strong female characters: Anna-Liisa and Hannah. Subsequently, many Finnish films were to have a strong female character at the center of the action."
In 1922 Rudolf Valentino was in an early role, starring with Gloria Swanson in the film Beyond the Rocks (Sam Wood); the only existant copy of the film was found recently and the film, readying for distribution in United States during 2005, had its premiere in Amsterdam at the Filmuseum's Biennale festival. In her autobiography Swanson on Swanson, the actress gives an account of making of the film. "Everyone wanted Beyond the Rocks to be every luscious thing Hollywood could serve up in a single picture: the sultry glamour of Gloria Swanson, the steamy Latin magic of Rudolph Valentino, a rapturous love story byb Elinor Glyn, and the tango as it was meant to be danced, by the master himself. In the story I played a poor but aristocratic English girl who is married off to an elderly millionaire, only to meet the lover of her life on her honeymoon." After describing the fun she had off the set with Valentino, with whom she often had dinner, she concludes, "Several months later he married Natacha Rambova, and from then on he and I saw each other seldom." Valentino had in 1921 starred in the silent film Camille (Ray C. Smallwood, six reels) with Patsy Ruth Miller and Consuelo Flowerton.
It is only with sincere appreciation for for the Silent Film series aired on Turner Classic Movies on Sunday Nights that the best of luck should be wished to Robert Osborne and Charles Tabesh at their appearing at the screening of silent films- Robert Osborne was present at the San Francisco Silent Film Festival for the July 14, 2007 showing of Camille. The film was included in the Greta Garbo Signature released in 2005 near to the 100th birthday of the actress Greta Garbo along with a section entitled TCM archive: Greta Garbo Silents.
D.W. Griffith in 1922 directed Carol Dempster in One Exciting Night (eleven reels). By then a producer for United Artists, Griffith followed in 1923 by directing Carol Dempster in the film The White Rose with Mae Marsh (twelve reels). Sidney Franklin in 1922 directed the film The Primitive Lover, starring Constance Talmadge. Lon Chaney in 1922 starred in the film Flesh and Blood (five reels). Norma Shearer first appeared in a starring role in 1922 in the film The Man Who Paid (five reels), directed by Oscar Apfel. Rudolf Valentino in 1922 would appear with Wanda Hawley in the film The Young Rajah (Phil Rosen), the screenplay to the film written by June Mathis, who adapted the script from a novel by ames Ames Mitchell. Valentino would also that year appear with Dorothy Dalton in Moran of the Lady Letty (George Melford).


Filmed in Sweden by Danish silent film director Benjamin Christensen, 1922 saw the release of the long awaited film Haxan (Witchcraft Through the Ages). The film, recently included in the films of Janus Films and in the silent film from Criterion, in the United States, was photographed by Johan Ankerstjerne and written by Christensen, who appears in the film with Ella la Cour, Emmy Schonfeld, Kate Fabian, Elisabeth Christensen, Astrid Holm and Elith Pio. Notably Alice O Fredricks and Tora Teje also appear in the film. In a film that to Sweden was to be its Intolerance, Christensen numerously uses the iris in to punctuate the end of a particular scene and the iris out in the subsequent shot to begin the adjacent scene; he goes so far as to use both during the same shot. Raymond Sptossiwoode remarked upon the fade in and fade out, along with the dissolve and wipe, as being something that was to "produce a softening effect, an indeterminate space between successive shots", his delegating it to being "the mark of the termination of an incident or of a defined period of time". German director Paul Wegener, two years earlier than Christensen's film, released a remake of his film The Golem (Der Golem), which he had first filmed in 1915.
Gunnar Hede's Saga (1922, seven reels), directed by Mauritz Stiller, and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, starring Pauline Brunius and Julia Cederblad, is based the novel En Herrgardsaggen by Selma Lagerlöf. Forsyth Hardy on Gunnar Hede's Saga writes, "Again there was a distinctive combination of a powerfully dramatic story and a magnificient setting in the northern landscape. It was the first film in which actress Lotten Olsson was to appear.

The King of Boda (Tyranny of Hate, Bodakungen, 1920) was the first film to bear the name of Gustaf Molander as director. It was also the first film to be photographed by cinematographer Adrian Bjurman. The film stars Egil Eide and Wanda Rothgardt. Continuing the filming of the novels of Lagerlöf, he directed Birgit Sergelius and Pauline Brunius in Charlotte Lowenskold (1930). Charlotte Lowenskold is the second in a trilogy of short stories written by Selma Lagerlöf, each of them having the Scandinavian landscape of Varmland as their background. The beginning volume, Lowenskolska Ringen was published in 1925, the third volume, Anna Svard having appeared in 1928. During 1930 Gustaf Molander also directed Frida's Songs (Frida's visor), both films having had been being filmed by Julius Jaenzon. Victor Sjostrom had starred with Wanda Rothgart and Gunn Wallgren in the first filming of The Word (Ordet, 1943) under the direction of Molander, the actor Rune Lindstrom having written the screenplay. Victor Sjostrom also acted under Molander's direction in the films The Fight Goes On (Striden gar Vidare, 1941),in which Sjostrom appeared with Renee Bjorling and Ann-Margret Bjorlin, it having had been being the debut of the actress in film, Det Brinner en Eld (1943), in which Sjöström appeared with Lars Hanson and Inga Tiblad and Kvartetten som Sprangdes (1950). If as though to either to complement or to counter the use of mise en scene and Victor Sjöström's use of landscape in early Swedish cinema, Molander is a director of the interior scene. Tytti Soila writes, "Particularly in the melodramas, Molander used the composition of the image with the purpose of showing something essential about the existential situation of the characters. The pictures are 'tight' and on the verge of being claustrophobic, as props and other details of the set fill the frame, competing for room with the characters."

Gustaf Molander's second film Amatorfilmen (1922), starring Mimi Pollack, was the first film in which the actress Elsa Ebbensen-Thornblad was to appear.

Brunius in 1923 directed the film The Best of All, following it with Maid Among Maids (En piga bland pigor, 1924), photographed by Hugo Edlund, and starring Edvin Adolphson and Margit Manstad. Gustaf Edgren in 1923 wrote and directed the film People of Narke (Narkingarna) photographed by Adrian Bjurman and starring Anna Carlsten, Gerda Bjorne and Maja Jerlström in her first appearence on screen, the director following it in 1924 with The King of Trollebo (Trollebokungen), an adaptation of the 1917 novel scripted by Sölve Cederstrand and photographed by C.A. Söström, the film having starred Ivar Kalling, Weyeler Hildebrand and Signe Ekloff.

Per Lindberg directed his first film in 1923, Norrtullsligan written by Hjalmar Bergman and starring Tora Teje, Egil Eide, Stina Berg, Linnea Hillberg and Nils Asther, as did William Larsson, who directed Jenny Tschernichin, Jessie Wessel and Frida Sporrong in the film Halsingar and Karin Swanström, who directed and starred with Karin Gardtman and Ann Mari Kjellgren in the film Boman at the Exhibition (Boman pa utstallningen) for Scandias Filmbyra and Svensk Filmindustri. Halsingar was also to be the first of many films photgraphed by Swedish cinematographer Henning Ohlson. Per Lindgren that year directed a second film scripted by Hjalmar Bergman, Anna Klara and her Brothers (Anna Clara och hennes broder), it starring Anna-Britt Ohlsson, Hilda Borgström, Karin Swanström, Linnea Hillberg, Hilda Borgström and Margit Manstad in what would be her first appearance on the siler screen. The film was photographed by Ragnar Westfelt. Bror Abelli in 1923 directed his first two films, including the film Janne Modig.

Ragnar Widestedt in 1923 directed Agda Helin and Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson in the film Housemaids (Hemslavinnor), written by Ragnar-Hylten-Cavallius. Froken Fob (1923) was directed by Elis Ellis and photographed by Adrian Bjurman. Sven Bardach photographed his first film in 1923, Andersson, Petterson och Lundstrom, under the direction of Carl Barklind. The film stars Vera Schmiterlow and Mimi Pollock, both of whom were aquaintances of Greta Garbo, Inga Tiblad, Gucken Cederborg and Edvin Adolphson. Fredrik Anderson in 1923 directed En rackarunge, with Elsa Wallin and Mia Grunder. Gustaf V, King of Sweden is listed as being in the film. The film was photographed by Swedish cinematographer Sven Bardach.

Although Victor Sjöström had embarked for the United States to film in Hollywood under the name Victor Seatrom, Danish silent film directors Benjamin Christensen and Carl Th. Dreyer, who both had begun as scriptwriters for Nordisk in 1912, would by 1923 have travelled to Germany, as Urban Gad, Asta Nielsen and Stellan Rye had earlier. Christensen would star in Dreyer's 1924 film Mikail (Chained) in addition to directing the film Seine Frau, die Unbekannte (1924) while there. Carl Th. Dreyer would direct the films Love One Another (Die Gezeichneten, 1921) and Once Upon a Time (Der Var engang, 1924).

Danish actress Olga d'Org starred in three films for Nordisk Films Kompagni, all of which were directed by A.W. Sandberg, including the 1923 film The Hill Park Mystery (Nedbrudte nerver).

Finnish film director Karl Fager in 1923 brought the film The Old Baron of Rautakyla (Rautakylan Vanha Parooni) to the screen.

John Lindlof in 1924 directed Man of Adventure (Odets man) with Inga Tiblad and Uno Henning and photographed by Gustav A Gustafson. Sigurd Wallen that year directed Inga Tiblad with Einar Froberg in Grevarna pa Svanta, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. Theodor Berthels in 1924, wrote and directed the film People of the Simlanga Valley (Folket i Simlangsdalen) with Mathias Taube and Greta Almroth and directed the film The Girl from Paradise (Flickan fran Paradiset). Both films were photographed by Swedish cinematographer Adrian Bjurman. Ragnar Ring that year directed Bjorn Mork and Nar millionera rulla. Ivar Kage in 1924 directed Gosta Hillberg and Edvin Adolphson in the film Where the Lighthouse Flashed (Dar fryen blinkar) for Svensk Ornfilm. Rune Carlsten in 1924 wrote and directed The Young Nobleman (Unga greven tar flickan och priset). Hellwig Rimmen that year directed and photgraphed the film Hogsta vinsten.



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Silent Greta Garbo:Victor Sjostrom as Victor Seastrom

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Victor Sjostrom  Silent Garbo








Swedish Silent Film: Victor Sjostrom, Greta Garbo



Filmic address could more often be comprised of objects put into the scene, placing the view of the spectator within it, not only to bring a greater involvement with character, but to allow the spectator to identify more often with the relation between character and enviornment, technique providing the relation between film and viewer. Specific to the relationship between character and enviornment is the relation between the character and the object towards which he or she is looking. The aesthetics of pictorial composition could utilize placing the figure in either the foreground or background of the shot, depth of plane,depth of framing, narrative and pictorial continuity being developed together. Compositions would become related to each other in the editing of successive images and adjacent shots, the structure of the scene; Griffith had already begun to cut mid-scene, his cutting to another scene before the action of the previous scene was completed, and had certainly already begun to cut between two seperate spatial locations within the scene.


Author Kenneth Macgowan praises the silent film The Avenging Conscience as a photoplay, his view being that Giriffith's film uses a narrative method of storystructure, action being secondary to character development, if not often interpolated in between scenes, his noting that it was seldom that Griffith used intertitles with lines of dialougue during a scene. Among the narrative films of Griffith filmed in 1909 was the silent film The Sealed Room.

The camera could also portray the character more fully by adding the movement of the camera to character movement, as in The Golden Louis (1909), mobilizing the gaze of the character within the organization of the look. In For Love of Gold, one of the fourty four biograph films made in 1908, D.W. Griffith and Bitzer had shifted the placement of the camera during the scene, the close up used in conjuction with the long shot and full shot. Not only could the editing together of different spatial relationships with each shot provide contrast between shots that were in a series, but the duration of each shot could be varying as well. With the use of varying camera postitions, particularly during the 1908 film After Many Years, Griffith would establish the use of the narrative close up, and by the interpolating of an individual shot between shots similar in composition as a cut in shot, editing would be used to connect seperate shots to advance plotline. With Griffith, film would create a proscenium arc of its own, that of the lens, a lens that would with the Vitagraph nine foot line bring the frame into the grammar of film, shifting from a viewpoint of playing in front of the audience to one more aligned with it, the authorial camera entering into a new relationship with the spectator- included in the films made by D. W Griffith in 1908 is a stage to screen adaptation of The Taming of the Shrew, with Florence Lawrence.

Among the literary adaptations filmed by Vitagraph in 1909 was Launcelot and Elaine.

In her autobiography, Lillian Gish discusses Griffith's use of shot legnth in The Lonely Villa (1909) and his cutting between camera distances in The Lonedale Operator (1911). Not incidentally, Eisenstien in a discussion of Griffith's editing goes so far as to describe "the principle function of the close shot" which is "not so much to present, as to signify, to designate, to give meaning." Belazs adds, "Only in editing is the shot given its particular meaning." Cavell writes, "If either the frame or subject budges, the composition alters." If filmic address during a cinema of attractions had begun with the act of display, it had begun to incorporate the actor as seen in close shot, which could be edited into a grammar of film - the shot had become "the unit of editing" and the "basis for the construction of the scene" (Jacobs), whereas before it had been the scene that would allow the placement of shots, it now being that there could be an assemblage of shots. Terry Ramsaye writes," Griffith began to work at a syntax for the screen narration...While Griffith may not have originated the closeup and like elements of technique, he did establish for them their function."; which silent film author Nicholas A. Vardac reiterates by writing that it was from the films of Edwin S. Porter that D.W. Griffith acquired the technique of viewing the shot within its context as "a syntax for the melodrama".

Belazs mentions that the mood of a scene can be established by the particular set ups that are used, his almost attributing the ability to participate in the action to the surroundings and background in which the film takes place, as does Spottiswoode, who mentions that by filming from any number of postitions and angles, the director can decide which elements of the scene can be included in creating its mood, particularly which components of the director's subject. Bengt Forslund notes that the use of nature to provide the action of the scene with something that would render it more dramatic Gardner, particularly diring "the lyrical love sequences between Lili Beck and Gösta Ekman, his having written, "There is also an intentionally stereoscopic effect in the sets that is typical of all of Sjöström's films, and that shows the amount of intuition Sjöström had for the new medium."

Nevertheless in his best dramas of pastoral life, Sjöström to integrate the rugged Swedish landscape into the texture of his films with an almost mystical force- a feature noted and much admired in other countries." Sjöström and Stiller can be compared while relating their influence upon the silent film of Finland, but it can be allowed that "Victor Sjöström delved deeper into the mysteries of the landscape." (Annitti Alanen) Of interest is that the establishing shot that begins the Greta Garbo film Love, directed in the Untied States by Edmund Goulding is an exterior that begins the plotline with Garbo in a snowstorm being brought homeward in a sleigh; it is a series of exterior shots that depict nature as the background for character delineation very much like in the films of Scandinavian director Victor Sjöström, so much so that it is revealed in the first interior shots that both the love interest in the film, portrayed by John Gilbert, and the audience, were nearly unaware of who the character portayed by Garbo really was and hadn't fully realized it untill being given later look at the beauty of the passenger, as though they were being reintroduced to someone they had been with during the journey through the snow.

And yet, if the present author has anything to add to what has been written in appreciation of Scandinavian film and its use of landscape to add depth to the development of character by creating relationships between the background and the protagonist of any given film's plotline, within that is that within classical cinema and its chronological ordering of events, it is still often spatio-temporal relationships that are developed. The viewer often acknowledging the effect that an object within the film might have upon the character, an object that is either stationary or in movement, poeticly in movement as a waterfall would be, the structuring of space within the film not only clarifies plot action, but, within the framed image, included in the spatial continuity within the visual structure of the film, establishes a relation of objects that appear onscreen to the space that is offscreen. Spatial relations became narrative. Character movement, camera movement and shot structure create a scenographic space which within the gaze of the actress is observed through an ideal of femininity, a unity of space constructed that links shots, often by forming spaces that are contiguous within the scene and creating images that are poeticly presented as being contiguous; subjectivity is structured within the discourse of the film and these subjectivities are presented to the viewer as being within a larger context within early Silent Scandinavian films.

In addition to using close ups that could isolate the actor from what particular background that happenned to surround him or her, D. W. Griffith would establish the relationship between character and enviornment as well, particularly developing it through the use of editing and varying spatial relationships, as in his use of exteriors and the long shot in the silent film Battle at Elderbrush (1912).

In Kristianstad, Sweden the director Carl Engdahl pioneered with the film The People of Varmland (Varmanningarna) in 1909. Robert Olsson photographed The Wedding at Ulfasa for two directors, the second having had been being Gustaf Linden. The film starred the Swedish silent film actresses Ellen Appelberg, Lilly Wasmuth and Anna Lisa Hellstrom. In 1910, Olsson wrote, directed and photographed the film Emigranten, starring Oscar Soderholm and Valborg Ljungberg, and photographed the films Emigrant starring Torre Cederborg and Gucken Cederborg in her first appearance on screen, and Regina von Emmeritz och Kongung Gustaf II Adolf, starring Emile Stiebel and Gerda Andre, both directed by Gustaf Linden. Twelve years later, Gucken Cederborg was introduced to another actress who would soon be introduced to Swedish audiences, Barry Paris having written that when when she and actress Tyra Ryman walked into Pub with actor-director Eric Petschler, Greta Garbo, who worked there as a clerk, recognized them immediately.

Film historians have noted that Kristianstad, Sweden was home to another film, The Man Who Takes Care of the Villian (Han som clara boven), filmed in 1907. Produced by Franz G. Wiberg, the film has never been released theatrically.

Svensk Kinematograf was the production company that under N. E. Sterner had filmed six of the earliest films photographed in Scandinavia- Robert Olsson had photographed Pictures of Laplanders (Lappbilder), Herring Fishing in Bohuslan (Sillfiske i Bohuslan), Lika mot lika starring Tollie Zellman and Kung Oscars mottagning i Kristianstad in 1906 before working with Carl Engdahl. Also shown in Stockholm and Goteborg during 1906 was the film Kriget i Ostergotland. In 1911, Gustaf Linden, directed the film The Iron Carrier (Jarnbararen), photographed by Robert Olsson and starring Anna-lisa Hellstrom and Ivan Hedqvist. Similar to the early cinematography of Robert Olsson were the films shot by Ernest Florman, who wrote and directed the film Skona Helena (1903), which had starred Swedish actress Anna Norrie.

Another of Sweden's earliest photographers was Walfrid Bergström, who was behind the camera between 1907-1911 in Stockholm for Apollo productions. In 1907 Bergström filmed Den glada ankan, one of the three films produced by Albin Roosval starring Carl Barklind and Emma Meissner and Konung Oscar II's likbegangelse. Between 1907 and 1911, Bergstrrom would photographed Skilda tiders danser with Emma Meissner and Rosa Grunberg in 1909 and Ryska sallskapsdanser in 1911. During 1908, Svenska Biografteatern produced two short films with the actress Inga Berentz, Sjomansdansen, photographed by Walfrid Bergstrom, and I kladloge och pascen, photographed by Otto Bokman.

Charles Magnusson, who came to the United States, directed and wrote The Pirate and Memories from the Boston Sports Club in 1909 and Orpheus in the Underworld (Urfeus i underjorden) in 1910. Magnusson in 1909 had become the managing director of Svenska Biografteatern, which Julius Jaenzon become part of in 1910. Notably, while under N. E. Sterner of Svensk Kinematograf, Charles Magnusson had photographed Konung Haakons mottagning i Kristiania (1905), a short film of the King of Norway's visit to Kristiania almost as though to presage that it would be there, rather than Rasunda that he would begin the Swedish Film industry, his also having directed the films Gosta Berlings land(Bilder fran Frysdalen, 1907), Gota elf-katastrofen (1908) and Resa Stockholm-Goteborg genom Gota och Trollhatte kanaler (1908). Konstantin Axelsson, in 1911, directed Hon fick platsen eller Exkong Manuel i Stockholm. Starring Ellen Landquist, the film was produced in Stockholm by Apollo and was photographed by Walfrid Bergstrom.

Like Charles Magnusson, Frans Lundberg produced short silent films in Sweden, the first two filmed in 1910. Stora Biografteatern, in Malmo, Sweden, photographed To Save a Son (Massosens offer), directed by Alfred Lind and starring Agnes Nyrup-Christensen, and The People of Varmland (Varmlandingarna), directed by Ebba Lindkvist, photographed by Ernst Dittmer and starring Agda Malmberg, Astrid Nilsson and Ester Selander. The following year Ernesr Dittmer would write and direct the film Rannsakningsdomaren, starring Gerda Malmberg and Ebba Bergman.

In Malmo Sweden, for Stora Biografteatern, Otto Hoy during 1911 wrote and directed the film The Spy (Spionen), starring Paul Welander and Agnes Nyrop-Christensen, the manager of Stora Biografteatern, Frans Lundberg. Paul Welander wrote and directed his first film in 1911, Champagneruset.

Carl Engdahl later appeared in the 1926 film Mordbrannerskan, directed by John Lindlof.

Forsyth Hardy notes that the early Swedish films of 1911 were films in which "the camera remained static and the action was artificially concentrated into a small area in front of it." Not quite apart from this and very much like the silent film included in Vardac's account of the use of the proscenium arch in early cinema in Stage to Screen,the films directed by Anna Hofman Uddgren in 1911 were transpositions of Miss Julie and The Father (Fadren) ,the intimate theater of Swedish playwright August Strindberg. Cameraman Otto Bokman used two exterior shots during The Father, the film having starred Karin Alexandersson and Renee Bjorling. Miss Julie, a film that had had its Stockholm premiere at the Orientaliska Teatern, starred Karin Alexandersson and Manda Bjorling. Both plays were later to be filmed by Alf Sjöberg. Stiller had, in fact, been the manager of the Lilla Teaten and a contemporary of August Falk and Manda Bjorling had acted with him and Anna Flygare at the Intima Theatern. Uddgren also in 1911 directed Single a Dream (Blott in drom), starring Edith Wallen Sisters (Systarna), starring Edith Wallen and Sigurd Wallen and Stockholmsdamernas alskling, starring Carl Barcklind, Erika Tornberg and Anna-Lisa Hellström. Balif vid Molle (1911) was photographed by John Bergqvist. Also in Stockholm, the Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern, later managed by both Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson, was headed by Gustaf Fredriksson between 1904-1907 and then by Knut Michaelson between 1908-1910. Swedish Film Institue founder Charles Magnusson in 1911 directed The Talisman (Amuletten), starring Lili Bech. Victor Sjöström had had his own theater with Einar Froberg before his directing under Magnusson, it having been Froberg that had spoken to Magnusson before he and Sjöström had met. Swedish film director Gustav Molander had in fact been at the Intima Teatern from 1911 to 1913. The Blue Tower, where August Strindberg lived in Stockholm between 1908-1912 and where he wrote the play The Great Highway, is now part of The Strindberg Museum.

Thanhouser was also producing adaptations of literature for the screen and in 1911 filmed three plays by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen: Pillars of Society (Samfundets stotter), Lady from the Sea (Fruen fra havet, Theodore Marston) and A Doll's House (Et dukkehjem). Lubin that year filmed a version of Ibsen's Sins of the Father (Gengangere).





Although a theory of a cinema of attractions depends less upon the use of the proscenium arch written about by Nicholas A. Vardac or the camera's photographic reproduction of drama that had previously been enacted upon the stage and more upon the act of display having preceded the use of cinematic and editorial devices to propel narrative, the grammar of film would be used both to transpose the theatricality of the stage play and to adapt novels to the screen in ways which they could not be performed in front of a theater audience not only in regard to the modes of address which would position the spectator but also in regard to the public sphere of reception. Within the reception of each film there soon was a heterogeneity of filmgoers and that films were visual soon transversed language barriers between audiences that would otherwise have been seperate. Characteristic of early films that were adaptions of novels was the use of a linear narrative similar to that of the "well made novel" novel of the nineteenth century, the camera following the character into each subsequent scene. There soon would be films in which there would be a contemporaneity of narrative and attraction. Raymond Spottiswoode distinguishes between the photoplay, the adaptation of the stage play to the screen with little or no editing, and the screenplay, where camera movement and technique is used to convey narrative- the photoplay can be likened to a cinema of attractions where the scene is filmed from a fixed camera position, whereas the screenplay includes the cut from a medium shot to a close shot in order to build the scene.

In regard to the camera being authorial, Raymond Spottiswoode writes, "The spatial closeup is the usual means of revealing significant detail and motion. Small movements which must necessarily have escaped the audiences of a play sitting removed some distance from its actors can thus be selected from their surroundings and magnified to any extent." While writing that how the camera is authorial includes its having only one position, that of the viewer, which, differing from that of the theater audience can vary with each shot change, depending upon the action within the scene, Spottiswoode cautions that the well written stage play is not suited for the camera's mobility. He also indirectly addresses the use of nature as a way to connect characters to their enviornment while they are being developed that is quite often significant in Scandinavian films when writing about the possibility there being a "difference film", by that his referring to a film which uses relational cutting. "To constitute such a 'difference film' is not sufficiently merely to photograph mountains and streams which are inaccessible to theater producers; the film must also choose a method of carrying on its purposive themes or meaning from moment to moment." He continues, "the public can be trained to appreciate that the differences between nature seen and nature filmed constitute the chief value of the cinema."

In the United States, with Edison (The Road of Anthracite, Race for Millions and The Society Raffles) and Vitagraph (Raffles, the Amatuer Cracksman, The Burgler on the Roof), the attraction had literally become filmed theater, scenes based on those of the stage solely for dramatic value, photographed in one reel as though in one act, from which came the knee shot, or medium full shot; the use of the proscenium arch is more pronounced before the Vitagraph nine foot line, the camera distance of the knee shot, in that there would be space left as visible in between the actor's feet and the bottom frameline, space articulated in tableau that would be more like that of when the spectator is in the audience at a theater. The legnth of one reel would be between eight hundred and one thousand feet. At first the films of Melies were shot in a single scene, as though filmed theater; in order to film narrative he then put seperate shots in order to become connected scenes, or "artificially arranged scenes". It would later become "a constant shifting of scenes" (Lewis Jacobs). Although the article discusses the lack of narrative closure and unicity of frame in early cinema, the subject of a recent e-mailed book review was the writing of one author that has offered the idea that there is less of a demarcation between early cinema and the films that provide transition to the two-reel film -writing about the editing of Melies, Ezra gives an account of his films being comprised of combinations of photographic reproduction, spectacle and narrative. Quite certainly, the images of film are moving images and can advance the narrative and more of the film that was to come later would be dramatic narrative. The cinema of Melies has been likened to a cinema of attractions in its repetitive use of suprise and sudden appearance; the temporality of attraction one of appearance-nonappearance rather than that of development.

One particular silent film, Sherlock Holmes Baffled (1900), considerably under one minute in legnth, had starred William Gillete, ushering in the new century with the first screen appearance of the consulting detective. On vieweing the single shot film, the audience is as baffled as Holmes by the abrupt vanishings of a burgler that disappears and reappears throughout the room through the use of stop-motion trick photography, the film a superb example of early cinema and possibly any narrative of attractions (action within the frame) there may have been.

The Great Train Robbery, produced by Edwin S. Porter, was made by the Edison Manufacturing Co. and is included in the 275 silent films of the Paper Print Collection. Also included in the collection is the early silent film The Little Train Robbery filmed by the Edison Manufacturing Co. in 1905. The Library of Congress also holds a collection of early animation, in which two films produced by silent film pioneer Thomas A. Edison are included, as well as Dinosaur and the missing link, produced by Edison and written by Willis O'Brien in 1917. Charles Musser writes that more than four fifths of the films made by Edison between 1904 and 1907 were narrative or stage fiction; among these was the 1906 film Kathleen Mavourneen. The Edison company released its last film as a studio, The Unbeliever (Alan Crosland, six reels) in 1918. Not Incidentally, the term 'one sheet' used to describe the standard size of movie posters begin with the Edison photoplay; it was a size of approximately 27 inches by 41 inches and often included a synopsis of the plotline of the film. The early silent films of Thomas Edison are also presently available from Kino.

William Rothman writes that only one sixth of the film before 1907 had storyline. While Kenneth MacGowan also mentions filmmakers that had used trick photography other than Melies, among them G. A Smith of England, he adds that not untill Cecil Hepworth, with the silent film Alice in Wonderland, (1903) were there films that included seperate scenes to articulate fantasy or narrative. A later screen version of the silent film Alice and Wonderland was filmed by W. W. Young in 1915. Edison had filmed a version of Jack and the Beanstalk as early as 1902. Silent film director Cecil Hepworth would shortly thereafter bring the element of editing narrative into his films with Rescued by Rover. (1905)

Heath sees early cinema as space articulated in tableau, filmed frontally, storyline achieved by the linking of scenes, as when they are linked by characters and their having entered the frame, to the viewer, spectacle being horizontal, scenographic space. Mary Ann Doanne equates the cinema of attractions with "an early form of cinema organized around single events" looking to the one-shot films as their often being "the spectacular deployment of the female body", as in the Biograph film, Pull Down the Curtains, Suzie (1904). Within a study of trade press and preformance style, "intertextuality and contextuality", which in this instance include a volume on stage acting written by actress Mae Marsh, Roberta Pearson looks at Biograph and demarcates a shift from codes within cinematic acting style that had occurred while narrative films was replacing the cinema of attractions. Pearson sees a "desirability of versimiltude" clamored for by movie reviews between 1908-1913 to replace acting that may have been "false, theatrical, and stagy, or, other words, histrionic." Whether or not action can be  histrioniclly coded or have versimilar code automaticlly, or incontrovertibly, brings the spatial relationships of the figure on screen into play, and as the expression of narrative, the camera as position or having position brings a difference between stage acting and film acting that can inevitably be availed by the close-up- the artist's model has been posed tightly within content and form. As a film historian, in Eloquent Guestures, Pearson goes further with the delineation of the cinema of attractions by further outlining the development and influence of the Vitagraph nine-foot line by addrssing, "Staigers chronology, set forth in Classical Hollywood cinema". "Prior to 1907," Pearson writes, "according to Staiger, one person, the cameraman, had control of all aspects of film production, from the selection of the subject to the final editing". Why the present author would look on this as pertinent is that in light of the early film of  Charles Magnusson that may have been newsreel in character and lacking narrative, as may have been the first Danish short films,  Pearson may have found a corrollary between studios in the United States and those in Scandinavia. She continues, "By 1909, the film studios began to institute the "director-unit" system to meet the need for twenty to thirty new reels a week." This positions the director as a script-supervisor where the cameraman is left to control  the lighting of the shot.

The director at Biograph untill June 1908 had been Wallace McCutheon (Personal, 1904). The technique of crosscutting has been attributed to McCutheon (Her First Adventure, 1906; The Elopement, 1907); on occaision directors were beginning to hint at cutting on action by 1907 and were also beginning to link seperate scenes together, as when the same character appears in two scenes that are adjacent. If, within a cinema of attractions, narrative exposition had previously used a discontinuous style, one of filming a single action within what was then an autonomous shot, it would acquire as form a continuous style; when there were to be juxtapositions within narrative from shot to shot, they would be decisions of editing used for the advancement of plot. That intertitles were at first often explanatory shows the beginnings of a narrative within cinema. During an early scene of the silent Frankenstien (J. Searle Dawley, Edison, 1910), there is, in between scenes, an expository intertitle that uses of a close shot of a letter to develop character within the narrative, epistolary form used on the screen. A similar insert shot is used in the film Dash Through the Clouds (1912). Certainly by 1917 films made in the United States, and the films made by Sjöström and Stiller in Sweden had acquired a narrative transitivity, a chronological plot outline, more often than not their being characterized by their having a causal motivation of scene and its structure. In regard to film preservation and the intertitle, The Danish Film Institute used the screenplay to Dreyer's film Der var Engang to provide descriptive intertitles to the film that explain its plot, including explanatory description that now appears in the same intertitle as the dialouge to the silent photoplay. Carl Dreyer had adapted the screenplay from the stage and seperated the two different types of intertitle while writing.

D. W. Griffith uses offscreen space in his structuring of shots during the 1910 film What Daisy Said, directed for Biograph. Most of the shots to the film are exterior longshots with two or more characters with a static camera. Starring with Gertrude Robinson, Mary Pickford enters the frame from the far left of the screen and exits near to the end of the shot from that same side. In a subsequent shot she enters from the right side of the frame, quickly climbs a set of outdoor stairs, exits from the left and then reenters the frame from the left to begin the next shot, her dancing from one side of the screen to the other and the camera cutting almost on her action of entering and exiting to begin each shot. She runs in fron of the camera from the offscreen space that frames the exterior and then runs back to the same side of the screen to exit the frame in a brief shot. She later slowly descends the outdoor stairs during the film to depict despair. Her movement as a unifying image, the moving subject, serves to link the adjacent shots, her movement within the frame carried into each subsequent shot so that the spatial relationships with the frame of each individual shot are seen with the shot to shot relationships of camera position and reposition, character movement linking the image to create narrative continuity as the viewer is brought to the edges of the rectangular frame. The significant action of the scene bringing an involvement with with the protagonist, the causality in the storyline of the film is constructed without the frequent use of explanatory intertitles.

It is not suprising that Kenneth Macgowan writing as early as 1965 in Behind the Screen divides early silent film into three periods: 1896-1905; 1906-1915; 1916-1925. Form and content in film technique seem to have developed together.

In regard to film preservation and the search for silent film, in April 2005, United Press International reported that films dating back as far as 1910, including one film entitled "Little Snow White", were found by the Huntley Archive., the unknown of collection totalling more than six hundread cans of film kept hidden in an airplane hanger in the south of England. To add to this, during June of 2006, the only copy of the first British narrative film, a film depicting a pickpocket directed by Birt Acres in 1895, as well as as many as six films that were included in the body of work filmed by Thomas Edison, was found in an attic in West Midlands, England. In his biography of Victor Sjöström, Bengt Forslund exuberantly remarks upon the discovering of a hitherto unknown copy of Predators of the Sea (Sea Vultures, Havsgama, 1914), starring Richard Lund, Greta Almroth and John Ekman, and not so exuberantly on the unlikelihood of a copy of Victor Sjöström's film The Divine Woman, starring Greta Garbo, being found in the future. On the film Predators of the Sea, Forslund writes, "Sjöström recounts his story simply and straitforwardly in remarkably well thought-out images of the kind we already know from Ingeborg Holm.

 The Nordisk Film Kompagni having had been founded in 1906, most of the early narrative films for the most part "thrillers, tragedies and love stories" (Astrid Soderberg Widding), or "the social melodrama and dive novel that made a hit from 1910 onwards" (Bengt Forslund), were directed by Viggo Larsen, who directed The Black Mask (1906), Revenge (1906) and The Magic Bed (Tryllesaekken, 1907) in Denmark : Urban Gad directed Asta Nielsen in her first film, The Abyss (Afgrunden, 1910) in Denmark, a film often written about due to her popularity and to a scene contained in it in which she dances eroticly; both directors went to Germany. Among the films produced by Nordisk Films Kompagni in 1906 was Bonden i Kobenhavn (Hunting of a Polar Bear), directed by its manager, Ole Olsen. Having established the Biografteatret, Copenhagen's first movie theater, Ole Olsen established its first production company in 1906, Ole Olsen's Film Industry, which that year filmed Pigeons and Seagulls (Duer og Maager). Ole Olsen also produced the 1906 films The Funeral of King Christian IX (King Christian IX's Bisaettelse) and The Proclamation of King Fredderick VIII (King Frederick VIII's Proklamtion).  Many of the silent films made by the Nordisk Films Kompagni, although produced by Ole Olsen, still have an unattributed director, one example of this being the film Rouges (Gartyve), filmed in 1906. Vitriolic Drama (Vitrioldrama), Violinist's Romance (Violinistens Roman), Rivalinder (A Woman's Duel/The Rivals), Gelejslaven, Tandpine, Knuste Haaband and Kortspillere were also filmed by Nordisk Films Kompagni during 1906. In 1906 Louis Halberstadt for Nordisk Films Kompagni directed the film Konfirmation, photographed by Rasmus Bjerregaard, it having been the first Danish silent film in which Greta Garbo co-star Jean Hersholt (The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox) was to appear.

Viggo Larsen was quite possibly the first director to cut from one long shot of a scene to its reverse angle, a long shot of the scene from an opposite angle (Rovens Brod, 1907). The Danish photographer Axel Sorensen began filming for Larsen in 1906 and continued solely with Larsen untill 1911, when he began photographing first for Danish director August Blom and then for Danish director Urban Gad under the name of Axel Graatkjae. One film photographed by Axel Sorensen that Viggo Larsen is particularly noted for directing is The Lion Hunt (Lovejaten, 1907). In the year 1906, the actress Margrethe Jespersen had starred in the films Anarkistens svigermor (Larsen), Knuste hab, Caros dod, Haevnet (Larsen) and Fiskerliv i Norden (Larsen). In 1907, the actress Oda Alstrup was directed by Viggo Larsen and photgraphed by Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen for Nordisk Films in Camille (Kameliadamen), Den glade enke, Trilby (Lille Trilby), and in Aeren tabt-alt tabt and Handen (Haanden), both of which she had starred in with actress Thora Nathansen. Clara Nebelong appeared with her in the film Roverens brud. Among the films directed by Larsen in 1907 were A Modern Naval Hero (En Moderne Sohelt) and Once Upon a Time (Der var engang) with Clara Nebelong, Gerda Jensen and Agnes Norlund Seemann, both of which he appeared in as an actor. Actress Clara Nebelong also that year appeared in the films Vikingeblod and From the Rococo Times (Rosen), also directed by Viggo Larsen and photographed by Axel Sorensen. The Artist's Model's Sweetheart (Den Romersk Model) is among the films credited as having been directed by Viggo Larsen in 1908. Viggo Larsen in 1908 directed actress Lili Jansen in several films photographed by Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen, including Lille Hanne, Peters Held, Urmagerens Bryllup and The School of Life (Gennem Livets Skole), which also starred Thora Nathansen. Viggo Larsen that year also directed Mathilde Nielsen and Pterine Sonne in the film The Capricious Moment (Capriciosa). In 1909, Viggo Larsen directed the film Child as Benefactor (Barnet som Velgorer). Emmanuel Tvede directed only one film in Denmark, Faldgruben, and yet in it was future star Emilie Sannom in one of her first screen appearances, Danish actress Kate Fabian also having appeared in the film.

In addition to Nordisk Films, during 1910 the Regina Kunst Kompagni briefly produced films in Denmark, notably the first three films in which actress Clara Weith Pontoppidan had, as Clara Weith, starred, Elskovsleg, Djaevelsonaten, and Ett Gensyn, in which she starred with actresses Annegrette Antonsen and Ellen Aggerholm. Director Axel Strom directed Clara Weith in the film Dorian Grays Portraet, in which she starred with Valdemar Psilander as well as his having directed Johanne Dinesen in the film Den doe Rotte. Danish silent film actress Emilie Sannon also starred on screen for the Regina Kunst Kompagni, her having starred in the film Doden.

The versatility of Asta Nielsen, directed by her husband Urban Gad, was especially shown from film to film. The Abyss begins with a shot of the actress Asta Nielsen as Magda and her boarding a train as though it were a whistle stop. It continues with exterior longshots, untill the two characters are seen at an outdoor coffee table. There is a cut to an interior where she is seen in full shot opening a letter, the camera distance well behing the Vitagraph nine foot line, particularly for an interior filmed in 1910. Seated, the next shot shows her at a closer angle, filmed higher than her as she is reading the letter. It then cuts to a train station and then a series exterior full shots of her arriving in the country. The scene then shifts to an outdoor circus and an exterior full shot during which she dances. The storyline becomes dramatic, or sensational in its being melodramatic, where she flees with the circus, much like in the Greta Garbo film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox. There is in the film a near panning shot following characters as a horse drawn carriage parks near the exterior of a building, the camera then cutting to the interior where she is recieving guests.

 In Denmark, Urban Gad also directed actresses Emilie Sannom and Ellen Kornbeck, among the films Gad directed for Nordisk Films in 1911 two having been When Passion Binds Honesty (Dyrekobt Glimmer), in which both actresses appeared with Johannes Poulsen and Elna From, and An Aviator's Generosity (Den Store Flyver, 3 reels), which had starred Christel Holck. Also that year Gad directed the films Spansk Elsker, and Sydens Born in Denmark. It was also that year that Urban Gad and Asta Nielsen would travel to Germany to film for Deutsche Bioscop. Asta Nielsen appeared on screen under Urban Gad's direction with the cinematographer Karl Freund behind the camera that year in the films The Moth (Nachtfalter) and The Strange Bird (Der fremde Vogel). Asta Nieslen also continued in 1911 to appear under Gad's direction in the films The Traitoress (Die Verraterin), Hot Blood (Heisses Blut), In Those Large Eye Glances (In dem grossen Augenblick).

The first Finnish narrative film, Bootleggers (Salaviinanpolttajat), was given to the Swedish director Louis Sparre, the film photographed by Frans Engstrom in 1907. Jaenzon filmed The Dangers of a Fisherman's Life- An Ocen Drama (Fiskarliv ets farer-et Drama paa havet), an early Norwegian silent film under the direction of Hugo Hermansen. The first two Finnish directors, Erkki Karu and Teuvo Puro, are particularly noted for their use of nature as a background and landscape to complement the thematic, and yet Sylvi (1913) has been particularly likened to the film Ingeborg Holm, directed by Victor Sjöström. Peter Cowie notes that Karu's The Logroller's Bride (Koskenlaskijan morsian, 1923) has an exterior landscape scene that had been filmed by using six different cameras; the director later remade the film as the first Finnish film to include sound. The film Tukijoella (Log River) continued the influence of the Scandinavian film directors upon the silent cinema of Finland in their being a relation shown between the characters of the film and its background landscape, it having appeared in theaters in 1928. Also directing in Finland in 1913 was playwright Kaarle Halme who brought the films (The Bloodless Ones/Verettomat) and The Young Pilot (Nuori luotsi) to silent film audiences who had previously looked to the theater; the photplay, although quickly a new form of literature to convey the dramtic, and melodramtic, was still in Finland before 1919 contained within static camera angles without the frequent use of editing to complicate plotlines and character relationships, characters often shown in full figure, at the same camera distance, as at Vitagraph studios in the United States.

Peter Lykke-Seest, who had founded the first Norwegian film studio, the Christiana Film Company, was a screenwriter for Victor Sjöström (and Mauritz Stiller) before his directing The Story of a Boy (Historien om en gut) in 1919.

Aside from this was the consideration that once films had been begun to have been made that were two reels or more, dialouge,through the use of intertitles, and expository descriptions could be added to the way the causality of plotline was developed during a film and how character was delineated, intertitles that would not only lend continuity to the linear progression of storyline but also bring unity to it. Victor Sjöström later would in fact use intertitles to act as retrospective first person, voice over narrative. As well, narrative would no longer need to be only linear in regard to its structure and the syntax of film could include transitions between scenes; technique, in part could become the attraction.

Technique would become the ordering of images within an arrangement of shots that would bring seperate compositions into a relation within narrative- the film technique that would later be described by Christian Metz as consisting of syntagmatic categories, technique that would avail questions regarding whether a segment would be autonomous, chronological, linear, narrative or descriptive, continuous and whether it would be organized, was beginning to be decided. Metz in fact had viewed the narrative function in cinema as being what had brought about its development, it being more than possible that the techniques developed by Ince and Griffith were the exingencies of narrative form.

That Sjöström the actor would later be shown in both long shot and close shot in the same sequence shows the relation between the character on the screen and the space within the frame; in that the camera had been becoming increasingly authorial, it often seemed to provide an embodied viewpoint from which an idealized spectator could view onscreen space, and by its being authorial, could seem to reposition the spectator during the film through the use of a second central character. While discussing film technique as something that is a reproduction of the images before the spectator, Raymond Spottiswoode claims that "it can never attain to art", and yethe adds that there must be a freedom available to the director "if he is to infuse his purpose and character into the beings of nature, to change them that their life becomes more living, their meaning more significant, their vlaue more sure and true." He continues that while it can be put forth that there is only one camera angle that any scene can be photographed from, one relation to the camera that any object can be aquire within the varying spatial relations that it takes while arranged with the other objects in front of the camera, "there is no reason to suppose that the choice of a camera angle is not perfectly free." The attention of the spectator could be directed spatially. It is by being authorial that the camera can impart meaning, technique not only to have brought an objectification of what was in front of the camera but also of the camera itself as it observed the actors within the scene, as it photographed the object, the structure of the image deigned by the placement of the camera, the pleasure of the spectator derived in part from the parallel between the spectator and the camera. In regard to the camera being authorial, a group member of an e-mailed silent film mailing list recently in a post quoted a postulate of the theory of there being a cinema of attractions, "The narrator in the early films is sporadic; an occaisional specter rather than a unified presence."

Sjöström had said, "At one time, Moje was without any doubt in love with Garbo, and she with him." and she had reiterated that if ever she were to love anyone it would be Mauritz Stiller, the director who had taken her to see her first motion picture in the United States, The Lady Who Lied (1925, eight reels) with Lewis Stone and Nita Naldi. Fredrick Sands quotes Victor Sjöström as having said, "For a certain time at least Stiller was in love with her and she with him. They told me so themselves." Stiller, after having met cameraman Julius Jaenzon, had begun directing for Svenska Bio in 1912 with Mother and Daughter (Mor och Dotter), in which he acted with Anna Norrie and Lily Jacobsson and then in the same year The Black Masks (De svarta maskerna), in which Sjöström acted with Lili Bech and the film The Tyrannical Fiancee (Den Tyranniske Fastmannen), in which he starred with Agda Helin. Produced by AB Svenska Biografteatern, the film The Black Masks, is a circus movie in regard to its subject. It has been noted that the film is exceptionally edited, its numerous, varied scenes, "a constantly changing combination of interiors and exteriors, close-ups and panoramic shots." (Forsyth Hardy).

 It had been early in 1912 that Magnusson had met with screen writer Erik Ljungberger who gave Magnusson Victor Sjöström's name and who telephoned him for Magnusson. Victor Sjöström that year wrote and directed The Marriage Bureau (Aktenskapsbryan) with Victor Lundberg and directed A Secret Marriage (Ett hemlight giftermal) with Hilda Borgström, Smiles and Tears (Lojen och tarar) with Mia Hagman, a film written by Charles Magnusson and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, A Summer's Tale (En Sommar Saga) and Lady Marion's Summer Flirtation (Lady Marion's sommarflirt, photographed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Hilda Borgström.

That year Paul Garbagni directed both Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller with actress Astrid Endgelbrecht in the film Springtime of Life (In the Spring of Life, I livets var), adapted from the novel The First Mistress by August Blanche- almost as soon as Swedish cinema had begun, it had begun adapting the novel to film; the significance of the cinema of attractions would now be in the shot, the placement of the shot within the scene, display relegated to frame compositions.

Eric Malmberg that year directed the films Oceanbreakers and Stolen Happiness (Branningar eller Stulen lycka) with Lily Jacobsson, Tollie Zellman and Victor Arfvidson, Det grona halsbandet with Lilly Jacobsson and Agda Helin and Samhallets dom, with Lily Jacobsson, Agda Helin, Tollie Zellman and actress Lisa Holm in the first film in which she was to appear, as well as Agaton and Fina (Agaton och Fina), and Two Swedish Emigrants in America (Tva svenska emigranters afventyr i Amerika), both photographed by Julius Jaenzon, also with Lily Jacobsson. John Ekman directed Swedish actress Stina Berg in her first appearance on the screen in the film The Shepherd Girl (Saterjantan), photographed by Hugo Edlund for Svenska Biografteatern. The Last Performance (Dodsritten under cirkuskupolen), Musiken makt, starring Lily Jacobsson, Jupiter pa jorden, with Axel Ringvall, and Tva broder with Birger Lundstedt and Eugen Nilsson, were filmed by Georg af Klercker. Algot Sandberg that year directed the film Farbror Johannes ankomst till Stockholm.

In Malmo, Sweden, for the Danish film producer Frans Lundberg and Stora Biografteatern, Paul Welander in 1912 contributed the films The Pace That Kills (Broder och syster), The Circus Queen (Circusluft), and two films photographed by photographer Ernst Dittmer, The Boa Constrictor (Ormen), The Flirt (Karlekens offer) and Princess Charlotte (Komtessan Charlotte), starring Phillipa Frederiksen and Agners Nyrup-Christensen, Welander also that year having starred with Ida Nielsen in The Bonds of Marriage (Karleksdrommar) a film made by Frans Lundberg. Charles Magnusson would direct The Green Necklace (Det grona halsbandet) and The Vagabond's Galoshes (Kolingens galosher), both photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Jaenzon that year was the photographer and director of the film Condemned by Society.

1912 was also the year that Hjalmar Söderberg, often considered the nearest contemporary to Strindberg, published the novel The Most Serious Game (Den allvarsamm leken) and the one act play Aftonstjarnan. The first publication to appear written by Par Lagerkvist, People (Manniskor), a collection of short stories was also printed that year as well.

In the United States, Mary Pickford had a year earlier left Biograph where she had filmed under the direction of D. W. Griffith and Frank Powell to film with Thomas Ince at IMP studios during the first two months of the beginning of 1911. Among the films she made there were Their First Misunderstanding, The Dream, Maid or Man, At Duke's Command, The Mirror, While the Cats Away, Her Darkest Hour and Artful Kate. Before returning to Biograph, she spent the last two months of 1911 at The Majestic Company, filming under the direction of George Loane Tucker and Owen Moore.

The year of 1912 was to mark the first film with Lillian and Dorothy Gish, An Unseen Enemy, along with the Mary Pickford film A New York Hat, the first photoplay written by Anita Loos. Within the short scenes of the film, Mary Pickford is shown in to the right of the screen in medium close shot trying on a hat, her hands and bended elbows in frame. Griffith cuts on the action of her leaving the frame to exterior shots. In a later scene, Griffith positions her to the left of the screen, and, his already having shown time having elapsed between the two two scenes, then brings the ensuing action back to the right of the screen frame. As an early reversal of screen direction, or screen positioning, there is the use of scene editing in between the complementary positions of showing her in the same interior. During the film, the actress is, almost referentially, often kept in right profile, facing the right of the screen's frame.

During the Biograph silent film short The Musketeers of Pig Alley (1912) Griffith frames Lillian Gish at a table, only half of her visible in the frameline untill she leaves the table, and then cuts on the action of her leaving the frame as she crosses the screen from one interior into the adjacent one, her crossing the screen from left to right in both the shots Griffith had edited together, toward the far left side of the screen in the first, toward the middle of the screen in the next. Vertical space allows a disclosure in the film, one allowed by the moving figure as Gish skirts from one room to the next, her moving into the unexpected space the audience may or may not have already seen where there is action that has been simultaneously transpiring within the temporality of the film. In a film from the same year in which Gish only briefly appears, A Burgler's Dilema, Griffith again cuts on action often, particularly during entrances, but interpolates very brief exterior shots in between scenes, increasing their frequency and interspersing within the scene as the film continues and the pace of the action hastens, or complicates, with the plotline.

If it is that spatial compostition can be included as a part of the grammar, or syntax, of film, within that is pictorial continuity and the use of visual tropes. A spatial relation is established through screen direction as figure movment becomes motion within the frame and action that the camera can cut on before continuing it in the subsequent frame, the camera cutting within the scene for effect. The spatial movement of the character is continued from shot to shot, linking each of them through a directional continuity, and yet, within the scene, the contour of objects, their proximity to the camera and their arrangement in front of the camera as its various positions cause it to become more authorial, is varied with each contrast between the adjacent shots within the temporality of the scene. As an inscription of its own being authorial, the camera could participate in narrative drama as an unseen presence, particularly through its own repostioning, unobtrusive if omnipresent in its guiding the spectator toward the action of the scene. Establishing the relation between spectator and content, the actress as an element of the film's pictorial compostion, in turn, could, as an aesthetic object, often substitute for the gaze of the female spectator, particularly as a motif for femininity, quite possibly more noticebly during cut in close ups where, while photographed with the space between her and the camera only represented by her near filling the area of the frame, spectator interest would recess into brief plateau before the narrative would climb into an increase of identification untill the quiet, slow stillness of the close up that would come next.

The following year Mary Pickford would go from Biograph to Famous Player to make Bishop Carriage (four reels), Hearts Adrift (four-five reels) and A Good Little Devil (five reels) with the director Edwin S. Porter. Of the film, Pickford wrote, "we were made to read our entire speeches before the camera. The result was a silent reproduction of the play, instead of what should have been, a restatement of the play in terms of action and pantomine." For the most part, when filming her, Porter used medium and long shots; Kirkland would later use the close up. Writing about 1912 in her autobiography Sunshine and Shadow, silent film actress Mary Pickford remembers her first close up, "Billy took the shot, which was a semi-close up, cutting me at the waist...It was a new image of my face that I was waiting to see. What a frightening experience when my grotesquely magnified face finally flashed on the screen...But I was critical enough to notice the make up...'I think there's too much eyebrow pencil and shadowing around my eyes,' I said. Later,on a seperate occaision, she had realized there was low light reflected back towards her while she was readying her make up for a scene and had asked her director to use artificial light from below while filming her. The autobiography of silent film star Douglas Fairbanks, Laugh and Live, is apparently no longer available online from sunrisesilents.

Having directed The Indian Massacre and Across the Plains the year before, Thomas Ince directed the silent films The Invaders (three reels), starring its co-director, Francis Ford,and Ethel Grandin, Shadows of the Past and Custer's Last Fight in 1912. Ince, and the directors that photographed with him, have been attributed with having been among the early directors to have varied camera postitions with the use of more than one shot during a scene, particularly the use of the reverse angle to cut around a scene and its use to develop the action of the scene during its climax. It is often acknowledged that Thomas Ince was the first director to use a shooting script. Author Kenneth MacGowan notes that Ince "strove for a theatric effect", but only with scripts that were "direct and tight" and used intertitles to advance character action, dramatically relating events as a technique of exposition. If this was later remarked upon as being part of a comparision and contrast, Mary Pickford was to write, "As I recall, D. W. Griffith never adhered to a script. Improvisation was frequently the order of the day. Sometimes the camera registered an impromputu piece of off-story action and that too stayed in the film." Lillian Gish in no way contradicts her by writing about how Griffith used the editing room to develop storyline, particularly by adding close ups and shots of objects, "Later, he would make sense of the assorted shots in the cutting room, giving them drama and continuity." These cut-in shots were inserted into the scene to add "depth and dimension to the moment".

During 1912 the first film that would star Mary Miles Minter would appear on the marquee, the one reel The Nurse and Anna Q. Nilsson would make her first film, the one reel Molly Pitcher. Oddly enough, Nilsson's studio, Kalem, had given the title role of The Vampire to Alice Hollister, the two later united on the screen in A Sister's Burden (1915). In addition to the films of Louise Glaum,whom Fred Niblo directed in Sex (1920, seven reels), and Valeska Suratt, another film of that title had starred Olga Petrova, it seeming that quickly " 'vamp' became an all too common noun and in less than a year it was a highly active verb, transitive and intransitive" (Ramsaye). Stiller had directed Sjöström in his first roles as an actor in For sin Karlekskull (Because Her Love), When Love Kills (Nar karleken dodar) in which he starred with Georg af Klercker, The Child (Barnet) and, coincidently, The Vampire (Vampyren/The Nightclub Dancer),in which he starred with Lili Bech. Anna Q. Nilsson would appear in War's Havoc, Under a Flag of Truce and The Soldier Brothers of Suzanna in 1912. Lillian Gish would later play a vamp in Diane of the Follies (1916). Birgitta Steene writes that in the films of Ingmar Bergman, "the vamp is portrayed as the social victim rather than the embodiment of sin."

Danish silent film direct Wilhelm Gluckstadt began directing in 1912 with the film The Blue Blood (Det blaa Blod), scripted by Stellan Rye and starring Elina Jorgen Jensen, Grethe Ditlevsen and Gudrun Houlberg. That year Wilhelm Gluckstadt also directed the exceptionally beautiful Danish film actress Eimilie Sannom in the films Konfetti, De to brodre and Zigeunerorkestret.  Danish film director Aage Brandt during 1912 would direct Vera Brechling in A Death Warning (Dodsvarlet)

Danish silent film director August Blom in 1912 filmed with the photographer Johanne Ankerstjerne for Nordisk Film, notably with the actress Clara Weith Pontoppidan, whom he directed in the film Faithful Unto Death (Et Hjerte af Guld) and had directed a year earlier in the film In the Prime of Life (Ekspedtricen), photographed by Axel Sorensen. Blom that year also for Nordisk Film directed Robert Dinesen in the films Stolen Treaty (Secret Treaty/ Den Magt Trede and The Black Chancellor (Den Sorte Kansler) with Valdemar Psilander, Ebba Thomsen and Jenny Roelsgaard, The Black Chancellor having been a film in which Danish silent film scriptwriter Christian Schroder appeared on screen as an actor. That year August Blom also directed A High Stake (Hjaerternes Kamp).

Danish film director Benjamin Christensen  followed with  Blind Justice (Haevnansnat, 1915), both films having starred the actress Karen Caspersen. The two films by Christensen were of the only three produced by the Dansk Biograf Compagni. Benjamin Christensen had starred as an actor with actress Karen Caspersen and Ellen Malmberg during 1913 in Skaebnebaeltet, directed by Danish silent film director Sven Rindom, his also that year having starred in the films Children of the Stage (Scenens Born, Bjorn Bjornson), starring Bodil Ipsen and Aud Egede-Nissen and Lille Klaus Og Store Klaus (Elith Reumert). Children of the Stage was produced by Dania Biofilm Kompagni.

For Ingmar Bergman,the first notable Swedish film is Ingeborg Holm from 1913. In an interview with Jonas Sima, he describes the directing of Victor Sjöström, "It is one of the most remarkable films ever made...Often he works on two planes, something being played out in the foreground,but then,through a doorway for instance,one sees something quite different is going on in the background.". Produced by AB Svenska Biograteatern and five reels in legnth, it is also his screenplay from a play by Nils Krook which Sjöström had adapted for the stage in 1907. Like Sarah Bernhardt, Hilda Borgström had came to film. Also in the film are Aron Lindgren and George Gronroos. William Larsson and Carl Barcklind both appear in the film as well. It is almost astounding that under the title Give Us This Day the legnth of the film is listed as having reached seven reels. Einar Lauritzen wrote, "The primitive tableau of the time cannot destroy the genuine feeling for both character and enviornment which Sjöström brought to almost every scene."

Much like it being that the films of Bergman "concern interior journeys: journeys into the soul of the character, or into the souls of two related characters" (John Simon), that Ingeborg Holm was a contemporary drama is particularly a matter for aesthetics, as was the observation that there may have been the photoplay of intimacy, the photoplay of action or the photoplay of splendor. As a side note from the present author, the caption on the cove Sat, August 8, 2015 - 11:18 PM permalink






Swedish Film



Edvin Adolphson directed When Roses Bloom (Na Rosorna sla

ut
, 1930), starring Sven Garbo. Greta Garbo

had visited her brother, Sven Gustafsson while in Stockholm. The film was co-scripted by Gösta Stevens and also stars Swedish actresses Karin Swanstrom, Margita Alfven, and Anna-lisa Baude. Else-Marie Hansen was given her first appearance on the screen with the film. John W. Brunius

directed two films that year, botth written by screen writer Pelle Stille, The Two of Us (Vi tva) in which Edvin Adolphson appeared as an actor with

Margit Manstad, Marta Ekstrom and Anna-Lisa Froberg, the film having had been being the first film in which the

actress was to appear, and The Doctor's Secret (Doktorns

hemlighet
) starring Pauline Brunius, Ann-Marie Brunius and Marta Ekstrom. Julius Jaenzon photographed and

directed the film Ulla My Ulla (Ulla Min Ulla), the

assistant director of the film having been Per-Axel Branner, it having been the first film in which actress Karin Granberg was to appear. Gustaf

Bergman directed his first film that year, The Dangerous Game (Den farliga leken), starring Jenny Hasselqvist, Olga Andersson and Elsa Wallin, his also during 1930 having directed Vera Schmiterlow and Anna-Lisa Baude in the film A Woman's Tommorow (En Kvinnas Morgondag). Swedish cinematographer Harald Berglund in 1930 began filming under the direction of Ragnar Ring on the film Lyckobreven. Gustaf Edgren that year directed the film The Crown's Cavaliers/ Crown escort

(Kronans kavaljerer) with Stina Berg and Lisa Wirstrom in her first appearance on the screen as an actress. In 1930 G?sta Ekman and Stina

Berg appeared in the film For Her Sake (For hennes skull)

written by Ivar Johansson directed by Paul Merzbach, which also starred

Inga Tiblad. In regard to the tradition in Scandinavian filmmaking of incorporating the enviornment into the storyline and the transition from silent film to sound, author Forsyth Hardy looks toward Hollywood to describe For hennes skull only to clarify the technique Gustaf Molander was soon to develop more fully behind the camera, "The film had little significance beyond its proof that in Sweden, as elsewhere, the microphone wa a cramping influence on the movement natural to the medium." And yet without mentioning how groundbreaking the films of the period were in the history of the relationship between the screenplay and the shootingscript, now that the photoplay had ended as a form of literature, Hardy continues by noting that during the early sound films photographed by Julius Jaenzon and directed by Victor Sjostrom both had tried to remain faithful to the old medium of silent film and its near precedence of plotline over dialougue by making the use of the microphone less noticeable during the film, possibly giving the new form more value. Paul Merzbach followed in 1931 with the film The False

Millionare
(Falska Millionaren), starring Fridolf Rhudin,

Gunnar Bj?rnstrand and Annalisa Ericson and photgraphed by Elner Akesson. Swedish director John Lindlof contributed the film Den Gamla Garden with Margareta Schöström,

Gustaf Bergman continued in 1931, directing Edvin Adolphson, Inga

Tiblad and Karin Swanstr?m in the film Generalen. Gustaf Bergman also that year directed Isa Quensel in

her first film appearance on screen, Karlek maste vi ha, with

Margit Rosengren, Anna-Lisa Baude and Valborg Hansson and the film En kvinnas morgondag starring Jenny Hasselquist, Elsa Wallin and Olga Andersson. Rune

Carlsten in 1931 directed the film Dangerous Paradise (Faroranas

Paradis
) with Ragnar Arvedson. Carlsten that year appeared in

Longing for the Sea (Langten till havet) directed by John W.

Brunius. Theodor Berthels in 1931 wrote and directed the film His

Majesty Will have to Wait
(Hans Majestat far vanta) with Margit

Manstad and Ragnar Arvedson. Greta Garbo director Eric Petschler

that year directed Guken Cederborg, Greta Anjo and Marta Claesson in the

film Flickan fran Varmland. The cinematographer Hilmer Ekdahl

photographed his first film in 1931, En karleksnatt vid Oresund,

directed by Ragnar Widestedt and S?lve Cederstrand, the first film in

which the actress Maritta Marke was to appear. The film also stars

Elisabeth Frisk. Per Axel Branner directed Astrid Bodin in her first film during 1931, Under roda fanor, photographed by Gösta Sandin.



Swedish film director Per Lindberg in 1931 established three theaters with actor Gosta Ekman, among them being included Vas-teatern and Konserthusteatern (The Large and Small room). Actor Hasse Ekman was given the play "Fredja" by Per Lindberg.

After returning to Sweden in hope that it was there that his daughters Victor Sjostromalso returned to the screen in a brief appearance with Swedish film directors Gustaf Molander and Gustav Edgren in the film

Motley Leaves/Gaudy Blade (Brokiga Blad) with Lili Ziedner, Edvin Adolphson, G?sta Ekman

and Annalisa Ericson. Sj?str?m had appeared in a short beauty contest

film, Froken, Ni linknar Greta Garbo (1931), along with Lars Hanson

and Karin Molander, both of whom had returned to Sweden, where Eivor

Nordstrom was chosen to be the most like Greta Garbo. Its photographer was

Ake Dahlquist, its director Per Axel Branner who had been the assistant

director to the film, The Markurells of Wadkoping, directed by

Victor Sj?str?m. Branner had directed his first film,

Tango-foxtrot, in 1930. Victor Sj?str?m's daughter, Guje Lagerwall

(Guje Sj?str?m, Guje Kanter) wrote the screenplays to two Swedish films,

Smeder pa luffen (Erik Hampe Faustman, 1949) and Lattjo med

Boccaccio
(Gosta Bernhard, 1949)- she appeared as an actress in seven

films that were made in Sweden. Gustav Molander directed both father and

daughter in films that were made in Sweden, Victor Sj?str?m in Love

(Karlek, 1952), and Guje Lagerwall in Franskild (1951). Also starring in Molander's film Franskild were Inga Tiblad, Irma Christensen and Marianne Löfgren.

the Swedish Sphinx



One Night (En natt, 1931) directed by Gustaf Molander and

written by Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius owes much of its construction to its

assitant director, Gosta Hellstr?m. Hellstr?m had been a film critic who

met with both Eisenstien and Pudovkin before returning to Sweden. It is

distinct from Molander's other film in its technique, in its editing.

Appearing in the film are Gerda Lundequist, Unno Henning, Sture Lagerwall,

Ingert Bjuggren and Karin Swanstr?m. The cinematographer to the film was

Ake Dahlquist.



Swedish Film actressthe Swedish Sphinx



Still photographs from the film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox scanned from the original negative and e-mailed through Yahoo by author Mark A. Vieira. Film clip linked with written permission from www.doctormacro.com. In a series of photo captions for the negatives that were in fact chosen for publication, author Vieira notes that by the time the portraits for The Fall and Rise of Susan Lennox were shot, Clarence Sinclair Bull had decided to no longer use a soft focus lens to photograph Greta Garbo, although he still used silk-covered softlights for the series.

In 1932, Gunnar Skogland wrote and directed the film Landskamp

with Fritiof Billquist, George Blomstedt, Gun Holmquist, Signhild Bjökman and Signe Lundberg-Settergren in her first film as an actress. The cinemaographer to the film was Elner Akesson. Actress Ingrid Bergman has a brief role in the film, as

does Corcordia Selander, and yet in her autobiography, My Story, Bergman

omits the name of Gunnar Skoglund entirely. Bergman, rather, relates an

account of her having been given a screen test with Gustaf Molander. "I

knew an actress named Karin Swanstr?m came into his shop from time to

time. She was a fine comedy actress, but now she was the artistic director

of Swedish Films", wrote Bergman. She quotes Karin Swanstr?m as having

told her that she would arrange a screen test for her within a week but

then abruptly telling Bergman, "No, wait a minute, I'll see if I can

arrange it now." It would be Gustaf Molander that would recommend her to

Edvin Adolphson until it would later become possible for her to film with

him.



Weyler Hildebrand in 1932 directed his first film, Baklaxan, as

well as the films Navvies of the Crown (Kronans rallare), Muntra musikanter,

starring Ulla Sorbon and Anna Olin and The Southsiders

(Soderkakr), starring Sigurd Wallen. Soderkakar was the first film in which actress Rut Holm was to appear. Gosta Rodin directed his first

film that year, Tva hjartan och en skuta, starring Birgit Sergelius, it being the first film in which Swedish actress Carin Swensson was to appear. Ragnar Arvedson was the

assistant director to the film Modern Wives (Modarna fruar, 1932), written and

directed by Edvin Adolphson based on the play written by Algot Sandberg. In 1932, Gustaf Molander directed three films;

Black Roses(Svarta rosor), photographed by Ake Dalquist and

written by Ragnar Hylten Cavalius, it having starred Einar Axelsson, Karin

Swanstrom, Ruth Stevens and Carl Barcklind, We Who Use the Servant's Entrance (Vi som gar koksvagen), also photographed by Ake Dalqvist while scripted by Tancred Ibsen and starring Tutta Rolf, Karin Swanström, Tollie Zellman, Rene Björling and Rut Holm and Love and Deficit

(Karleck ock kassabrist), scripted by G?sta

Stevens, which had starred Tutta Rolf, Sigurd Wallen and Edvin

Adolphson. It was also the first film in which actress Alice Carlsson

was to appear. Jag gifta mig- aldrig, the first film in which Viran Rydkvist was to appear, was brought to the screen that year by director Eric Berglund. In 1932, John Lindlof directed Tva man om en anka, written by Borje Larsson and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. The film stars Tollie Zellmann. Sigurd Wallen in 1932 directed the films

The Boys of Storholmen (Pojkarna pa Storholmen) with Margit Manstad, Anna Olin and Ruth Stevens and Lucky Devils (Lyckans

gullgossar
), the assistant director to the film Ivar Johansson. Gustaf

Edgren that year directed Annalisa

Ericson
in the film Varmlanders (Varmlanningarna) with

Hilda Borgstr?m.



The first volume of poetry published by Swedish poet Gunnar Ekel?f,

Late Arrival on Earth (Sent pa jorden), was among the first editions of

1932. In Denmark, two years earlier a novel about a poet, Havoc (Haevaerk) had begun a look at the world by Danish literature than would become from then increasingly more modern, although its author, Tom Kristensen, had in fact begun publishing poetry in Denmark in 1920 with the volume Freebooter's dreams (Fribytterdromme). In 1932 it would be followed by the novel Jorgen Stein, written by Jacob Paludan. Playthings (Legetoj), written by H. C. Branner would introduce H. C. Branner to Danish audiences in 1935. Branner would later write the novels The Riding Master (Rytteren) in 1949 and No One Knows the Night (Ingen Kender Natten) in 1955.



AB Europa, housed at 10 Drottingatan in Stockholm, began its production of film in 1930, among the films it made

being those of Schamyl Bauman, beginning in 1933 with Secret Agent Svensson (Hemliga

Svensson
), starring Fridolf Rhudin and Weyeler Hildebrand and

Saturday Nights (Lordagskvallar), starring Ejvor Kjellstrom

and Ruth Weijden. Both films also star Edvard Persson.



Swedish Sphinx

Swedish Sphinx



In that the photography for one film was concluding as the photography for the other was beginning, the photoshoots with Clarence Sinclair Bull for both As You Desire Me and Grand Hotel were finished during the same afternoon.



In 1933, Eric Malmberg and Rune Carlsten directed the first film in

which Signe Hasso was to appear, House of Silence (Tystnadens

hus
), with Fritiof Billquist. The film was the first to be

photographed by cinematographer Harry Hasso, who also appears in the film

as an actor. Like Greta Garbo, Signe Hasso travelled to Hollywood to film,

her appearing in the films Heaven Can Wait (1943, Lubitsch) and

A Double Life (1947, George Cukor). Swedish actress Emy Hagman

appearred in her first film that year, Flickan fran varuhuset,

under the direction of Anders Hendrikson and Torsten Lundqvist, Brita

Appelgren having starred with her in the film. Much like Swedish actress Guje Lagerwall, the daughter of Victor Sjöström and wife of Sture Lagerwall, who was included in the early sound films of Sweden, Dora Söderberg, the daughter of playwright Hjamler Söderberg and wife of Swedish actor and director Rune Carlsten, was afforded one of her early on screen appearances in the film House of Silence.





Tancred Ibsen directed his first film in 1933, Vi som gar

kjokkenveien
, his following it with Synnove Solbakken (1934),

starring Victor Sj?str?m and Fritiof Billquist. Gustaf Molander in 1933

directed the film Dear Relatives (Kara slakten), starring

Ruth Stevens, Dora Söderberg and Sickan Carlsson and written by G?sta Stevens. Edvin

Adolphson
in 1933 directed the film What do Men Know (Vad veta

val mannen
), scripted by G?sta Stevens as well. Gosta Rodin in 1933

wrote and directed She or No One (Hon eller ingen, produced by Europa Film and starring Inga Tiblad,

Anna Olin and Sture Lagerwall.



Ivar Johansson in 1933 wroted and directed both Boman's Boy (Boman's pojke),

with Birgit Tengroth, and People of Halsingland (Halsingar), the first film in which Aurore

Palmgren was to appear, with Karin

Ekelund
, Inga Tiblad and Edit Ernholm. Elner Akesson photographed the film for Svensk Talfilm. The former film was adapted by Ivar Johansson from a play by Siegfried Fischer, the latter film from a play by Henning Ohlsson. Marmstedt that year directed

G?sta Ekman and Karin Kavli in the film Perhaps a Poet (Kanske

en Diktare
), co-scripted with Torsten Flodin. Also appearing in the

film is Gunnar Olsson, who would direct his first film Jarnets man,

with Hjalmar Peters, in 1935. Janets man was written by Johan-Olov

Johansson and photographed by Eric Bergstrand. In 1934 Marmstedt follwed

by directing Ake S?derblom and Astrid Marmstedt in the film Eva Goes

Aboard
(Eva gar Ombord) and Birgit Tengroth and Edvin

Adoplphson
in the film Atlantic Adventure

(Atlantaventyret), also co-scripted with Torsten Flodin.



Hasse Ekman appeared on screen in 1933 under the direction of Ragnar

Widestadt in the film Hemslavinnor, with Maj Tornblad, Anna

Widforss and Isa Quensel. Gösta Stevens wrote the screenplay to the film. That year Hasse Ekman also appeared in the film A Night on Smygeholm (En

Natt pa Smygeholm
) under the direction of Sigurd Wallen, the film also

starring Annalisa

Ericson
and Anna Olin. It was scripted by Gösta Stevens and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Karin Ekelund appeared in her first film, Marriagable Daughters (Giftasvuxna dottrar), in 1933, the film directed by Sigurd Wallen from his own screenplay and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Also starring in the film are Birgit Tengroth and Maritta Marke. Arne Bornebusch directed his first film in

1933, Hur behandlar du din hund?, it also being the first

screenplay written by Bengt Idestam-Almquist. The pen name of

Idestam-Alquist was Robin Hood, his having had been being being one of the early film critics of

Sweden, later publishing the volume Den Svenska Filmens Drama: Sjöström och Stiller (1938). Idestam-Almquist had appeared as an actor in the 1920 film

Gyurkovicsarna.



One of the more widely read of the early novels of Swedish author Eyvid Johnson, Here is Your Life (Har har du ditt live), was published in 1933, as was the novel Cape Farewell (Kap Farval), written by Harry Martinson.



Birgit Rosengren starred in her first two films in 1934, The Girls from the Old Town (Flickorna

fran Gamla St'an
) with Karin Ekelund and The Women Around

Larsson
(Kvinnorna kring Larsson), with Sture Lagerwall, the

director of both films having been Schamyl Bauman. The following year she

appeared in the film Flickor pa Fabrik directed by S?lve

Cederstrand. Schamyl Bauman followed in 1934 with the film Larsson's

Second Marriage
(Larsson i andra giftet).



In 1934 Gustaf Molander continued directing with the films A Quiet

Affair
(En Stille flirt) and Bachelor Father

(Ungkarlspappan), both films from screenplays written by G?sta

Stevens. Gustaf

Edgren that year directed the film Karl Fredrick Reigns

(Karl-Fredrik regerar) with Gunnar Skoglund and Pauline Brunius and Brit-Lis Edgren in what would be her first screen appearance.

The cinematographer to the film was Martin Bodin, the scriptwriter, Oscar

Rydqvist. Ivar Johansson that year directed Sickan Carlsson and Greta

Woxholt in the film The Song to Her (Sangen till henne) and Anna Olin in the film Uppsagd, both films photographed by Martin Bodin. Uppsagd was the first film in which actress Margit Andelius was to appear. Emil A Lingheim directed his first

film in 1934, Bland karparoch foreller. That year John W. Brunius

directed with Pauline Brunius and Karin Albihn the film False Greta (Falska

Greta
), John W, Brunius. Brunius had appeared as actor in the 1931

film Red Day (Roda dagen), directed by Gustaf Edgren and

written by S?lve Cederstand.



Photographed by Ake Dalqvist and directed by Edvin Adolphson and Sigurd

Wallen, The Count of the Monk's Bridge (Munksbrogreven,

1934-5) is a showcase for a young Ingrid Bergman. The screenplay is listed

as having been written by Arthur Natrop and Siegfried Fischer (Greven

fran Gamala Sta'n
) and the scenario as having been penned by G?sta

Stevens. In her autobiography, Ingrid Bergman recounts that during her

first scenes she had nearly overstepped her bounds with the actress Tollie

Zellman and that Edvin Adolphson had added a kind word for her.



Per G. Holmgren directed his first film in 1935, Havet lockar.

Gosta Rodin in 1935 directed Sickan Carlsson and Lili Ziedner in the film

Karlek efter noter, written by Torsten Lundqvist and photographed

by Martin Bodin. That year he also directed Sickan Carlsson for Svensk Talfilms in

The People of Smaland (Smalanningar), also scripted by Torsten Lundqvist. Rune Carlsten that year directed The Marriage

Game
(Aktenskaplekan) with Zarah Leander, Anna Olin and

Ingeborg Strandin, the assistant director to the film Rolf Husberg, the

script written by Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius. Directed by Edvin Adolphson for Wivefilm,

cowritten with the director by Oscar Hemberg and photographed by Elner

Akesson, Flickornas Alfred (1935) was to star Birgit

Tengroth
, Hilda Borstr?m and Olga Andersson. Andersson had starred

with Greta Garbo in 1920 in the short films photographed by Ragnar

Ring.



The first film edited by Oscar Rosander, Valborgsmassoafton, directed by Gustaf Edgren, was filmed in 1935. Its stars actress Linnea Hillberg.



After having directed the film Under False Colors (Under

Flask Flagg
, 1935), scripted by G?sta Stevens and starring Tutta Rolf, in 1936 Gustaf Molander

directed the films The Honeymoontrip (Brollopsresan),

starring Karin Swanström, Ulla Sorbon, Karin Albihn, Edvin Adolphson and Anne Marie Brunius, The

Family Secret
(Familjens hemlighet), from a screenplay by G?sta

Stevens and On the Sunny Side (Pa solsidan), starring Edvin

Adolphson
, also from a screenplay written by Gösta Stevens. Ingrid Borthen

had a small role in the film The Family Secret, it being the first

film in which she was to appear. Gideon Wahlberg directed his first film

in 1936, Soder om landsvagen, starring Agda Helin, Inga-Bodil Vetterlund, Mim Ekelund. It is particularly interesting that Swedish silent film director George af Klerker also appears in the film as an actor. The King is

Coming
(Kungen kommer), written and direted that year by Ragnar

Hylten-Cavallius, starred G?sta Ekman, Birgit Tengroth, Ingeborg Strandin

and Tollie Zellman and was produced for Terra film.



The beautiful Finnish actress Ansa Ikonen began starring in film durring 1935-36 in two films under the direction of Finnish director Valentin Vaala, Everybody's Love (Kaikki rakastavat) and Surrogate Wife (Vaimoke), both having starred Tauno Palo.

Ragnar Arvedson in

1936 wrote and directed the films The Ghost of Bragehus (Spoket pa Bragehus),with Annalisa

Ericson, Poor Millionares (Stackars Miljonarer), with Anna Olin and Are We Married (A vi

giftas?
) with Karin Ekelund. Johan Ulfstjerna (1936), starring

Edith Erastoff and Einar Hanson, was directed by Gustaf Edgren and

photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Edgren followed with the film The Russian Flu (Ryska

snuvan
, 1937), starring Edvin Adolphson. Greta Garbo biographer

Fritiof Billquist appeared with Karin Ekelund and Birgit Rosengren in

Flickor pa fabrik (1935) directed by S?lve Cederstrand, the first film in which actress Britta Estelle was to appear. Arthur

Natorp in 1936 directed his first film, Karlek och monopol,

photographed by Eric Bergstrand. Anders Henrikson in 1936 directed the film Annosera!, photographed by Martin Bodin. Gunnar Fischer that year worked as assistant cameraman with Swedish cinematographer Elner Akesson under the direction of Anders Henrikson on the film He, She, and the money (Han, hon, och pengarna), starring Ruth Stevens, Kirsten Heiberg and Maritta Marke. The film was editied by its assistant director, Rolf Husberg. Swedish actress Margit Andelius starred as the protagonist of Raggen, That's Me (Det ar jag det) that year, the film having been directed by Schamyl Bauman and photographed by Hilmer Ekdahl. The film also starred Anna Olin, Aino Taube, and Isle-Norre Tromm.



Swedish poet Harry Martinson had two novels that appeared in bookstores during 1935 and 1936, Flowering Nettles (Nassloma blomma) and The Way Out (Vagen ut), respectively.



Cinematographer Ake Dahlqvist may very well be presently be known to audiences in the United States as the cameraman behind the viewfinder to the film Intermezzo (1936) directed by Gustaf Molander from a script he co-scripted with Gösta Stevens. Both Hasse Ekman and Anders Henrikson appear in the film, as do Inga Tiblad, Britt Hagman, Swedish silent film star Emma Meissner and the young actress that still directs audiences to the film by her having later remade it in the United States, Ingrid Bergman. Intermezzo was the first film in which actress Millan Bollanden, who was seen onscreen with Ingrid Bergman often, was to appear.



In her autobiography, Ingrid Bergman writes that she was reluctant when

asked to film One Night Only (En Enda Natt, 1937) and that she had hoped to star

in the film A Woman's Face (En kvinnas Ansikte, 1936). Both films were directed by

Gustaf Molander and scripted by G?sta Stevens. "Look," she had said, "I'll

only do your film if you let me do the girl with the distorted face." She

quotes Gustaf Molander as having said, "The technicalities of the

distorted face were fine, but I couldn't get the story right." There is

and account given by Ingrid Bergman of her having had been being asked to

supply an eding to the plotline before the shooting of the film had

finished and of the concluding scenes of the film having been based upon

her idea. One Night Only was photographed by Elner Akesson, the

assistant director the film having been Hugo Bolander. A Woman's

Face
was photographed by Ake Dahlqvist.



"From letters to his wife during the summer and autumn of 1936 we can very well follow the work on the script, the planning, and the shooting of Under the Red Robe". Begnt Forslund chronicles the retSwedish film director Victor Sjostrom to film directing in England with a script based on the writing of Stanely Weyman, which had already appeared on the stage as dramatized by Edward Rose.



Signe Hasso appeared on the screen during 1937 under the direction of Schamyl Bauman, starring in the film Witches Night (Haxnatten) with actresses Ruth Stevens, Gerda Bjorne and Marta Lindlof. John Lindlof in 1937 directed the film Odygdens beloning. Gustaf

Molander in 1937 directed Tutta Rolf in the film Sara lar sig

folkvett
, written by Gösta Stevens and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Jaenzon also that year photographed the film Cleared for Action/Clearly to drabbning (Klart till drabbning), in which Edvin Adolphson directed his daughter, Swedish actrees Anna-Greta Adolphson. The film was scripted by Weyler Hildebrand and Torsten Lundqvist and also stars Ake Söderblom and Sickan Carlsson. Gosta Rodin wrote and directed the film The Pale Count (Bleka greven), photographed by Sven Thermaenius. Produced by Svensk Talfilms, the film stars Anna Olin, Karin Ahbihn and Aina Rosen.



Alice Babs starred in her first film in 1938, Thunder and Lightning/Flash and Thunder (Blixt och dunder),

directed by Anders Henrikson and also starring Hasse Ekman, Frida Winnerstrand, Marianne Aminoff and Sickan Carlsson. Also starring in her first film in 1938 was Sif Ruud who appeared with Linnea Hillberg, Olga Hellquist, Gudrun Lendrup and Birgit Rosengren in Kloka gubben, directed by Sigurd Wallen and written by Gosta Werner. Hortensia Hedstrom that year appearred in her first film, Svensson ordinar allt, directed by Theodor Berthels. Co-scripted by Berthels and Gosta Werner for Svea Film, it stars Swedish silent film director George af Klerker, Karin Albihn, Sally Palmblad, Helga Hallen and Olga Hellquist. Anders Henrickson brought Tutta Rolf, Mimi Pollack and Karin Swanström to the screen in 1938 in the film The Great Love (Den stora Karleken) which he wrote and directed for Wivefilm, Stockholm. That year Gunnar Fischer photographed his

first film, Only a Trumpter (Bara en trumpetare), scripted by Torsten Lundqvist and

also directed by Henrikson. Director Nils Jerring in 1938 brought Wera

Lindby and Ruth Weijeden to the screen in the film Figurligt talat,

photographed by Martin Bodin. Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius that year directed

Lars Hanson and Karin Ekelund in the film Wings around the

Lighthouse
(Vingar kring fyren), Cavallius also having the

screenplay.



Gustaf Molander in

1938 directed Ingrid Envall in her first film Dollar, starring Georg Rydeberg, Tutta Rolf,

Kotti Chave and Birgit Tengroth. Filmed from a script co-written by Stina

Bergman, the cinematographer to the film was Ake Dahlqvist. Dollar begins as a film of interior shots and Molander tracks with his characters as he cuts between close shots, oftent cutting with the camera one moment and abruptly cutting to brief dialouge shots, or in between fairly quick dollyshots and close shots positioned from varying angles during an early card game scene. In the adjacent interior scene, Ingrid Bergman dances with her own shadow and the shadow of her parrot as Molander's camerawork is moved into a drawing room with four women, each crossing the set untill the men and women later pair together, a pairing together that locates the rest of the film in ther interior of a ski resort. The pace established by shot legnth then slows down and the editing becomes less pronounced as the men and women are the kept together more often as a group, more often in full shot as the storyline relies almost entirely upon dialouge for its development as each character crosses the set from one conversation to the next. Molander often cuts quickly after a line of dialouge, often constructing the shot-structure of the individual scenes by cutting on action. The is only one character other than the one played by Edvin Adolphson introduced during the film, that of an actress from the United States, Mary, the dollar princess.



Sven Thermaenius that year photographed the film Du

gama du fria
, written and directed by Gunnar

Olsson
and starring Hilda Borgstr?m, Karin Ekelund, Sigurd Wallen and

Gull Natrop. The film was produced by AB Europafilm. Kaj Aspegren directed his first film, Studieresan, in 1938, photographed by Erik Bergstrand and starring Signe Lundberg-Settergren and Marta Dorff.





Swedish Film actress Greta Garbo



In 1939, Victor Sjostrom appeared as an actor in two films,The Old

Man's Coming (Gubben kommer) ,with Birgit Tengroth, Olaf

Molander, Aino Taube and Tora Teje, directed by Per Lindberg, and in

Towards New Times (Mot nya tider), directed by Sigurd Wallen

and starring Carl Barklind, Anna Olin and Marianne Aminoff. Per Lindberg

in 1939 also directed the film Glad dig din Ungdom, starring Birgit

Tengroth, Hilda Borgstr?m, and Anna Lindahl. Photographed by Ake

Dahlqvist, the film was co-scripted by Vilhelm Moberg with Per Lindberg

and Stina Bergman from his novel Sankt Sedebetygi>

Weyler Hildebrand in 1939 directed Sickan Carlsson and Ake Ohberg in

Landstormens lilla Lotta, scripted by Torsten Lundqvist. Rolf

Husberg
began as an assistant director to the film Giftasvuxna

dottrar
(1933). He directed his first film, Midnattsolens in

1939. Gustaf Molander used the talented pioneer Julius Jaenzon in 1939 to photograph Filmen om Emelie Hogvist

starring Signe Hasso and Elsa Burnett, the first film in which Karin Norgren

had been given a small role. Elsa Burnett also starred in Molander's film

Ombyte fornojer, with Tutta Rolf. Both films were scripted by Gösta Stevens. Signe Hasso would also that year appear in the film Us Two (Vi Twa), directed by Schamyl Bauman and starring Ilse-Norre Tromm and Gunnar Bjornstrand in an early film role. Schamyl Bauman in 1939 directed

Anders Henriksson and Sonja Wigert in the film Her Little Majesty

(Hennes Lilla Majestat), the film also starring Swedish film

directors Carl Barklind and Gunnar Hoglund. Also directed by Schamyl Bauman that year was the film Efterlyst, photographed by Hilmer Ekdahl and starring Edvin Adolphson, Birgit Rosengren, Isa Quensel, Carin Swensson and Linnea Hillberg. Anders Henrikson in 1939 directed the film Valfangare, with Tutta Rolf. Ragnar Frisk directed Ann-Margret Bergendahl in her first film in 1939, Den Moderna Eva, photographed by Karl-Erik Alberts and starring Ake Uppström. Siv Ericks appeared in her first film that year Rosor varje kvall, directed by Per Axel-Branner. Also in the film are Carl Barklind, Hjordis Petterson, Ake Ohberg and Tore Lindwall. Gideon Wahlberg in 1939 directed Ann Mari Udderberg and Naemi Briese in the film We from the Theater (Vi som gar scenevagen). Gosta Rodin during 1939 directed the film Charmers at Sea (Sjocharmorer) produced by Fribergs Filmbyra and photographed by Albert Rudling. The film stars Aino Taube, Karin Swanstrom, Marianne Lofgren and Ullastina Rettig.




Both Sigurd Wallen and Olaf Molander appeared in front of the camera with Britt-Lis Edgren in the 1940 film A Big Hug (Stora Famnen), Britt-Lis the daughter of the director of the film, Gustaf Edgren. The film was photographed by Julius Jaenzon and also stars the Swedish actresses Gerda Lundqvist and Signe Hasso. Gustaf Molander in 1940 directed the film A, but one lion (En, men ett lejon) with

Fridtjof Mjoen and Annalisa Ericson. The screenplay to the film was

written by G?sta Stevens and again, Molander would be behind the camera while Julius Jaenzon was the film's photographer. On the marquee that year, along with the name

Aino Taube, was the film Everybody at His Station (Alle man pa

post
) written by Torsten Lundqvist and directed by Anders Henrikson,

the assistant director to the film Ragnar Fisk. That year, Alf Sj?berg

wrote and directed the films They Staked Their Lives (Med livet

som instats
) and the first film in which the actresses Barbro Flodquist and Hedvig Lindby were to appear, and Blossom Time (Den blomstertid), photographed by Harald Berglund with Goran Strindberg as assistant cameraman and starring Sture

Lagerwall, Gerd Hagman, Carl Barklind and Arnold Sj?strand. Barbro

Flodquist also that year appeared in the film Hanna i societen,

directed by Gunnar Olsson and starring Elsa Carlsson and Carl

Barklind. Schamyl Bauman in 1940 directed the films Heroes in Yellow in Blue (Hjaltar i gult och blatt), starring Tollie Zellmann, Barbro Kollber and Emy Hagman, and An Able Man (Karl for sin hatt), starring Birigit Tengroth, Vera Valdo and Gull Natrop starring Ake Ohberg directed his first film in 1940, Romance (Romans) in which Fritiof Billqvist appeared. Introduced to the screen that year by Ragnar Arvedson, Eva Henning premiered in the film Gentleman att hyra, photographed by Martin Bodin. Sigge Furst and Mimi Pollack also appear in the film. June Night (Juninatten) was directed in 1940 by Per Lindberg.



Swedish Film actress Greta Garbo



Still photograph from the film Two Faced Woman scanned from the original negatives and emailed via Yahoo by author Mark A. Vieira.



After directing June Night, the following year Per Lindgren directed the the film The Talk of the

Town
(Det sags pa stan, 1941), photographed by Ake Dalqvist and

starring Marianne Lofgren, Gudron Brost, Elsa Marianne von Rosen, Mona

Martenson, Elsa Widborg and Bojan Westin, in what was to be her first appearance on the screen. Bojan Westin has recently appeared in several films, including Brevbaravens hemlighet (2006, Hanna Andersson), Koffein (2007, Akesson, Olsson) and Dorotea i dodsriket (2007, Kati Mets). The assistant director to the film Talk of the Town was Arne Mattsson. Produced by Svea Film, Stockholm, it was one of

the first two films in which Eva Dahlbeck was to appear, the other being

Only a Woman (Bara en kvinna), directed by Anders Henrikson for Wivefilm, Stockholm and photographed by Elner Akesson. Also starring in the film is Karin Ekelund. Anders Henrikson also that year directed Anio Taube in Life Goes On (Livet gar vidare), which he cowrote with Begnt Idestam-Almquist. The film also stars Hasse Ekman. Director Gunnar Skoglund that year teamed Karin Ekelund and Edvin Adolphson in the film Woman on Board (En Kvinna Omboard), photographed by Hilding Bladh and also starring Sigge Furst. Ragnar Arvedson in 1941 directed the

films Sa tukta en akta man, the assistant director to the film Arne

Mattsson. Ung dam med tur, photographed by Harald Berglund and

written by Torsten Floden, was also directed by Ragnar Arvedson in 1941,

it starring Sonja

Wigert
, Elly Christiansson, Stina Hedberg and Ake Ohberg. That year

G?sta Cederlund directed his first film, Fransson den

forskracklinge
with Hilda Borgstr?m, Rune Carlsten, Elof Ahrle, Sonja

Wigert and Marianne Lofgren as well as the film Uppat igen starring

Elof Ahrle, Vera Valdor and Berit Rosengren.



In 1941, Gunnar Olsson directed Mai Zetterling in her first film,

Lasse-Maja, photographed by Harald Bergland and written by Torsten

Floden, in which Zetterling starred with Margit Manstad and Sture

Lagerwall
. She next appeared in Sunshine Follows Rain/Rain

Follows the Dew
(Driver dag faller regn, 1946), directed by

Gustaf Edgren and based on a novel by Margit Soderholm. Alf Sj?berg in

1941 directed the film Home from Babylon (Hem fran Babylon)

starring Gerd Hagman and Arnold Sjostrand. Gustaf Molander in 1941

directed Tonight or Never (I natt-eller aldrig) with Tollie

Zellman and Bright Prospects (Den ljusnade framtid) with

Elly Christiansson, Julius Jaenzon the photographer of the latter. Produced by Svea Film in 1941, Cosy Barracks (Hemtreunad i kasern) was directed by Gosta Rodin and photographed by Erik Bergstrand. The film stars Tollie Zellman, Anna-lisa Baude, Annalisa Ericson and Rut Holm.



Anders Henrikson in 1942 both directed and starred with Sonja Wigert in

both Youth in Chains (Ungdom i bojor) and Fallet Ingegerd Bremssen, which,

starring Ivar Kage and G?sta Cederlund, was the first film in which Siv

Thulin had been given a small role. Anders Henrikson

also starred with Sonja Wigert inBlod och eld (1945), the assistant

director to the latter Bengt Palm. Gunnar Skoglund in 1942 directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in the film Varat gang. Gunnar Fischer worked as an assistant camerman in 1942 under Swedish cinematographer Ake Dahlqvist on a film edited by Oscar Rosander, Jacob's Ladder (Jacobs Stege), directed by Gustaf Molander and starring Birgit Tengroth, Marianne Lofgren and Viran Rydkvist. Gustaf Molander also that year directed Hilda

Borgstr?m, Erik Hampe Faustman, Eva Dahlbeck and Anders Ek in the film

Ride Tonight (Ride This Night/Ride Tonight, Rid i natt, 1942), based on a novel by Vilhelm

Moberg. Doctor Glas (Doktor Glas, 1942), adapted from a

novel by Hjamar Soderberg by Rune Carlsten and directed by Gustaf Edgren,

was to include the actresses Hilda Borgstr?m and Irma Christenson, it also

having been the first film in which Victor Sj?str?m's daughter, Guje

Lagerwall, was to appear. Hugo Bolander directed his first two films in

1942, Three Glad Fools (Tre glada tokar), and Sextuplets (Sexlingar). Bolander had been the

assistant director to the film Steel (Stal, 1940), directed

by Per Lindberg, a film that had starred not only Alf Kjellin and Gudron Brost, but Signe Hasso, Karin Swanstrom and Torre Svennberg.





The following year, Erik Hampe Faustman directed his first film ,

Night in the Harbor (Natt i hamn, 1943) and scripted the film, its

cinematographer having had been being Gunnar Fischer. Eric Hampe Faustman

also directed the film Sonja that year, which he co-scripted with

G?sta Stevens, it having starred Birgit Tengroth, Else Albiin, Gunn

Wallgren and Sture Lagerwall. Sonja was photographed by cinematographer Hilding Bladh. Hampe Faustman that year appeared as an actor in Gustaf Molander's film Alsking, self give me (Alsking jag ger mig), which was also written by Gösta Stevens. Starring with Faustman in the film were Sonja Wigert, Elsa Carlsson, Marianne Lofgren and Carin Swensson. Haustman followed in 1944 by directing the film

The Girl and Devil (Flickan och Djavulen), starring Hilda

Borgstr?m and Torgny Anderberg.



In 1943, Olof Molander directed Mimi Nelson in her first film, I

Slew
(Jag drapte), also starring Mai Zetterling, Anders

Henrikson, Hilda Borgstr?m and Irma Christenson. That year G?sta Cederlund

directed her in the film Kungsgatan, which also starred Barbro

Kollberg. Ragnar Frisk in 1943 directed For lack of evidence (I

brist pa brevis
), scripted by Per Holmgren and Arne Mattsson and

starring Birgit Tengroth and Holger Lowenadler. Frisk also that year directed Nils Poppe in the film The Actor (Aktoren), photographed by Hilmer Ekdahl and co-starring Sigge Furst and Agda Helin. Begnt Janzon in 1943 wrote

and directed the film We Met the Storm (Vi Motte Stormen),

with Stig Jarrel and Anna-Lisa Baude, for AB Nordisk-Filmproduktion. Ivar Johansson that year wrote and

directed the film Young Blood (Ungt Blod), with Toivo Pawlo

and Olof Widgren. Johansson also that year directed Ake Gronberg in the film Captured by a Voice (Fangad av en rost) photographed by Ernst Westerberg and produced by Film AB Lux. Sigge Furst that year also starred in the film Ghosts, Ghosts (Det Spokar, Det Spokar) directed by Hugo Bolander and produced by Film AB Image. Eva Henning that year appeared in the film The Awakening of Youth (Nar

Ungdomen vaknar
), directed by Gunnar Olsson. Cinematographer Sven

Nykvist photographed his first film, along with photographer Olle

Nordemar, in 1943, In the darkest Corner of Smaland (I morkaste Smaland), under the direction of

Schamyl Bauman, the film starring Sigurd Wallen, Eivor Landstrom, Eric Petschler and Gull Natrop. Silent

film director Eric Petschler also appears in the film. Gunnar Skoglund in 1943 directed the film En var i vapen starring Ingrid Borthen, Eric Hampe Faustman, Rita Sandstorm, Fritiof Billquist and Birgit Lindkvist in what was to be her first film appearance. Bjorge Larsson during 1943 directed the film A Girl for Me (En Flickan for mej) for Europa Film, it starring Sickan Carlsson, Kerstin Lindahl and Hilda Borgstrom. Ragnar Arvedson in 1943 brought Irma Christenson and Ann-Margret Bjorlin to the screen in the film Herre med Portfolj.



Gustaf Molander in 1944 brought the film The Invisible Wall/The Unseen Wall (Den osynliga muren), starring Inga Tiblad, Irma Christenson, Hilda Borgström and Britta Brunius, to the screen. Swedish film directors Rune Carlsten and Eric Faustman also appear in the film. In 1944, Gunnar Ollsson directed The Turn of the Century (Nar

seklet var ungt
) his following it in 1945 with The Happy Tailor

(Den Glade skraddaren), both films being among those in which

Fritiof Billquist had appeared. The Turn of the Century (Nar seklet var ungt) had been

the first film in which Brita Billsten had been given a small role, her

having had appeared in it with Stina Hedberg, Marianne Gyllenhamar and Mim Eklund. En dotter fodd, the first film in which Ruth Kasdan was cast, was directed in 1944 by Gosta Cederlund and starred Barbro Kollberg. Ake Ohberg in

1944 directed Swedish Film actress Karin Ekelund in the film Snowstorm

(Snostromen), photographed by Harald Berglund. Also appearing in the film are Liane Linden and Helga Brofeldt. Ivar Johansson that year directed Birgit Tengroth in

the film Skogen ar var arvedel, the assistant director to the film

Arne Mattsson. Weyeler Hildebrand in 1944 directed Sonja Wigert, Mona Martenson and Gunnar

Bj?strand in the film My People are Not Yours (Mitt folk ar icke ditt). Ragnar Falck, who appeared as an actor in several Swedish Films during 1930-1960, directed

his first two films, Fia Jansson from the South Side (Fia Jansson fran Soder), for Kungsfilm, and Your Relatives Are Best (Slakten ar

blast
), for Wive Film, that year. Fredrick Anderson in 1944 brought Ingid Bouthen,

Annelie Thureson and Eivor Rolke to the screen in the film Karleck och

allsang
. Rune Carlsten that year wrote and directed the film Count only

the Happy Moments
(Rakna de Lyckliga Stunderna Blott), with

Sonja Wigert, Arnold Sj?strand and Eva Dahlbeck. Gunnar Skoglund in 1944 brought Vibeke Falk and Monicka Tropp to the screen in the film The Clock of Ronneberga (Klockan pa Ronneberga). Alf Sjoberg that year wroted and directed the film The Royal Hunt (Kungajakt), starring Inga Tiblad.



Filmed in Sweden and directed by Carl Th. Dreyer, Two People

(Tva Manniskor, 1944) was not released in Denmark due to low box

office returns and a second Swedish film to be directed by Dreyer was

cancelled. Dreyer reportedly had wanted Anders Ek and Gunn Walgren to

portray the couple upon which the on screen action of the film is

centered, his describing the female character of the film as being "young

warmblooded and sensual". When filmed the couple was portrayed quite

differently by Wanda Rothgart and George Rydeberg.



Sailors (Blajackor 1945), directed by Rolf Husberg with

Annalisa Ericson, was photographed by Gunnar Fischer. Rolf Husberg directed Siv Hansson and Ann Sophie Honeth that year in the film The Children from Frostmo Mountain (Barnen fran Frostrnofjallent), photographed by Sven Nykvist.



Molander in 1945 directed Galgmannen and in 1946 directed

It's my Model(Det ar min modell),starring Alf Kjellin and

Maj-Britt Nilsson, both films photographed by Ake Dalqvist. The screenwriter of It's My Model was Rune Lindström. Rune Lindstrom that year wrote and directed the film Aunt Green, Aunt Brown and Aunt Lilac (Tant Grun, Tant Brun, och Tant Gredelin), starring Britta Brunius, Elsa Ebbensen-Thorblad, Irma Christenson and Sigge Furst. Cinematographer Max Wilen

photographed his first film that year, Det var en gang, directed by

Arne Bornebusch with Mona Martenson. Ake Ohberg in 1945 brought Barbro

Kollberg to the screen in the film Girls in the Harbor (Flickor

i hamn
) and Eva Henning to the screen in Rosen pa Tistelon,

G?sta Folke the asistant director to the latter film. Bjorge Larsson in

1945 directed Annalissa Ericson, G?sta Cederlund and Sture Lagerwall in

the film A Charming Miss (En fortjussande Froken) and the film The Thirteen Chairs (13 stolar), photographed by Sven Nykvist. Adapted

from the novel published by Vilhelm Moberg in 1933, Mans Kvinna,

starring Edvin Adolphson, Birgit Tengroth and Gudron Brost was that year

directed by Gunnar Skoglund; coscripted by Vilhelm Moberg, Ankeman

Jarl
, starring Ingrid Backlin and Maritta Marke was that year directed

by Sigurd Wallen. The assistant director to the latter was Lennart

Wallen. The Serious Game (Den Allvarsamma leken, 1945), based

on a novel by Hjalmar Soderberg and starring Viveca Lindfors and Eva

Dahlbeck, would be directed by Rune Carlsten.



That year was also to mark the appearance of a new director of Swedish film, Ingmar Bergman, his writing his own screenplay to the film A Young Girl's Troubles (Kris) as an adaptation of the play A Mother's Heart (Moderdyret), penned by Leck Fischer. The cinematographer to the film, which starred Inga Landgre as its central character, was Gösta Roosling and its editor was Oscar Rosander. It was during 1942 that Ingmar Bergman had begun adapting screenplays for Svensk Filmindustri. As noted by Donner, the first had been a screen version of the novel Katinka, written by Astrid Varing; noted by Peter Cowie the first had been a novel entitled Scared to Live. In his autobiography, Images, Ingmar Bergman writes without noting the author of the novel, and explains that after he was given an office,the script department was under Stina Bergman, to whom, it almost completely belonged, seemingly.

























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Greta GarboThe 100th birthday

of Greta Garbo was a perfect time to recognize the efforts of Ase

Kleveland, if only to introduce her as a proponent of classic film and the

viewing of film with an interest in film history; she during September

2005 at the Cinemateket Filmhuset not only introduced Greta Garbo to

Swedish audiences, but marked the love for the actress throughout

Scandanavia. In an e-mailed correspondence to the present author, she

wrote, "Many thanks for your greetings. I can assure that the Garbo

celebrations was a great success indeed." Both Stockholm and Goteborg

screened the Greta

Garbo
film Camille

(Kameliadamen, George Cukor, 1937) on September 16, 2005, the

former at the Biografen Sture, the latter at the Biografen Svea. The film

co-stars Robert Taylor and Henry Daniell. Just as the films of Victor

Sjostrom
have toured the United States, the Greta Garbo Centenary is

marked by screenings of films representative of the body of work the

actress appeared in on screen before her retiring. Among the films being

shown near her birthday, and into early December of 2005, are a four minute print of Greta Louise Gustafson in Luffar-Petter and a two minute print of her crossing the Atlantic from Stockholm to the United States in an unidentified film that would seen to more than a number of dedicated Garbo viewers to be footage from the film En decemberdag pa Atlanten, directed by Ragnar Ring and photographed by Gustav Berg, there being an account of Garbo and Ring having spoken to each other while crossing the Atlantic.



Greta Garbo.







In the

United States, during the summer of 2005 the Niles Essany Silent Film

Museum added a film to its June schedule in which Greta Garbo is at her

most beautiful because it is one of her most melodramatic, the silent film

The Kiss (Kyssen, Feyder, 1929, seven reels) with Conrad

Nagel. An emailed thankyou-newsletter from the San Fransisco Silent Film

Festival not only announced the opening of the Edison Theater of the

Silent Film Museum in Niles and its series of films for the summer in its

listings of upcoming events, but added among its listings a week long

screening of films of Greta Garbo at the Stanford Theatre in Palo Alto,

during which the Silent Garbo film A Woman of Affairs (Grona hatten,

Clarence Brown, 1928, nine reels), starring Lewis Stone and John Gilbert

and including Johnny Mack Brown and Douglas Fairbanks Jr. was screened on

September 21, 2005. A Woman of Affairs flickered across the

silverscreens of the Filmhuset in Stockholm, Sweden to begin the month of

October, 2005 and inside the screening rooms of the Garbo Society in

Hogsby, Sweden on November 14, 2004. Accompanied by the Hogsby exhibition, the film later was introduced by Kevin Brownlow during a January, 2006 screening in Erlangen, Germany.


Greta GarboAs part of the Toronto International Film Festival, in a series that

concluded June 25,2005 with Greta Garbo in the film A Two Faced

Woman
(George Cukor), there was a screening of not only Part I + Part

II of The Saga of Gosta Berling, an entire 183 minutes, but also of

a ten minute print of The Divine Woman (Victor Sjostrom, eight reels, 1928) and

a four minute print of Reklamfilm Pub Greta Garbo (1921, Ragnar

Ring. The silent Garbo film Flesh and the Devil (Atra, Clarence Brown, 1926 nine reels), starring Lars Hanson and John Gilbert, The

Mysterious Lady
(Den mystika kvinna, Fred Niblo, 1928 nine

reels) and the A Woman of Affairs were projected onto screens in

Finland at the Forssa Silent Film

Festival, August 27-28, 2004. The Forssan Elavienkuvien Teatteri was open

from 1906 to 1930 before being reopened in 2001. The Divine Woman, directed by Victor Sjostrom and starring Greta Garbo was featured on YouTube in a 2007 listing and could be viewed as a fragment of the lost film over the internet; it has since been relisted and can still currently be viewed in a 2009 listing on Google Video-You Tube.















The silent film of Greta Garbo is featured in the Kevin Brownlow documentary Trick of the Light narrated by James Mason and is

presently offered online in Windows media, divided into two parts and

including the silent film documentary Hollywood

Trick of the Light pt. 2, by dograt.com/hollywood.html. Greta Garbo visited James Mason in 1949 while they were planning to film La Duchesse de Langeais, an adaptation of Balzac's novel The Thirteen.



Greta Garbo Kevin Brownlow is

the director of the biographical documentary Garbo (2005), a film

which quickly after having been aired was mentioned in the e-mailed posts of members that

correspond using several different Yahoo mailing list groups in the United States and which

was also screened at the Filmhuset as part of the Swedish Film Institute's

marking Garbo's 100th birthday. Not all of the posts having had been being on mailing lists specificlly dedicated to the actress Greta Garbo, in an e-mailed correspondence to the present author, John Gilbert biographer Leatrice Gilbert Fountain, wrote, "I hoped you watched the Garbo documentary on Sept 6 on TCM. I run through a lot of it and am very pleased the way they handled my father. Perhaps you can watch for a rerun." In the documentary she introduces Flesh and the Devil, describing the actor and actress during a sequence that is spliced with a segment of film of the director Clarence Brown; while describing Greta Garbo as having been independent of other people. Brown in the film praises Greta Garbo for her work in from of the camera and her work during retakes by noting that behind the camera he was at a distance from her and that her acting translated into movement what he wanted to appear on the screen. Interviewed in the

documentary are Greta Garbo author Karen

Swenson, Greta Garbo, who is more Garbo like in her providing an emotional rather than detailed account of the actress, and author Mark Vieira, who introduces cameraman William Daniels and The Torrent. In that the documentary begins to address the extratextural discourse that accompanied the characters that were to be portrayed on screen by Greta Garbo, it begins with footage of the city Stockholm and the two visits Greta Garbo made to the city, as well as brief footage of Sjostrom and Stiller bookended by footage of Swedish actress Mimi Pollack. Near to the 100th bithday of Greta Garbo, Mark Vieira emailed members of a Yahoo group announcing that his forthcoming book will be about Irving Thalberg and that it will include many photographs of Norma Shearer and Jean Harlow. The daughter of Norma Shearer, bookstore owner Katherine Thalberg, died in the beginning of January, 2006.



Two of the brief scenes introducing Sunday Silent Nights on Turner Classic Movies are from the silent films of Greta Garbo. A scene from the film Flesh and the Devil with Greta Garbo and John Gilbert dancing together is used in the introductory sequence, and later in the sequence a scene from The Kiss with Greta Garbo in close up is used. The scene with Lillian Gish peering out at the storm is from The Wind, directed by Victor Sjostrom. The other silent films in the Turner Classic Movies introductory sequence, all of which were filmed in the United States, include two scenes from Our Dancing Daughter (1928, Beuamont), one which is a room full of balloons and the other an actress in front of a mirror, The Big Parade (Vidor), with John Gilbert kissing a leading lady, The Four Horseman of the Apocalypse with a brief scene of Rudolf Valentino smoking, two scenes from Greed (von Stroheim), one with actress Zazu Pitts in a hat and the other to conclude the sequence with Gibson Gowland, Noah's Ark with Goerge O'Bien looking into the rain, The Crowd with actor James Murray smiling, Show People with Marion Davies using a handkerchief as a prop and a brief clip from Keaton's The Cameraman that shows his eyes.




















Greta GarboThe Associated Press marked the 100th birthday with Jan-Erik Billinger having announced the opening of a new library at the Swedish Film Institute, one that includes film magazines from the United States from the early silent film period. Jan-Erik Billinger, who remarked the it was mostly coincidental that the library was ready in time for Garbo's centenarry, is the Head of the Information Department at the Swedish Film Institute. Soon there will be a display at the Swedish Film Institute; when

Pictures of Greta (Bilder av Greta), a collection of photographs,

is finished being viewed at the Stura Cinema in Stockholm, it will be

transferred to the Film House.



Swedish Film-GarboAlong with it will be shown costumes the

actress wore while filming The Saga of Gosta Berling with director

Mauritz Stiller, her private correspondence as well as her personal

belongings from childhood. Of the film that first paired Greta Garbo and Lars Hanson, one webpage author on the internet, Hazel, in her latest update reviews the onscreen performance of Greta Garbo, "Already in her first movie, Garbo gave a nuanced and mature performance." An e-mailed newsletter during April of 2006 from Kino Video announced the release on DVD of the first movie in which Greta Garbo appeared, The Saga of Gosta Berling, along with the release two other films directed by her first director, Mauritz Stiller.





















In The Perfect Murder (Det Perfekte Mord),directed by Eva

Isaksen, Anna-Lena Hemstrom believes herself to be Garbo,or rather the characters

portrayed by Greta Garbo. During the making of a film, she enacts

particular scenes from Garbo's films, in her bedroom before making love,

the actress on the screen becoming the spectator within the film through

an identification with the action of the film actress, the idealized

appropriated into the dramaturgy of the erotic;her movements are those of

Greta Garbo in character- the only way to become authentic is to be the

absolute object of her look, and only then by being her paramour.

Intringuingly, the fabula of the film, the events of each particular

scene, and its syhuzet, the presentation of its plotline, merge as its

characters encounter each other, as she entices each lover toward fantasy,

toward the sensual. Visually, the film represents the act of love as being

both abstract and concrete: it only depicts the actress during sex in as

much as each instance, and the accompanying dialouge, is particularly

connected to the narrative, there being a specificality within each of the

scenes upon which the plotline is dependent, one in which the actress is

convinced that she knows each of her lovers from a specific Greta Garbo

film and that she has to make love to them according to the juncture of

events that comprise the scene in the film. She is an actress entertaining

the fantasies of the actress Greta Garbo and yet, although there are no

abstract shots during the film, their being shown in the bedroom

uninterruped by cut in shots that would add meaning to the scene, sex

acquires something that is metaphoric in that she is Garbo and for each of

her lovers it can only be fantasy, it becoming intangible at the very

moment of sexual climax to where their very corporeality is unknowable,

that in fact quite possibly known only by Garbo as well- there is an

objectification of the actress as Garbo and it is her tragic beauty that

has validity, her making love as the Garbo she has portrayed on the screen

that carries her to the next lover from a different, later film of Greta

Garbo, sex a metaphor for Garbo's elusiveness and her star quality. Early in the film Anna-Lena Hemstrom is in the role of an actress in the audience of the on-screen Greta Garbo, "How can one surrender oneself so completely." From there ,in a white bedroom and white nightgown symbolic of post-coital solitude, she introduces an eroticism of both reclusiveness and of sphinx-like mystery, of Garbo in character and only in character and of Anna-Lena Hemstrom as Greta, in character and only in character whispering, "Not now." "Not now."

Mai

Zetterling has said, "I don't have Garbo's austere tragic beauty." Just as

the film establishes the narrative on two levels, that of the actress that

can play a character on screen other than herself and invites the director

of the film she is making to her apartment and that of the actress as

Garbo in front of the camera, only known through the fulfillment of their

being conjugal, Garbo herself was described by Nils Asther, who starred

with her in Wild Orchids (Vilda orkideer, Sidney Franklin,

1929, eleven reels) and The Single Standard (En kvinnas

moral
, 1929, eight reels), as being shy, while Lon Chaney is quoted as

having said, "I told Garbo that mystery served me well and it would do as

much for her." Norma Shearer had said, "She was very cordial with me- and

then, after clasping my hand, she was suddenly gone." In his Film Essays

and Criticism, a valuable introduction to film theory, Rudolf Arnheim

gives Greta Garbo only a two page "portait", but it is from 1928 and may

be more than what is a cursory glance, his writing, "On cat's feet, her

coat pulled tightly about her and her hands folded in her lap, Greta Garbo

passes censorship." Arnheim sees Greta Garbo as erotic, as an erotic object.

The Perfect Murder has been aired in the United States on The

International Channel. Eva Isaksen newest film is currently being

unspooled in Norway.



Kerstin, a Swedish writer from Stockholm, was among the first of several Swedish bloggers to notice that Greta Garbo, the actress and the mystery, will be portrayed by Anna-Karin Eskilsson in the film Garbo, Svenska Dagbladet having announced during September of 2008 that the film, a biography, was slated to be lensed by Budd Bregman and screened to audiences during 2010.













Greta Garbo-Flesh and the Devil.



Louise Brooks (Diary of a

Lost Girl, Das Tagebuch Einer Verlorenen
Pabst, 1929 nine reels) had

written, "Garbo is all movement. First she gets the emotion, and out of

the emotion, comes the dialouge."
Greta Garbo
















Greta Garbo


And yet, not only was

Greta Garbo an actress, a figure of shadow sauntering across the screen,

gracefullness moving as image, but she insofar as she was sought after was

also a model, particularly when photographed by Arnold Genthe, Ruth Harriet Louise, George Hurrel, Edward Steichen or Cecil Beaton- Garbo

brought had with her the quality of being a model long after the last

publicity photo of her in studio costume. It was the quality of being a

model that is particularly shown by three photographs by Nickolas Muray,

whether it is an ebullient Greta

Garbo
, a pensive, or longing Greta

Garbo
, or the ethereal Greta

Garbo
that brings us only to the beginning of her mystery.










Greta Garbo



The Nordic Museum (Nordiska musset) in Stockholm, on Djurgarden, recently shown an exhibition of photos of herself owned by the actress Greta Garbo, which began June 2, 2006 and ran September 3,2006. Present during the exhibition was Derek Reisfield. Included in the exhibition are portraits taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull during the filming of Romance (Romantik, 1930), Mata Hari (1931) and Som du vill ha mig (1932). The year 2007 marked the Centennial of the museum.










"The Truth about Garbo is in pictures." The year 2006 also marks the online publication by Ture Sjolander of Garbo, his 1971 biography of Greta Garbo. It follows Garbo from her childhood and her home at Blekingatan, in Stockholm, to her third visit to Sweden in 1935, to photos taken while the actress was living as a recluse, her briefly passing the camera and allowing it only a glimpse of herself.


Greta Garbo
















And yet, before Garbo,it seems Swedish cinema was established by a

director who later came to the United States to direct Lillian Gish in

screenplays by Frances Marion, Victor

Sjöström.












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Wed, July 8, 2015 - 9:07 PM permalink








Please enjoy my first screening of the Danish Silent Film The Abyss, starring Asta Nielsen.







Scott Lord
Fri, March 20, 2015 - 7:27 PM permalink
originally published at Scott Lord :Silent Film
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Swedish Film 1909-1917

In part one of the Swedish Silent Film The Outlaw and His Wife (Berg Ejvind och hans hustru, 1918) Victor Sjostrom on screen portays a character that is introduced with an iris out, the previous scene which included secondary characters having concluded with an iris in; he is drinking from an Icelandic stream in medium close shot, the camera then cutting to a wider angle, it photographing him from the waist up to show more of the stream in the background. After a cut in, Sjöström cuts back to the shot, but only briefly, to show that his character is to the right of the screen, in profile, looking at what is offscreen to the left of the screen. Almost on action, he then abruptly cuts to a full shot in which the character has reversed the relation of his look to the side of the frame, his then cutting to a longshot as his character leaves the frame. He cuts to a vignette shot of his character facing the opposite direction that he does in the scene, and then to another accompanying a dialouge intertitle so that it is as though the line of dialouge has been delivered in close shot.

Throughout the rest of part one Victor Sjostrom carries the story forward, it introducing the woman he will marry in a sidelighted, near over the shoulder, near quarter shot, it being that she hires him for a month and then later makes him steward. While part two begins with establishing shots of the exterior, the horizon line often parallel to the top of the frame line ( a wall is later used to show a vertical division of frame as two lovers meet behind it), there is no interruption of continuity between it and part three, the two not linked by any camera device, but the scene is quickly moved to an interior. In part three she asks him to marry her and he tries to decline while declaring his love for her (Sjöström cuts back and forth between their dialouge and a retrospective scene during which he uses iris in and iris out to show ellipsis).

The rest of the film is of their journey together. In part four he cuts from a three quarter full shot of his character facing the right of the screen going towards her to embrace her to a shot of both of them in medium shot, her in his arms while he is facing the left of the screen. Rather than using suture between shot reverse shots, he holds the camera on them during the dialouge and concludes it by cutting to a closer angle of his character having lowered his body and putting his head on her stomach. During the dialouge which beings part seven an expository intertitle accompanies his interpolating a shot which would have been included in a previous scene and the shot from part four of his being near to her is repeated, their dialouge during while snowbound then continuing.

 Sjöström had written four hundred letters to his co-star Edith Erastoff, the woman he had married. About the film, Einar Lauritzen wrote, "But Sjöström never let the drama of human relations get lost in the grandeur of the scenery." Tom Milne sees the film as being an example of a director articulating "the sense of space and liberty in the use of landscape which was already one of the distinguishing marks of the Swedish cinema."

Par Lagerkvist published the essay Modern Theater (Teater) in 1918, it purporting, and possibly rightly so, that the theater of Ibsen lacked what was needed for then modern audiences. 1919 saw the publication of Par Lagerkvist's play The Secret of Heaven (Himlens hemlighet). Agnes von Krusenstjerna that year published the volume Helenas fösta karlek.

Bille August has recently filmed an adaptation of Lagerlof's Jerusalem- for Victor Sjöström and AB Svenska Biograteatern it became The Sons of Ingmar (Ingmarssonera,1918) starring Harriet Bosse and Tore Svennberg with the director and Karin, Daughter of Ingmar (Karin Ingmarsdotter 1920, six reels), starring Tora Teje, Harriet Bosse and Bertil Malmstedt with the director, thier having been filmed by cinematographer Julius Jaenzon and the screenplays to both film's having had been being Sjöström's; for Molander, Ingmar's Inheritance (Ingmarsarvet, 1925) with Marta Hallden and Mona Martensson and To the East (Till Osterland, 1926). Both star Lars Hanson and co-starring Molander. It had been Mauritz Stiller that had visited Selma Lagerlöf in Dalecarli to discuss the filming of adaptations to the novel. Sjöström had in fact hoped to film Liljecrona's Home rather than Jerusalem. Writing about The Sons of Ingmar, Bengt Forslund notes, "The most striking change that Sjöström introduces in his screenplay is to treat, daringly, the Kingdom of Heaven as a realistic setting...The scenery provides comic relief without seeming ridiculous. " Shooting the film mostly on location, "Sjöström developed dramatic moments that do not have the same intensity in the book" (Forslund). Forslund concludes by writing, "Otherwise, I still find The Sons of Ingmar less cinematic than The Outlaw and His Wife, less personal in its narrative technique." Of the actors in the film, he remarks, "Harriet Bosse seems a little miscast in the role of Brita, which certainly should have been played by an actress ten years younger."

While writing about the film Wild Strawberries, Jorn Donner notes that Ingmar Bergman's film is in part a tribute to Victor Sjostrom the director, "Many scenes have a tie-in with Victor Sjostrom's work. A smashed watch plays a part in Karin Ingmarsdotter."

In 1918, the first films to be directed by Sidney Franklin, who would later direct Greta Garbo in the silent film Wild Orchids, appeared in theaters, among them being Bride of Fear (five reels), The Safety Curtain (five reels) with Norma Talmadge, The Forbidden City (five reels) and Her Only Way (six reels), both films also starring Norma Talmadge. That year Fred Niblo, who would later direct Greta Garbo in the silent film The Mysterious Lady as well as Norma Talmadge in Camille (1927, nine reels), also began directing, his films having been The Marriage Ring, Fuss and Feathers (five reels), Happy Though Married (five reels) and When Do We Eat?. Director Paul Powell during 1918 teamed Rudolph Valentino and Marry Warren for the film All Night (five reels).

In 1919, Victor Sjöström wrote and directed His Lord's Will (His Grace's Will, Hans nads testamente) from the writings of Hjalmar Bergman. His Lord's Will (1940), starring Olof Sandborg, Barbro Kollberg and Alf Kjellin and scripted by Stina Bergman was directed by Per Lindberg. During 1919 the novel God's Orchid, written by Swedish playwright Hjalmar Bergman, would be published, followed in 1921 by the novel Thy Rod and Thy Staff and in 1930 by Jac the Clown.

Also in 1919, the Swedish director Ivan Hedqvist directed The Downy Girl. John W. Brunius that year directed the film The Girl of Solbakken (Synnove Solbakken), based on the novel written by Bjornstjerne Bjornson in 1857, the assistant director with Brunius having been Einar Bruun. Starring Lars Hanson and Karin Molander, it was the first film in which the actresses Ellen Dall, Ingrid Sandahl and Solveig Hedengran would each appear. The film reunited Sam Ask with John W. Bruinus, their both having co-written the script, as with Masterkatten i stovlar. Tytti Soila, in regard to the editing of the film writes, "The film's conflict of ideas is condensed in a sequence where there is cross-cutting between a religious revival meeting at Synnove's home and young people celebrating Midsummer by dancing in a meadow." That year Brunius also directed the film Oh Tommorow Night(Ah, i morron kvall), photographed by Hugo Edlund. Einar Bruun in 1919 directed the film Surrogatet, with Karin Molander for Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm. Danish Film director Robert Dinesen in 1919 filmed the first of two films in Sweden, Jefthas dottar, with Signe Kolthoff, the second having been Odets redskap with Astri Torsell and Clara Schonfeld filmed in 1922.

Griffith directed The Girl Who Stayed at Home ( 1919, six reels), photographed by Bitzer and starring Robert Harron, Carol Dempster, Richard Barthelmess and Clarine Seymour. He also directed Lillian Gish in True Heart Susie (six reels) with Robert Harron and Kate Bruce. Sidney Franklin in 1919 would again direct Norma Talmadge, her starring in the six reel film The Heart Of Wetona.

Conrad Nagel appeared in his first films, The Lion and the Mouse (Tom Terriss, five reels), Redhead and Little Women (H. Knoles, six reels), with Dorothy Bernard, Isabel Lamon and Lillian Hall. Theda Bara was to appear in A Woman There Was, directed by J. Gordon Edwards. She wrote "How I became a Vampire" for the June 1919 issue of Forum magazine and was interviewed by Olga Petrova for Shadowland Magazine in 1920 and for Motion Picture Magazine in 1922, both instances of one actor interviewing another.

The selcted poems of Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam were published in 1919. The Swedish poet had published the volume Nya Dikterin in 1915. He is the author of historical novel Karolinerna.

Sir Arne's Treasure (Herr Arne's pengar 1919, seven reels), with Mary Johnson, co-scripted by Molander, continued Sjöström's filming of the novels of Selma Lagerlöf, its director Mauritz Stiller. The film was photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Ingmar Bergman has said, "I think Stiller with his Erotikon and Herr Arne's Treasure is alot of fun. And his Atonement of Gosta Berling, too, is a fresh, powerful, vital film." There is an account of Stiller having introduced Greta Garbo to Selma Lagerlöf and an account of Lagerlöf having complimented her on her beauty and her "sorrowful eyes". Where Selma Lagerlof and Mauritz Stiller had differred was on adaptation; Stiller perhaps seeing film as more visual, or theatrical, Gösta Werner having written that "Stiller later regretted preserving the long winded intertitles copied from the novel" (Tytti Soila) while filming Sir Arne's Treasure, or it may have having had been being that Stiller, as a compliment to Lagerlöf, had begun searching for a connection to the theater that both he and Gustav Molander had studied in Helsinki and similarities within Scandanavian literature. Of the film, Robert Payne writes, "he employed every trick known to cinema: close ups, dissolves, masks, superimposed images, sudden changes of tempo- a slow dreamy pace for the visionary scenes and an unbelieveably fast pace for the scenes of fighting...The film was tinted, thus giving it a heightened sense of reality." Author on Scandinavian Film Forsyth Hardy remarked upon the editing of the film by writing, "It also had a visual harmony, absent from some of the earlier films where the transition from interior to exterior was too abrupt." Wanda Rothgardt also appears in the film.
The Song of the Scarlet Flower (Sangen om den eldroda blomman, 1919), was to star Lars Hanson and Edith Erastoff. The Song of the Scarlet Flower (1956) with Gunnel Lindblom and Anita Björk was directed by Gustaf Molander. The tinting of the first film provides a contrast between its individual scenes, moods and uses of nature as a background, its narrative following a structure of seperate chapters. Particularly interested in the interrelated components of each film being part of the film in its entirety, David Bordwell writing with Kristin Thompson, also regards the emotion of the spectator during any sequence of a film as being related to the viewing of the film in its entirety; seperate scenes that are tinted belong to the film in its entirety- the film after it has been edited. Narrative and stylistic elements in film form are often interrelated. Long before Bordwell, Raymond Spttiswoode had written, "The film director is continually analysing his material into sections, which, in a great variety of ways, can be altered to suit his purpose. At the same time he is synthesizing these sections into larger units which represent his attitude toward the world, and reveal the design he finds displayed in it. The analysis is an analysis of structure; of the filmic components which the director discerns in the natural world."

Lucy Fischer in fact remarks upon the narrative unity with Jacques Feyder's The Kiss, noting that to view the film as an entirety, the spectator must combine different events from seperate sequences, connecting the plot events centered around Garbo's character. Oddly, she later discusses the background to narrative as conveying the thematic, not in as much as man's relationship to nature can depict the emotion inherent within storyline, as often in the films of Stiller and Sjöström, but in that the mise en scene of the silent films of Greta Garbo, in its being dramatic, provides an embellishment of the narrative through its spatial composition of the image- it being Garbo that is crossing the set and sitting into the shot, it being a melodrama taking place within a world in which she can be otherworldly. Raymond Spottiswoode, writing in 1933, as well saw film as being comprised of its component parts. The sequence is seen as a series of shots that taken as part of the film as a whole add to its untiy. Spottiswoode describes there being implicational montage, where the sequences are seen in their entirety, their then containing within them content that has a relation to the film as a whole through implication, a series of shots producing its effect, creating its significance, in combination with other sequences in the film.
Greta Garbo photographer William Daniels continued his early career as second camerman under the direction of Eric von Strohiem, one film having had been being Blind Husbands (eight reels, 1919), starring Fay Holderness and Francellia Billington, another having been the film The Devil's Passkey (1920, seven reels), starring Una Tevelyan, Mae Busch and Maud George. Although one of the best films of the decade, the silent Blind Husbands, was concerned with marriage and the marital, one actress that had made several marriage dramas had been Katherine MacDonald. Of those she had appeared in were The Beauty Market (Campbell, 1919, nine reels), The Woman Thou Gavest Me, The Notorious Miss Lisle (1920) and Passion's Playground (1920). To add to any new look at marriage that was taking place as Hollywood peered through the keyhole into a modernity of what was being shown of the bedroom, DeMille in 1919 directed Why Change Your Husband (six reels), Male and Female (nine reels) with Lila Lee and For Better or Worse (seven reels), his having begun a series of films on marital relations in 1918 with Old Wives for New (six reels), each film scripted by Jeanie Macpherson. Macpherson, who had begun writing screenplays for DeMille with the 1915 film The Captive, starring Blanche Sweet, in 1920 continued with the director by scripting the film Something to Think About (seven reels), starring Gloria Swanson. Fred Niblo directed the film The Marriage Ring (five reels) in 1918. It has been offered that the films of DeMille are not only erotic comedies but reflect the becoming a commodity of matrimony and the reification of married life through the exchange values employed within suture and the syntax of shot reverse shot, the commodification of female sexuality within gendered spectatorship; within a model of the new woman a female subjectivity is constructed that is a result of consumerism. Whether or not the influence is direct, Einar Lauritzen has attributed the success of Mauritz Stiller's film Erotikon (When We Are Married, 1920), starring Lars Hanson, Tora Teje , Guken Cederborg and Karin Molander, to the films of DeMille. Added to that, in that there is a connection between the marriage dramas of De Mille and von Stroheim and the early film of Ernst Lubitsch, author Kenneth Macgowan having written that "in a wittier way" than the earlie two directors, Lubitsch had, "contributed to the delinquency of the screen", in particular with the silent film The Marriage Circle, in regard to the influence Mauritz Stiller may have had, Birgitta Steene writes, "They have often reminded foriegn critics of the comedies of Ernst Lubitsch, but actually the elegant eroticism characteristic of both Lubitsch and Bergman finds its source in the works of the Swedish motion picture director Mauritz Stiller." The film was photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. An emailed newsletter from Kino video during April of 2006 announced the release in the United States of Erotikon on DVD; the film is introduced by author Peter Cowie.

Mauritz Stiller is particularly noted for having directed Sjöström in two comedies for AB Svenska Biograteatern, Wanted A Film Actress,Thomas Graal's basta film, 1917), with Karin Molander, and Marriage ala mode (Thomas Graal's first child, Thomas Graal's basta barn, 1918). Rune Carlsten and Henrik Jaenzon both appeared on screen during Thomas Graal's Best Film. Molander continued as director and writer of Thomas Graal's Ward (Thomas Graal's mindling, 1922), photographed by Adrian Bjurman. Greta Garbo had seen the film Erotikon before her having met Stiller. Erotic comedy was later explored by the Finnish director Teuvo Tulio in his film You Want Me Like This (Sellaisena kuin sina minut balusit, 1944).

Victor Sjostrom-The Phantom CarriageWhen asked about Victor Sjöström, Ingmar Bergman had told Torsten Manns, "His films meant a tremendous lot to me, particularly The Phantom Carriage (The Phantom Chariot,Korkarlen, 1920, also listed as 1921) and Ingeborg Holm. The former, adapted from a novel by Selma Lagerlöf, directed by Victor Sjöström from his screenplay, has often been compared to the opening symbolic sequence to Bergman's Wild Strawberries. Bergman has written that while filming that it seemed to him that it soon became 'Victor's film', the film belonging more to the actor than the director, and yet, after Wild Strawberries (Simultronstallet, 1957) Bergman would begin to write films in which "dialouge and characterizations would take precedence over scenery and locations." (Cowie). In part, what may account for Bergman's feeling that the film had become more of a contribution that Sjöström had made rather than one of his own is the structure of the film's narrative, its use of a protagonist as narrative address-during an interview with Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns and Jonas Sima, Bergman had said, "Many of my films are about journeys, about people going from one place to another." Sima had noted shortly before that Wild Strawberries centers around the character portrayed by Victor Sjöström and "his relation to himself". Victor Sjöström in fact was not in the best of health during the filming of Wild Strawberries and reportedly had difficulty remembering lines of dialouge. There were scenes that had been filmed on indoor sets using backscreen projection to accomodate Sjöström.

Sjöström stars in both films. Photographed by Jaenzon, the film also stars Hilda Borgström, Mona Geifer-Falkner, Tore Svennberg. Signe Wirff and Helga Brofeldt also star in the film in what would be their first appearances on the silver screen. Einar Lauritzen wrote, "The double exposures in the graveyard scenes and in the scenes with the phantom chariot are beautifully executed, and, as always in Julius Jaenzon's photography, the interplay of light and shadow is superb." Quoted by the director of the Pordenone Film Festival, Peter Cowie has noted that during the scene, "Occasionally, as many as four images are superimposed on a single frame." The Phantom Carriage (Korkarlen) was filmed by Arne Mattsson in 1958.

Danish film director Lau Lauritzen directed five films in Sweden in 1920, En hustru till lans with Karen Winther, Flickorna i Are, with Kate Fabian, Karleck och bjornjakt with Si Holmquist, Vil de vare min kone-i morgen and Damernes ven. Although The President (Praesidenten, 1919), starring Elith Pio and Olga Raphael-Linden, is not distinguished as being remarkable, it is one of the only two that Carl Th Dreyer made in Denmark before his going abroad, his later establishing a small body of work that would be indelible upon filmmaking. His films are disparate stylisticly, differing in their use of technique; Dreyer has been quoted as having remarked upon his having tried to find a style.

The films of Clara Kimball Young were the springboard for scriptwriter Lenore Coffee, whose first films as a screenwriter, The Better Wife (William Earle, 1919,five reels) and The Forbidden Woman (1920) had starred the actress.

Finnish silent film director Erkki Karu directed two films for Suomen Biografi in 1920, both photographed by Finnish cinematographer Frans Ekebom, War Profiteer Kaikus Disrupted Summer Vacation (Sotagubishi Kaiun Hairitty Kesaloma) and Student Pollovaara's Betrothal (Ylioppilas Pollovaaran kihlaus).
One of the most beautiful silent films ever made by Mary Pickford, Pollyanna (Paul Powell, six reels) was filmed in 1920. The film also stars William Courtleigh. Pickford also that year made the film Suds (five reels) under the direction of John Francis Dillon. The film also stars William Austin. Mary Pickford was portrayed by Swedish actress Agneta Ekmanner in the 1974 teleplay Bakom masker, directed by Lars Amble and based on the play by Hjalmer Bergman. In a film that would almost seem a yardstick for many of the films that would comprise the rest of the silent film era, Douglas Fairbanks starred under the direction of Fred Niblo in the film The Mark of Zorro.

 
Covergirl for Photoplay Magazine, Norma Talmadge was also that year directed by Roy W. Neill in the film A Woman Gives (six reels). A Daughter of Two World (James Young, six reels) and She Loves and Lies were also to star Norma Talmadge that year. Norma Shearer appeared in films in the year 1920, among them being The Sign On the Door ( Herbert Brenon, seven reels), The Flapper (Alan Crosland, five reels), The Restless Sex (six reels) written by Frances Marion and The Stealers (seven reels, William Christy Cabanne).

That year D. W. Griffith directed Lillian Gish in The Greatest Question (six reels), photographed by G. W. Bitzer. Griffith also directed the films The Idol Dancer (1920, seven reels), with Richard Barthelmess, Clarine Seymour and Kate Bruce and The Love Flower (1920, seven reels), with silent film actress Carol Dempster. The following year Dempster again starred under the direction of D. W. Griffith in the silent film Dream Street. In 1920 Dorothy Gish not only starred in the film Little Miss Rebellion (five reels), directed by George Fawcett, but also had begun filming with the director F. Richard Jones, under whose direction she starred in Flying Pat (1920, five reels), with Kate Bruce, The Ghost in the Garret (1921) and The County Flapper (1922) with Glenn Hunter and Mildred Marsh. Lillian Gish writes about Garbo's later asking her to introduce her to Griffith, which she did, and of Garbo's asking her how she should dress. Garbo had said to her, "It would be nice to have dinner at your house."

Victor Sjöström wrote and directed The Monastery of Sendomir (The Secret of the Monastery, Kloster i Sendomir, 1920) with Tora Teje, Richard Lund and Tore Svennberg. Photgraphed by Henrik Jaenzon, the film was adapted by Sjöström from a novel by Franz Grillparzev. A screening of the film was offerred by the Norwegian Film Institute on July 17,2005 in the Cinemateket. During 1920 Sjöström also directed Master Samuel (A Dangerous Pledge,Masterman), in which he starred with Greta Almroth and Concordia Selander. Photographed by Julius Jaenzon, it was scripted by Hjalmar Bergman, as was the 1921 film Fru Mariannes friare, directed by Gunnar Klintberg and starring Astri Torsell, Inga Ellis and Aslaug Lie-Eide, the cinematographer to the film having been Robert Olsson. Gunnar Klintberg would continue by directing Astri Torsell in two other Swedish Silent films, The Love Child, with Julia Hakansson, and Lord Saviles brott. The Fishing Villiage (Chains, Fiskebyn) was filmed in 1920 by Stiller and Henrik Jaenzon, it starring Lars Hanson. Appearing in the film was Hildur Carlburg, who that year also appearred in the film The Witch Woman (Prastankan), shot in Sweden by Danish film director Carl Dreyer. Sölve Cederstrand directed his first film, Ett odesdigert inkognito, starring Tage Alquist and Signe Selid, in 1920. The Swedish director John W. Brunius was to direct The Wild Bird (En vindfagel, 1921), in which he starred with Pauline Brunius, Tore Svennberg, Mona Geifer-Falkner and Edvin Adolphson, The Mill (Kvarnen, 1921), starring Helene Olsson and Ellen Dall and photographed by Hugo Edlund, A Fortune Hunter (En Lyckoriddarre, 1921 six reels) starring Gösta Ekman, Mary Johnson, Hilda Forsslund and Greta Garbo, her appearing with her sister Alva Gustafsson in a scene that takes place in a tavern. In 1922 he directed Iron Wills (Harda viljor). Directed for Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm in 1920, the first three films by Pauline Brunius, De lackra skaldjuren, Ombytta roller and Trollslanden, were also the first three films in which the actress Frida Winnerstrand was to appear.

Rune Carlsten in 1920 wrote and directed A Modern Robinson (Robinson i skargarden) with Mary Johnson. He that year also directed Mary Johnson, with Tora Teje, in the film Family Traditions (Familjens traditioner), which he scripted as well. The film was produced by Svensk Filmindustri

Danish silent film director A. W. Sandberg in 1920 wrote and directed two films for the Nordisk Films Kompagni in which the actress Clara Wieth starred, House of Fatal Love (Kaerlighedsvalen) and A Romance of Riches (Stodderprinsessen), in which she starred with Gunnar Tolnaes. Sandberg also that year directed the film Adrift (Det dode Skib), with Valedmar Psilander, Stella Lind and Else Frolich.

Ivan Hedqvist in 1921 directed the film Pilgrimage to Kevlar (Vallfarten till Kevlaar) starring Jessie Wessel, which he followed in 1924 with Life in the Country (Livet pa landet), photographed by Julius Jaenzon.

In 1921, Pauline Brunius wrote and directed the film Lev livet leende and directed the film Ryggskott. Let No Man Put Asunder (Hogre andamal, 1921) starred Edith Erastoff, her director having been Rune Carlsten. Klaus Albrecht that year directed Lili Ziedner in the film The Bimbini Circus (Cirkus Bimbini).  Tyra Ryman was introduced to her later costar Greta Garbo in 1922 at PUB by Eric Petschler, who directed both in Luffar-Peter. Writing about another film directed that year by Mauritz Stiller, Tom Milne sees the film Johan as having contributed to the technique and to the look of the film The Bride of Gromdal directed by Carl Th. Dreyer.

Carl Th. Dreyer in 1921 directed the silent film Leaves from Satan's Book (Blade af Satans Bog).

In the United States during 1921, Mary Pickford continued acting with the silent filmLittle Lord Fauntleroy.

In 1922, Victor Sjöström wrote and directed the films Love's Crucible (Vem domer), with Gosta Ekman and Jenny Hasselqvist and Ivan Hedqvist, The Hellship, from a screenplay written by Hjalmar Bergman and starring Matheson Long and Jenny Hasselqvist and Julia Cederblad in the first film in which she was to appear, both films having had been being filmed by Julius Jaenzon. That year Sjöström also directed The Surrounded House (Det omringade huset), starring Wanda Rothgardt and Hilda Forsslund. The Swedish director Gustaf Edgren contributed The Young Lady of Bjorneborg (Froken pa Bjorneborg, 1922), photographed by Adrian Bjurman and starring Rosa Tilman, Elsa Wallin and the actress Edit Ernholm in her first film. Sigurd Wallen that year directed his first film Andessonskans Kalle with Stina Berg and Anna Diedrich, his following it with Andessonskans Kalle pa nya upptag with Edvin Adolphson, the debut film of Mona Martenson. John W. Brunius that year directed A Scarlet Angel (Eyes of Love, Karlekens ogon), photographed by Hugo Edlund. That year Ragnar Ring wrote and directed En Vikingafilm, with Harald Wehlnor and Sigrid Ahlstrom.

Karin Boye, the Swedish poet began publishing in 1922 with the volume Clouds. She continued in 1924 with Hidden Lands and in 1927 with The Hearths. Swedish poet Birger Sjoberg in 1922 published Frida's Songs.

Writing about the 1922 Finnish Silent Film, Tytta Soila notes, "Perhaps one might say that the fortune of Suomi-Filmi, and thus the future of Finnish cinema, was established by portraying the lives of two strong female characters: Anna-Liisa and Hannah. Subsequently, many Finnish films were to have a strong female character at the center of the action."
In 1922 Rudolf Valentino was in an early role, starring with Gloria Swanson in the film Beyond the Rocks (Sam Wood); the only existant copy of the film was found recently and the film, readying for distribution in United States during 2005, had its premiere in Amsterdam at the Filmuseum's Biennale festival. In her autobiography Swanson on Swanson, the actress gives an account of making of the film. "Everyone wanted Beyond the Rocks to be every luscious thing Hollywood could serve up in a single picture: the sultry glamour of Gloria Swanson, the steamy Latin magic of Rudolph Valentino, a rapturous love story byb Elinor Glyn, and the tango as it was meant to be danced, by the master himself. In the story I played a poor but aristocratic English girl who is married off to an elderly millionaire, only to meet the lover of her life on her honeymoon." After describing the fun she had off the set with Valentino, with whom she often had dinner, she concludes, "Several months later he married Natacha Rambova, and from then on he and I saw each other seldom." Valentino had in 1921 starred in the silent film Camille (Ray C. Smallwood, six reels) with Patsy Ruth Miller and Consuelo Flowerton.
It is only with sincere appreciation for for the Silent Film series aired on Turner Classic Movies on Sunday Nights that the best of luck should be wished to Robert Osborne and Charles Tabesh at their appearing at the screening of silent films- Robert Osborne was present at the San Francisco Silent Film Festival for the July 14, 2007 showing of Camille. The film was included in the Greta Garbo Signature released in 2005 near to the 100th birthday of the actress Greta Garbo along with a section entitled TCM archive: Greta Garbo Silents.
D.W. Griffith in 1922 directed Carol Dempster in One Exciting Night (eleven reels). By then a producer for United Artists, Griffith followed in 1923 by directing Carol Dempster in the film The White Rose with Mae Marsh (twelve reels). Sidney Franklin in 1922 directed the film The Primitive Lover, starring Constance Talmadge. Lon Chaney in 1922 starred in the film Flesh and Blood (five reels). Norma Shearer first appeared in a starring role in 1922 in the film The Man Who Paid (five reels), directed by Oscar Apfel. Rudolf Valentino in 1922 would appear with Wanda Hawley in the film The Young Rajah (Phil Rosen), the screenplay to the film written by June Mathis, who adapted the script from a novel by ames Ames Mitchell. Valentino would also that year appear with Dorothy Dalton in Moran of the Lady Letty (George Melford).


Filmed in Sweden by Danish silent film director Benjamin Christensen, 1922 saw the release of the long awaited film Haxan (Witchcraft Through the Ages). The film, recently included in the films of Janus Films and in the silent film from Criterion, in the United States, was photographed by Johan Ankerstjerne and written by Christensen, who appears in the film with Ella la Cour, Emmy Schonfeld, Kate Fabian, Elisabeth Christensen, Astrid Holm and Elith Pio. Notably Alice O Fredricks and Tora Teje also appear in the film. In a film that to Sweden was to be its Intolerance, Christensen numerously uses the iris in to punctuate the end of a particular scene and the iris out in the subsequent shot to begin the adjacent scene; he goes so far as to use both during the same shot. Raymond Sptossiwoode remarked upon the fade in and fade out, along with the dissolve and wipe, as being something that was to "produce a softening effect, an indeterminate space between successive shots", his delegating it to being "the mark of the termination of an incident or of a defined period of time". German director Paul Wegener, two years earlier than Christensen's film, released a remake of his film The Golem (Der Golem), which he had first filmed in 1915.
Gunnar Hede's Saga (1922, seven reels), directed by Mauritz Stiller, and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, starring Pauline Brunius and Julia Cederblad, is based the novel En Herrgardsaggen by Selma Lagerlöf. Forsyth Hardy on Gunnar Hede's Saga writes, "Again there was a distinctive combination of a powerfully dramatic story and a magnificient setting in the northern landscape. It was the first film in which actress Lotten Olsson was to appear.

The King of Boda (Tyranny of Hate, Bodakungen, 1920) was the first film to bear the name of Gustaf Molander as director. It was also the first film to be photographed by cinematographer Adrian Bjurman. The film stars Egil Eide and Wanda Rothgardt. Continuing the filming of the novels of Lagerlöf, he directed Birgit Sergelius and Pauline Brunius in Charlotte Lowenskold (1930). Charlotte Lowenskold is the second in a trilogy of short stories written by Selma Lagerlöf, each of them having the Scandinavian landscape of Varmland as their background. The beginning volume, Lowenskolska Ringen was published in 1925, the third volume, Anna Svard having appeared in 1928. During 1930 Gustaf Molander also directed Frida's Songs (Frida's visor), both films having had been being filmed by Julius Jaenzon. Victor Sjostrom had starred with Wanda Rothgart and Gunn Wallgren in the first filming of The Word (Ordet, 1943) under the direction of Molander, the actor Rune Lindstrom having written the screenplay. Victor Sjostrom also acted under Molander's direction in the films The Fight Goes On (Striden gar Vidare, 1941),in which Sjostrom appeared with Renee Bjorling and Ann-Margret Bjorlin, it having had been being the debut of the actress in film, Det Brinner en Eld (1943), in which Sjöström appeared with Lars Hanson and Inga Tiblad and Kvartetten som Sprangdes (1950). If as though to either to complement or to counter the use of mise en scene and Victor Sjöström's use of landscape in early Swedish cinema, Molander is a director of the interior scene. Tytti Soila writes, "Particularly in the melodramas, Molander used the composition of the image with the purpose of showing something essential about the existential situation of the characters. The pictures are 'tight' and on the verge of being claustrophobic, as props and other details of the set fill the frame, competing for room with the characters."

Gustaf Molander's second film Amatorfilmen (1922), starring Mimi Pollack, was the first film in which the actress Elsa Ebbensen-Thornblad was to appear.

Brunius in 1923 directed the film The Best of All, following it with Maid Among Maids (En piga bland pigor, 1924), photographed by Hugo Edlund, and starring Edvin Adolphson and Margit Manstad. Gustaf Edgren in 1923 wrote and directed the film People of Narke (Narkingarna) photographed by Adrian Bjurman and starring Anna Carlsten, Gerda Bjorne and Maja Jerlström in her first appearence on screen, the director following it in 1924 with The King of Trollebo (Trollebokungen), an adaptation of the 1917 novel scripted by Sölve Cederstrand and photographed by C.A. Söström, the film having starred Ivar Kalling, Weyeler Hildebrand and Signe Ekloff.

Per Lindberg directed his first film in 1923, Norrtullsligan written by Hjalmar Bergman and starring Tora Teje, Egil Eide, Stina Berg, Linnea Hillberg and Nils Asther, as did William Larsson, who directed Jenny Tschernichin, Jessie Wessel and Frida Sporrong in the film Halsingar and Karin Swanström, who directed and starred with Karin Gardtman and Ann Mari Kjellgren in the film Boman at the Exhibition (Boman pa utstallningen) for Scandias Filmbyra and Svensk Filmindustri. Halsingar was also to be the first of many films photgraphed by Swedish cinematographer Henning Ohlson. Per Lindgren that year directed a second film scripted by Hjalmar Bergman, Anna Klara and her Brothers (Anna Clara och hennes broder), it starring Anna-Britt Ohlsson, Hilda Borgström, Karin Swanström, Linnea Hillberg, Hilda Borgström and Margit Manstad in what would be her first appearance on the siler screen. The film was photographed by Ragnar Westfelt. Bror Abelli in 1923 directed his first two films, including the film Janne Modig.

Ragnar Widestedt in 1923 directed Agda Helin and Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson in the film Housemaids (Hemslavinnor), written by Ragnar-Hylten-Cavallius. Froken Fob (1923) was directed by Elis Ellis and photographed by Adrian Bjurman. Sven Bardach photographed his first film in 1923, Andersson, Petterson och Lundstrom, under the direction of Carl Barklind. The film stars Vera Schmiterlow and Mimi Pollock, both of whom were aquaintances of Greta Garbo, Inga Tiblad, Gucken Cederborg and Edvin Adolphson. Fredrik Anderson in 1923 directed En rackarunge, with Elsa Wallin and Mia Grunder. Gustaf V, King of Sweden is listed as being in the film. The film was photographed by Swedish cinematographer Sven Bardach.

Although Victor Sjöström had embarked for the United States to film in Hollywood under the name Victor Seatrom, Danish silent film directors Benjamin Christensen and Carl Th. Dreyer, who both had begun as scriptwriters for Nordisk in 1912, would by 1923 have travelled to Germany, as Urban Gad, Asta Nielsen and Stellan Rye had earlier. Christensen would star in Dreyer's 1924 film Mikail (Chained) in addition to directing the film Seine Frau, die Unbekannte (1924) while there. Carl Th. Dreyer would direct the films Love One Another (Die Gezeichneten, 1921) and Once Upon a Time (Der Var engang, 1924).

Danish actress Olga d'Org starred in three films for Nordisk Films Kompagni, all of which were directed by A.W. Sandberg, including the 1923 film The Hill Park Mystery (Nedbrudte nerver).

Finnish film director Karl Fager in 1923 brought the film The Old Baron of Rautakyla (Rautakylan Vanha Parooni) to the screen.

John Lindlof in 1924 directed Man of Adventure (Odets man) with Inga Tiblad and Uno Henning and photographed by Gustav A Gustafson. Sigurd Wallen that year directed Inga Tiblad with Einar Froberg in Grevarna pa Svanta, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. Theodor Berthels in 1924, wrote and directed the film People of the Simlanga Valley (Folket i Simlangsdalen) with Mathias Taube and Greta Almroth and directed the film The Girl from Paradise (Flickan fran Paradiset). Both films were photographed by Swedish cinematographer Adrian Bjurman. Ragnar Ring that year directed Bjorn Mork and Nar millionera rulla. Ivar Kage in 1924 directed Gosta Hillberg and Edvin Adolphson in the film Where the Lighthouse Flashed (Dar fryen blinkar) for Svensk Ornfilm. Rune Carlsten in 1924 wrote and directed The Young Nobleman (Unga greven tar flickan och priset). Hellwig Rimmen that year directed and photgraphed the film Hogsta vinsten.



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Silent Greta Garbo:Victor Sjostrom as Victor Seastrom

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Victor Sjostrom  Silent Garbo








Swedish Silent Film: Victor Sjostrom, Greta Garbo



Filmic address could more often be comprised of objects put into the scene, placing the view of the spectator within it, not only to bring a greater involvement with character, but to allow the spectator to identify more often with the relation between character and enviornment, technique providing the relation between film and viewer. Specific to the relationship between character and enviornment is the relation between the character and the object towards which he or she is looking. The aesthetics of pictorial composition could utilize placing the figure in either the foreground or background of the shot, depth of plane,depth of framing, narrative and pictorial continuity being developed together. Compositions would become related to each other in the editing of successive images and adjacent shots, the structure of the scene; Griffith had already begun to cut mid-scene, his cutting to another scene before the action of the previous scene was completed, and had certainly already begun to cut between two seperate spatial locations within the scene.


Author Kenneth Macgowan praises the silent film The Avenging Conscience as a photoplay, his view being that Giriffith's film uses a narrative method of storystructure, action being secondary to character development, if not often interpolated in between scenes, his noting that it was seldom that Griffith used intertitles with lines of dialougue during a scene. Among the narrative films of Griffith filmed in 1909 was the silent film The Sealed Room.

The camera could also portray the character more fully by adding the movement of the camera to character movement, as in The Golden Louis (1909), mobilizing the gaze of the character within the organization of the look. In For Love of Gold, one of the fourty four biograph films made in 1908, D.W. Griffith and Bitzer had shifted the placement of the camera during the scene, the close up used in conjuction with the long shot and full shot. Not only could the editing together of different spatial relationships with each shot provide contrast between shots that were in a series, but the duration of each shot could be varying as well. With the use of varying camera postitions, particularly during the 1908 film After Many Years, Griffith would establish the use of the narrative close up, and by the interpolating of an individual shot between shots similar in composition as a cut in shot, editing would be used to connect seperate shots to advance plotline. With Griffith, film would create a proscenium arc of its own, that of the lens, a lens that would with the Vitagraph nine foot line bring the frame into the grammar of film, shifting from a viewpoint of playing in front of the audience to one more aligned with it, the authorial camera entering into a new relationship with the spectator- included in the films made by D. W Griffith in 1908 is a stage to screen adaptation of The Taming of the Shrew, with Florence Lawrence.

Among the literary adaptations filmed by Vitagraph in 1909 was Launcelot and Elaine.

In her autobiography, Lillian Gish discusses Griffith's use of shot legnth in The Lonely Villa (1909) and his cutting between camera distances in The Lonedale Operator (1911). Not incidentally, Eisenstien in a discussion of Griffith's editing goes so far as to describe "the principle function of the close shot" which is "not so much to present, as to signify, to designate, to give meaning." Belazs adds, "Only in editing is the shot given its particular meaning." Cavell writes, "If either the frame or subject budges, the composition alters." If filmic address during a cinema of attractions had begun with the act of display, it had begun to incorporate the actor as seen in close shot, which could be edited into a grammar of film - the shot had become "the unit of editing" and the "basis for the construction of the scene" (Jacobs), whereas before it had been the scene that would allow the placement of shots, it now being that there could be an assemblage of shots. Terry Ramsaye writes," Griffith began to work at a syntax for the screen narration...While Griffith may not have originated the closeup and like elements of technique, he did establish for them their function."; which silent film author Nicholas A. Vardac reiterates by writing that it was from the films of Edwin S. Porter that D.W. Griffith acquired the technique of viewing the shot within its context as "a syntax for the melodrama".

Belazs mentions that the mood of a scene can be established by the particular set ups that are used, his almost attributing the ability to participate in the action to the surroundings and background in which the film takes place, as does Spottiswoode, who mentions that by filming from any number of postitions and angles, the director can decide which elements of the scene can be included in creating its mood, particularly which components of the director's subject. Bengt Forslund notes that the use of nature to provide the action of the scene with something that would render it more dramatic Gardner, particularly diring "the lyrical love sequences between Lili Beck and Gösta Ekman, his having written, "There is also an intentionally stereoscopic effect in the sets that is typical of all of Sjöström's films, and that shows the amount of intuition Sjöström had for the new medium."

Nevertheless in his best dramas of pastoral life, Sjöström to integrate the rugged Swedish landscape into the texture of his films with an almost mystical force- a feature noted and much admired in other countries." Sjöström and Stiller can be compared while relating their influence upon the silent film of Finland, but it can be allowed that "Victor Sjöström delved deeper into the mysteries of the landscape." (Annitti Alanen) Of interest is that the establishing shot that begins the Greta Garbo film Love, directed in the Untied States by Edmund Goulding is an exterior that begins the plotline with Garbo in a snowstorm being brought homeward in a sleigh; it is a series of exterior shots that depict nature as the background for character delineation very much like in the films of Scandinavian director Victor Sjöström, so much so that it is revealed in the first interior shots that both the love interest in the film, portrayed by John Gilbert, and the audience, were nearly unaware of who the character portayed by Garbo really was and hadn't fully realized it untill being given later look at the beauty of the passenger, as though they were being reintroduced to someone they had been with during the journey through the snow.

And yet, if the present author has anything to add to what has been written in appreciation of Scandinavian film and its use of landscape to add depth to the development of character by creating relationships between the background and the protagonist of any given film's plotline, within that is that within classical cinema and its chronological ordering of events, it is still often spatio-temporal relationships that are developed. The viewer often acknowledging the effect that an object within the film might have upon the character, an object that is either stationary or in movement, poeticly in movement as a waterfall would be, the structuring of space within the film not only clarifies plot action, but, within the framed image, included in the spatial continuity within the visual structure of the film, establishes a relation of objects that appear onscreen to the space that is offscreen. Spatial relations became narrative. Character movement, camera movement and shot structure create a scenographic space which within the gaze of the actress is observed through an ideal of femininity, a unity of space constructed that links shots, often by forming spaces that are contiguous within the scene and creating images that are poeticly presented as being contiguous; subjectivity is structured within the discourse of the film and these subjectivities are presented to the viewer as being within a larger context within early Silent Scandinavian films.

In addition to using close ups that could isolate the actor from what particular background that happenned to surround him or her, D. W. Griffith would establish the relationship between character and enviornment as well, particularly developing it through the use of editing and varying spatial relationships, as in his use of exteriors and the long shot in the silent film Battle at Elderbrush (1912).

In Kristianstad, Sweden the director Carl Engdahl pioneered with the film The People of Varmland (Varmanningarna) in 1909. Robert Olsson photographed The Wedding at Ulfasa for two directors, the second having had been being Gustaf Linden. The film starred the Swedish silent film actresses Ellen Appelberg, Lilly Wasmuth and Anna Lisa Hellstrom. In 1910, Olsson wrote, directed and photographed the film Emigranten, starring Oscar Soderholm and Valborg Ljungberg, and photographed the films Emigrant starring Torre Cederborg and Gucken Cederborg in her first appearance on screen, and Regina von Emmeritz och Kongung Gustaf II Adolf, starring Emile Stiebel and Gerda Andre, both directed by Gustaf Linden. Twelve years later, Gucken Cederborg was introduced to another actress who would soon be introduced to Swedish audiences, Barry Paris having written that when when she and actress Tyra Ryman walked into Pub with actor-director Eric Petschler, Greta Garbo, who worked there as a clerk, recognized them immediately.

Film historians have noted that Kristianstad, Sweden was home to another film, The Man Who Takes Care of the Villian (Han som clara boven), filmed in 1907. Produced by Franz G. Wiberg, the film has never been released theatrically.

Svensk Kinematograf was the production company that under N. E. Sterner had filmed six of the earliest films photographed in Scandinavia- Robert Olsson had photographed Pictures of Laplanders (Lappbilder), Herring Fishing in Bohuslan (Sillfiske i Bohuslan), Lika mot lika starring Tollie Zellman and Kung Oscars mottagning i Kristianstad in 1906 before working with Carl Engdahl. Also shown in Stockholm and Goteborg during 1906 was the film Kriget i Ostergotland. In 1911, Gustaf Linden, directed the film The Iron Carrier (Jarnbararen), photographed by Robert Olsson and starring Anna-lisa Hellstrom and Ivan Hedqvist. Similar to the early cinematography of Robert Olsson were the films shot by Ernest Florman, who wrote and directed the film Skona Helena (1903), which had starred Swedish actress Anna Norrie.

Another of Sweden's earliest photographers was Walfrid Bergström, who was behind the camera between 1907-1911 in Stockholm for Apollo productions. In 1907 Bergström filmed Den glada ankan, one of the three films produced by Albin Roosval starring Carl Barklind and Emma Meissner and Konung Oscar II's likbegangelse. Between 1907 and 1911, Bergstrrom would photographed Skilda tiders danser with Emma Meissner and Rosa Grunberg in 1909 and Ryska sallskapsdanser in 1911. During 1908, Svenska Biografteatern produced two short films with the actress Inga Berentz, Sjomansdansen, photographed by Walfrid Bergstrom, and I kladloge och pascen, photographed by Otto Bokman.

Charles Magnusson, who came to the United States, directed and wrote The Pirate and Memories from the Boston Sports Club in 1909 and Orpheus in the Underworld (Urfeus i underjorden) in 1910. Magnusson in 1909 had become the managing director of Svenska Biografteatern, which Julius Jaenzon become part of in 1910. Notably, while under N. E. Sterner of Svensk Kinematograf, Charles Magnusson had photographed Konung Haakons mottagning i Kristiania (1905), a short film of the King of Norway's visit to Kristiania almost as though to presage that it would be there, rather than Rasunda that he would begin the Swedish Film industry, his also having directed the films Gosta Berlings land(Bilder fran Frysdalen, 1907), Gota elf-katastrofen (1908) and Resa Stockholm-Goteborg genom Gota och Trollhatte kanaler (1908). Konstantin Axelsson, in 1911, directed Hon fick platsen eller Exkong Manuel i Stockholm. Starring Ellen Landquist, the film was produced in Stockholm by Apollo and was photographed by Walfrid Bergstrom.

Like Charles Magnusson, Frans Lundberg produced short silent films in Sweden, the first two filmed in 1910. Stora Biografteatern, in Malmo, Sweden, photographed To Save a Son (Massosens offer), directed by Alfred Lind and starring Agnes Nyrup-Christensen, and The People of Varmland (Varmlandingarna), directed by Ebba Lindkvist, photographed by Ernst Dittmer and starring Agda Malmberg, Astrid Nilsson and Ester Selander. The following year Ernesr Dittmer would write and direct the film Rannsakningsdomaren, starring Gerda Malmberg and Ebba Bergman.

In Malmo Sweden, for Stora Biografteatern, Otto Hoy during 1911 wrote and directed the film The Spy (Spionen), starring Paul Welander and Agnes Nyrop-Christensen, the manager of Stora Biografteatern, Frans Lundberg. Paul Welander wrote and directed his first film in 1911, Champagneruset.

Carl Engdahl later appeared in the 1926 film Mordbrannerskan, directed by John Lindlof.

Forsyth Hardy notes that the early Swedish films of 1911 were films in which "the camera remained static and the action was artificially concentrated into a small area in front of it." Not quite apart from this and very much like the silent film included in Vardac's account of the use of the proscenium arch in early cinema in Stage to Screen,the films directed by Anna Hofman Uddgren in 1911 were transpositions of Miss Julie and The Father (Fadren) ,the intimate theater of Swedish playwright August Strindberg. Cameraman Otto Bokman used two exterior shots during The Father, the film having starred Karin Alexandersson and Renee Bjorling. Miss Julie, a film that had had its Stockholm premiere at the Orientaliska Teatern, starred Karin Alexandersson and Manda Bjorling. Both plays were later to be filmed by Alf Sjöberg. Stiller had, in fact, been the manager of the Lilla Teaten and a contemporary of August Falk and Manda Bjorling had acted with him and Anna Flygare at the Intima Theatern. Uddgren also in 1911 directed Single a Dream (Blott in drom), starring Edith Wallen Sisters (Systarna), starring Edith Wallen and Sigurd Wallen and Stockholmsdamernas alskling, starring Carl Barcklind, Erika Tornberg and Anna-Lisa Hellström. Balif vid Molle (1911) was photographed by John Bergqvist. Also in Stockholm, the Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern, later managed by both Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson, was headed by Gustaf Fredriksson between 1904-1907 and then by Knut Michaelson between 1908-1910. Swedish Film Institue founder Charles Magnusson in 1911 directed The Talisman (Amuletten), starring Lili Bech. Victor Sjöström had had his own theater with Einar Froberg before his directing under Magnusson, it having been Froberg that had spoken to Magnusson before he and Sjöström had met. Swedish film director Gustav Molander had in fact been at the Intima Teatern from 1911 to 1913. The Blue Tower, where August Strindberg lived in Stockholm between 1908-1912 and where he wrote the play The Great Highway, is now part of The Strindberg Museum.

Thanhouser was also producing adaptations of literature for the screen and in 1911 filmed three plays by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen: Pillars of Society (Samfundets stotter), Lady from the Sea (Fruen fra havet, Theodore Marston) and A Doll's House (Et dukkehjem). Lubin that year filmed a version of Ibsen's Sins of the Father (Gengangere).





Although a theory of a cinema of attractions depends less upon the use of the proscenium arch written about by Nicholas A. Vardac or the camera's photographic reproduction of drama that had previously been enacted upon the stage and more upon the act of display having preceded the use of cinematic and editorial devices to propel narrative, the grammar of film would be used both to transpose the theatricality of the stage play and to adapt novels to the screen in ways which they could not be performed in front of a theater audience not only in regard to the modes of address which would position the spectator but also in regard to the public sphere of reception. Within the reception of each film there soon was a heterogeneity of filmgoers and that films were visual soon transversed language barriers between audiences that would otherwise have been seperate. Characteristic of early films that were adaptions of novels was the use of a linear narrative similar to that of the "well made novel" novel of the nineteenth century, the camera following the character into each subsequent scene. There soon would be films in which there would be a contemporaneity of narrative and attraction. Raymond Spottiswoode distinguishes between the photoplay, the adaptation of the stage play to the screen with little or no editing, and the screenplay, where camera movement and technique is used to convey narrative- the photoplay can be likened to a cinema of attractions where the scene is filmed from a fixed camera position, whereas the screenplay includes the cut from a medium shot to a close shot in order to build the scene.

In regard to the camera being authorial, Raymond Spottiswoode writes, "The spatial closeup is the usual means of revealing significant detail and motion. Small movements which must necessarily have escaped the audiences of a play sitting removed some distance from its actors can thus be selected from their surroundings and magnified to any extent." While writing that how the camera is authorial includes its having only one position, that of the viewer, which, differing from that of the theater audience can vary with each shot change, depending upon the action within the scene, Spottiswoode cautions that the well written stage play is not suited for the camera's mobility. He also indirectly addresses the use of nature as a way to connect characters to their enviornment while they are being developed that is quite often significant in Scandinavian films when writing about the possibility there being a "difference film", by that his referring to a film which uses relational cutting. "To constitute such a 'difference film' is not sufficiently merely to photograph mountains and streams which are inaccessible to theater producers; the film must also choose a method of carrying on its purposive themes or meaning from moment to moment." He continues, "the public can be trained to appreciate that the differences between nature seen and nature filmed constitute the chief value of the cinema."

In the United States, with Edison (The Road of Anthracite, Race for Millions and The Society Raffles) and Vitagraph (Raffles, the Amatuer Cracksman, The Burgler on the Roof), the attraction had literally become filmed theater, scenes based on those of the stage solely for dramatic value, photographed in one reel as though in one act, from which came the knee shot, or medium full shot; the use of the proscenium arch is more pronounced before the Vitagraph nine foot line, the camera distance of the knee shot, in that there would be space left as visible in between the actor's feet and the bottom frameline, space articulated in tableau that would be more like that of when the spectator is in the audience at a theater. The legnth of one reel would be between eight hundred and one thousand feet. At first the films of Melies were shot in a single scene, as though filmed theater; in order to film narrative he then put seperate shots in order to become connected scenes, or "artificially arranged scenes". It would later become "a constant shifting of scenes" (Lewis Jacobs). Although the article discusses the lack of narrative closure and unicity of frame in early cinema, the subject of a recent e-mailed book review was the writing of one author that has offered the idea that there is less of a demarcation between early cinema and the films that provide transition to the two-reel film -writing about the editing of Melies, Ezra gives an account of his films being comprised of combinations of photographic reproduction, spectacle and narrative. Quite certainly, the images of film are moving images and can advance the narrative and more of the film that was to come later would be dramatic narrative. The cinema of Melies has been likened to a cinema of attractions in its repetitive use of suprise and sudden appearance; the temporality of attraction one of appearance-nonappearance rather than that of development.

One particular silent film, Sherlock Holmes Baffled (1900), considerably under one minute in legnth, had starred William Gillete, ushering in the new century with the first screen appearance of the consulting detective. On vieweing the single shot film, the audience is as baffled as Holmes by the abrupt vanishings of a burgler that disappears and reappears throughout the room through the use of stop-motion trick photography, the film a superb example of early cinema and possibly any narrative of attractions (action within the frame) there may have been.

The Great Train Robbery, produced by Edwin S. Porter, was made by the Edison Manufacturing Co. and is included in the 275 silent films of the Paper Print Collection. Also included in the collection is the early silent film The Little Train Robbery filmed by the Edison Manufacturing Co. in 1905. The Library of Congress also holds a collection of early animation, in which two films produced by silent film pioneer Thomas A. Edison are included, as well as Dinosaur and the missing link, produced by Edison and written by Willis O'Brien in 1917. Charles Musser writes that more than four fifths of the films made by Edison between 1904 and 1907 were narrative or stage fiction; among these was the 1906 film Kathleen Mavourneen. The Edison company released its last film as a studio, The Unbeliever (Alan Crosland, six reels) in 1918. Not Incidentally, the term 'one sheet' used to describe the standard size of movie posters begin with the Edison photoplay; it was a size of approximately 27 inches by 41 inches and often included a synopsis of the plotline of the film. The early silent films of Thomas Edison are also presently available from Kino.

William Rothman writes that only one sixth of the film before 1907 had storyline. While Kenneth MacGowan also mentions filmmakers that had used trick photography other than Melies, among them G. A Smith of England, he adds that not untill Cecil Hepworth, with the silent film Alice in Wonderland, (1903) were there films that included seperate scenes to articulate fantasy or narrative. A later screen version of the silent film Alice and Wonderland was filmed by W. W. Young in 1915. Edison had filmed a version of Jack and the Beanstalk as early as 1902. Silent film director Cecil Hepworth would shortly thereafter bring the element of editing narrative into his films with Rescued by Rover. (1905)

Heath sees early cinema as space articulated in tableau, filmed frontally, storyline achieved by the linking of scenes, as when they are linked by characters and their having entered the frame, to the viewer, spectacle being horizontal, scenographic space. Mary Ann Doanne equates the cinema of attractions with "an early form of cinema organized around single events" looking to the one-shot films as their often being "the spectacular deployment of the female body", as in the Biograph film, Pull Down the Curtains, Suzie (1904). Within a study of trade press and preformance style, "intertextuality and contextuality", which in this instance include a volume on stage acting written by actress Mae Marsh, Roberta Pearson looks at Biograph and demarcates a shift from codes within cinematic acting style that had occurred while narrative films was replacing the cinema of attractions. Pearson sees a "desirability of versimiltude" clamored for by movie reviews between 1908-1913 to replace acting that may have been "false, theatrical, and stagy, or, other words, histrionic." Whether or not action can be  histrioniclly coded or have versimilar code automaticlly, or incontrovertibly, brings the spatial relationships of the figure on screen into play, and as the expression of narrative, the camera as position or having position brings a difference between stage acting and film acting that can inevitably be availed by the close-up- the artist's model has been posed tightly within content and form. As a film historian, in Eloquent Guestures, Pearson goes further with the delineation of the cinema of attractions by further outlining the development and influence of the Vitagraph nine-foot line by addrssing, "Staigers chronology, set forth in Classical Hollywood cinema". "Prior to 1907," Pearson writes, "according to Staiger, one person, the cameraman, had control of all aspects of film production, from the selection of the subject to the final editing". Why the present author would look on this as pertinent is that in light of the early film of  Charles Magnusson that may have been newsreel in character and lacking narrative, as may have been the first Danish short films,  Pearson may have found a corrollary between studios in the United States and those in Scandinavia. She continues, "By 1909, the film studios began to institute the "director-unit" system to meet the need for twenty to thirty new reels a week." This positions the director as a script-supervisor where the cameraman is left to control  the lighting of the shot.

The director at Biograph untill June 1908 had been Wallace McCutheon (Personal, 1904). The technique of crosscutting has been attributed to McCutheon (Her First Adventure, 1906; The Elopement, 1907); on occaision directors were beginning to hint at cutting on action by 1907 and were also beginning to link seperate scenes together, as when the same character appears in two scenes that are adjacent. If, within a cinema of attractions, narrative exposition had previously used a discontinuous style, one of filming a single action within what was then an autonomous shot, it would acquire as form a continuous style; when there were to be juxtapositions within narrative from shot to shot, they would be decisions of editing used for the advancement of plot. That intertitles were at first often explanatory shows the beginnings of a narrative within cinema. During an early scene of the silent Frankenstien (J. Searle Dawley, Edison, 1910), there is, in between scenes, an expository intertitle that uses of a close shot of a letter to develop character within the narrative, epistolary form used on the screen. A similar insert shot is used in the film Dash Through the Clouds (1912). Certainly by 1917 films made in the United States, and the films made by Sjöström and Stiller in Sweden had acquired a narrative transitivity, a chronological plot outline, more often than not their being characterized by their having a causal motivation of scene and its structure. In regard to film preservation and the intertitle, The Danish Film Institute used the screenplay to Dreyer's film Der var Engang to provide descriptive intertitles to the film that explain its plot, including explanatory description that now appears in the same intertitle as the dialouge to the silent photoplay. Carl Dreyer had adapted the screenplay from the stage and seperated the two different types of intertitle while writing.

D. W. Griffith uses offscreen space in his structuring of shots during the 1910 film What Daisy Said, directed for Biograph. Most of the shots to the film are exterior longshots with two or more characters with a static camera. Starring with Gertrude Robinson, Mary Pickford enters the frame from the far left of the screen and exits near to the end of the shot from that same side. In a subsequent shot she enters from the right side of the frame, quickly climbs a set of outdoor stairs, exits from the left and then reenters the frame from the left to begin the next shot, her dancing from one side of the screen to the other and the camera cutting almost on her action of entering and exiting to begin each shot. She runs in fron of the camera from the offscreen space that frames the exterior and then runs back to the same side of the screen to exit the frame in a brief shot. She later slowly descends the outdoor stairs during the film to depict despair. Her movement as a unifying image, the moving subject, serves to link the adjacent shots, her movement within the frame carried into each subsequent shot so that the spatial relationships with the frame of each individual shot are seen with the shot to shot relationships of camera position and reposition, character movement linking the image to create narrative continuity as the viewer is brought to the edges of the rectangular frame. The significant action of the scene bringing an involvement with with the protagonist, the causality in the storyline of the film is constructed without the frequent use of explanatory intertitles.

It is not suprising that Kenneth Macgowan writing as early as 1965 in Behind the Screen divides early silent film into three periods: 1896-1905; 1906-1915; 1916-1925. Form and content in film technique seem to have developed together.

In regard to film preservation and the search for silent film, in April 2005, United Press International reported that films dating back as far as 1910, including one film entitled "Little Snow White", were found by the Huntley Archive., the unknown of collection totalling more than six hundread cans of film kept hidden in an airplane hanger in the south of England. To add to this, during June of 2006, the only copy of the first British narrative film, a film depicting a pickpocket directed by Birt Acres in 1895, as well as as many as six films that were included in the body of work filmed by Thomas Edison, was found in an attic in West Midlands, England. In his biography of Victor Sjöström, Bengt Forslund exuberantly remarks upon the discovering of a hitherto unknown copy of Predators of the Sea (Sea Vultures, Havsgama, 1914), starring Richard Lund, Greta Almroth and John Ekman, and not so exuberantly on the unlikelihood of a copy of Victor Sjöström's film The Divine Woman, starring Greta Garbo, being found in the future. On the film Predators of the Sea, Forslund writes, "Sjöström recounts his story simply and straitforwardly in remarkably well thought-out images of the kind we already know from Ingeborg Holm.

 The Nordisk Film Kompagni having had been founded in 1906, most of the early narrative films for the most part "thrillers, tragedies and love stories" (Astrid Soderberg Widding), or "the social melodrama and dive novel that made a hit from 1910 onwards" (Bengt Forslund), were directed by Viggo Larsen, who directed The Black Mask (1906), Revenge (1906) and The Magic Bed (Tryllesaekken, 1907) in Denmark : Urban Gad directed Asta Nielsen in her first film, The Abyss (Afgrunden, 1910) in Denmark, a film often written about due to her popularity and to a scene contained in it in which she dances eroticly; both directors went to Germany. Among the films produced by Nordisk Films Kompagni in 1906 was Bonden i Kobenhavn (Hunting of a Polar Bear), directed by its manager, Ole Olsen. Having established the Biografteatret, Copenhagen's first movie theater, Ole Olsen established its first production company in 1906, Ole Olsen's Film Industry, which that year filmed Pigeons and Seagulls (Duer og Maager). Ole Olsen also produced the 1906 films The Funeral of King Christian IX (King Christian IX's Bisaettelse) and The Proclamation of King Fredderick VIII (King Frederick VIII's Proklamtion).  Many of the silent films made by the Nordisk Films Kompagni, although produced by Ole Olsen, still have an unattributed director, one example of this being the film Rouges (Gartyve), filmed in 1906. Vitriolic Drama (Vitrioldrama), Violinist's Romance (Violinistens Roman), Rivalinder (A Woman's Duel/The Rivals), Gelejslaven, Tandpine, Knuste Haaband and Kortspillere were also filmed by Nordisk Films Kompagni during 1906. In 1906 Louis Halberstadt for Nordisk Films Kompagni directed the film Konfirmation, photographed by Rasmus Bjerregaard, it having been the first Danish silent film in which Greta Garbo co-star Jean Hersholt (The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox) was to appear.

Viggo Larsen was quite possibly the first director to cut from one long shot of a scene to its reverse angle, a long shot of the scene from an opposite angle (Rovens Brod, 1907). The Danish photographer Axel Sorensen began filming for Larsen in 1906 and continued solely with Larsen untill 1911, when he began photographing first for Danish director August Blom and then for Danish director Urban Gad under the name of Axel Graatkjae. One film photographed by Axel Sorensen that Viggo Larsen is particularly noted for directing is The Lion Hunt (Lovejaten, 1907). In the year 1906, the actress Margrethe Jespersen had starred in the films Anarkistens svigermor (Larsen), Knuste hab, Caros dod, Haevnet (Larsen) and Fiskerliv i Norden (Larsen). In 1907, the actress Oda Alstrup was directed by Viggo Larsen and photgraphed by Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen for Nordisk Films in Camille (Kameliadamen), Den glade enke, Trilby (Lille Trilby), and in Aeren tabt-alt tabt and Handen (Haanden), both of which she had starred in with actress Thora Nathansen. Clara Nebelong appeared with her in the film Roverens brud. Among the films directed by Larsen in 1907 were A Modern Naval Hero (En Moderne Sohelt) and Once Upon a Time (Der var engang) with Clara Nebelong, Gerda Jensen and Agnes Norlund Seemann, both of which he appeared in as an actor. Actress Clara Nebelong also that year appeared in the films Vikingeblod and From the Rococo Times (Rosen), also directed by Viggo Larsen and photographed by Axel Sorensen. The Artist's Model's Sweetheart (Den Romersk Model) is among the films credited as having been directed by Viggo Larsen in 1908. Viggo Larsen in 1908 directed actress Lili Jansen in several films photographed by Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen, including Lille Hanne, Peters Held, Urmagerens Bryllup and The School of Life (Gennem Livets Skole), which also starred Thora Nathansen. Viggo Larsen that year also directed Mathilde Nielsen and Pterine Sonne in the film The Capricious Moment (Capriciosa). In 1909, Viggo Larsen directed the film Child as Benefactor (Barnet som Velgorer). Emmanuel Tvede directed only one film in Denmark, Faldgruben, and yet in it was future star Emilie Sannom in one of her first screen appearances, Danish actress Kate Fabian also having appeared in the film.

In addition to Nordisk Films, during 1910 the Regina Kunst Kompagni briefly produced films in Denmark, notably the first three films in which actress Clara Weith Pontoppidan had, as Clara Weith, starred, Elskovsleg, Djaevelsonaten, and Ett Gensyn, in which she starred with actresses Annegrette Antonsen and Ellen Aggerholm. Director Axel Strom directed Clara Weith in the film Dorian Grays Portraet, in which she starred with Valdemar Psilander as well as his having directed Johanne Dinesen in the film Den doe Rotte. Danish silent film actress Emilie Sannon also starred on screen for the Regina Kunst Kompagni, her having starred in the film Doden.

The versatility of Asta Nielsen, directed by her husband Urban Gad, was especially shown from film to film. The Abyss begins with a shot of the actress Asta Nielsen as Magda and her boarding a train as though it were a whistle stop. It continues with exterior longshots, untill the two characters are seen at an outdoor coffee table. There is a cut to an interior where she is seen in full shot opening a letter, the camera distance well behing the Vitagraph nine foot line, particularly for an interior filmed in 1910. Seated, the next shot shows her at a closer angle, filmed higher than her as she is reading the letter. It then cuts to a train station and then a series exterior full shots of her arriving in the country. The scene then shifts to an outdoor circus and an exterior full shot during which she dances. The storyline becomes dramatic, or sensational in its being melodramatic, where she flees with the circus, much like in the Greta Garbo film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox. There is in the film a near panning shot following characters as a horse drawn carriage parks near the exterior of a building, the camera then cutting to the interior where she is recieving guests.

 In Denmark, Urban Gad also directed actresses Emilie Sannom and Ellen Kornbeck, among the films Gad directed for Nordisk Films in 1911 two having been When Passion Binds Honesty (Dyrekobt Glimmer), in which both actresses appeared with Johannes Poulsen and Elna From, and An Aviator's Generosity (Den Store Flyver, 3 reels), which had starred Christel Holck. Also that year Gad directed the films Spansk Elsker, and Sydens Born in Denmark. It was also that year that Urban Gad and Asta Nielsen would travel to Germany to film for Deutsche Bioscop. Asta Nielsen appeared on screen under Urban Gad's direction with the cinematographer Karl Freund behind the camera that year in the films The Moth (Nachtfalter) and The Strange Bird (Der fremde Vogel). Asta Nieslen also continued in 1911 to appear under Gad's direction in the films The Traitoress (Die Verraterin), Hot Blood (Heisses Blut), In Those Large Eye Glances (In dem grossen Augenblick).

The first Finnish narrative film, Bootleggers (Salaviinanpolttajat), was given to the Swedish director Louis Sparre, the film photographed by Frans Engstrom in 1907. Jaenzon filmed The Dangers of a Fisherman's Life- An Ocen Drama (Fiskarliv ets farer-et Drama paa havet), an early Norwegian silent film under the direction of Hugo Hermansen. The first two Finnish directors, Erkki Karu and Teuvo Puro, are particularly noted for their use of nature as a background and landscape to complement the thematic, and yet Sylvi (1913) has been particularly likened to the film Ingeborg Holm, directed by Victor Sjöström. Peter Cowie notes that Karu's The Logroller's Bride (Koskenlaskijan morsian, 1923) has an exterior landscape scene that had been filmed by using six different cameras; the director later remade the film as the first Finnish film to include sound. The film Tukijoella (Log River) continued the influence of the Scandinavian film directors upon the silent cinema of Finland in their being a relation shown between the characters of the film and its background landscape, it having appeared in theaters in 1928. Also directing in Finland in 1913 was playwright Kaarle Halme who brought the films (The Bloodless Ones/Verettomat) and The Young Pilot (Nuori luotsi) to silent film audiences who had previously looked to the theater; the photplay, although quickly a new form of literature to convey the dramtic, and melodramtic, was still in Finland before 1919 contained within static camera angles without the frequent use of editing to complicate plotlines and character relationships, characters often shown in full figure, at the same camera distance, as at Vitagraph studios in the United States.

Peter Lykke-Seest, who had founded the first Norwegian film studio, the Christiana Film Company, was a screenwriter for Victor Sjöström (and Mauritz Stiller) before his directing The Story of a Boy (Historien om en gut) in 1919.

Aside from this was the consideration that once films had been begun to have been made that were two reels or more, dialouge,through the use of intertitles, and expository descriptions could be added to the way the causality of plotline was developed during a film and how character was delineated, intertitles that would not only lend continuity to the linear progression of storyline but also bring unity to it. Victor Sjöström later would in fact use intertitles to act as retrospective first person, voice over narrative. As well, narrative would no longer need to be only linear in regard to its structure and the syntax of film could include transitions between scenes; technique, in part could become the attraction.

Technique would become the ordering of images within an arrangement of shots that would bring seperate compositions into a relation within narrative- the film technique that would later be described by Christian Metz as consisting of syntagmatic categories, technique that would avail questions regarding whether a segment would be autonomous, chronological, linear, narrative or descriptive, continuous and whether it would be organized, was beginning to be decided. Metz in fact had viewed the narrative function in cinema as being what had brought about its development, it being more than possible that the techniques developed by Ince and Griffith were the exingencies of narrative form.

That Sjöström the actor would later be shown in both long shot and close shot in the same sequence shows the relation between the character on the screen and the space within the frame; in that the camera had been becoming increasingly authorial, it often seemed to provide an embodied viewpoint from which an idealized spectator could view onscreen space, and by its being authorial, could seem to reposition the spectator during the film through the use of a second central character. While discussing film technique as something that is a reproduction of the images before the spectator, Raymond Spottiswoode claims that "it can never attain to art", and yethe adds that there must be a freedom available to the director "if he is to infuse his purpose and character into the beings of nature, to change them that their life becomes more living, their meaning more significant, their vlaue more sure and true." He continues that while it can be put forth that there is only one camera angle that any scene can be photographed from, one relation to the camera that any object can be aquire within the varying spatial relations that it takes while arranged with the other objects in front of the camera, "there is no reason to suppose that the choice of a camera angle is not perfectly free." The attention of the spectator could be directed spatially. It is by being authorial that the camera can impart meaning, technique not only to have brought an objectification of what was in front of the camera but also of the camera itself as it observed the actors within the scene, as it photographed the object, the structure of the image deigned by the placement of the camera, the pleasure of the spectator derived in part from the parallel between the spectator and the camera. In regard to the camera being authorial, a group member of an e-mailed silent film mailing list recently in a post quoted a postulate of the theory of there being a cinema of attractions, "The narrator in the early films is sporadic; an occaisional specter rather than a unified presence."

Sjöström had said, "At one time, Moje was without any doubt in love with Garbo, and she with him." and she had reiterated that if ever she were to love anyone it would be Mauritz Stiller, the director who had taken her to see her first motion picture in the United States, The Lady Who Lied (1925, eight reels) with Lewis Stone and Nita Naldi. Fredrick Sands quotes Victor Sjöström as having said, "For a certain time at least Stiller was in love with her and she with him. They told me so themselves." Stiller, after having met cameraman Julius Jaenzon, had begun directing for Svenska Bio in 1912 with Mother and Daughter (Mor och Dotter), in which he acted with Anna Norrie and Lily Jacobsson and then in the same year The Black Masks (De svarta maskerna), in which Sjöström acted with Lili Bech and the film The Tyrannical Fiancee (Den Tyranniske Fastmannen), in which he starred with Agda Helin. Produced by AB Svenska Biografteatern, the film The Black Masks, is a circus movie in regard to its subject. It has been noted that the film is exceptionally edited, its numerous, varied scenes, "a constantly changing combination of interiors and exteriors, close-ups and panoramic shots." (Forsyth Hardy).

 It had been early in 1912 that Magnusson had met with screen writer Erik Ljungberger who gave Magnusson Victor Sjöström's name and who telephoned him for Magnusson. Victor Sjöström that year wrote and directed The Marriage Bureau (Aktenskapsbryan) with Victor Lundberg and directed A Secret Marriage (Ett hemlight giftermal) with Hilda Borgström, Smiles and Tears (Lojen och tarar) with Mia Hagman, a film written by Charles Magnusson and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, A Summer's Tale (En Sommar Saga) and Lady Marion's Summer Flirtation (Lady Marion's sommarflirt, photographed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Hilda Borgström.

That year Paul Garbagni directed both Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller with actress Astrid Endgelbrecht in the film Springtime of Life (In the Spring of Life, I livets var), adapted from the novel The First Mistress by August Blanche- almost as soon as Swedish cinema had begun, it had begun adapting the novel to film; the significance of the cinema of attractions would now be in the shot, the placement of the shot within the scene, display relegated to frame compositions.

Eric Malmberg that year directed the films Oceanbreakers and Stolen Happiness (Branningar eller Stulen lycka) with Lily Jacobsson, Tollie Zellman and Victor Arfvidson, Det grona halsbandet with Lilly Jacobsson and Agda Helin and Samhallets dom, with Lily Jacobsson, Agda Helin, Tollie Zellman and actress Lisa Holm in the first film in which she was to appear, as well as Agaton and Fina (Agaton och Fina), and Two Swedish Emigrants in America (Tva svenska emigranters afventyr i Amerika), both photographed by Julius Jaenzon, also with Lily Jacobsson. John Ekman directed Swedish actress Stina Berg in her first appearance on the screen in the film The Shepherd Girl (Saterjantan), photographed by Hugo Edlund for Svenska Biografteatern. The Last Performance (Dodsritten under cirkuskupolen), Musiken makt, starring Lily Jacobsson, Jupiter pa jorden, with Axel Ringvall, and Tva broder with Birger Lundstedt and Eugen Nilsson, were filmed by Georg af Klercker. Algot Sandberg that year directed the film Farbror Johannes ankomst till Stockholm.

In Malmo, Sweden, for the Danish film producer Frans Lundberg and Stora Biografteatern, Paul Welander in 1912 contributed the films The Pace That Kills (Broder och syster), The Circus Queen (Circusluft), and two films photographed by photographer Ernst Dittmer, The Boa Constrictor (Ormen), The Flirt (Karlekens offer) and Princess Charlotte (Komtessan Charlotte), starring Phillipa Frederiksen and Agners Nyrup-Christensen, Welander also that year having starred with Ida Nielsen in The Bonds of Marriage (Karleksdrommar) a film made by Frans Lundberg. Charles Magnusson would direct The Green Necklace (Det grona halsbandet) and The Vagabond's Galoshes (Kolingens galosher), both photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Jaenzon that year was the photographer and director of the film Condemned by Society.

1912 was also the year that Hjalmar Söderberg, often considered the nearest contemporary to Strindberg, published the novel The Most Serious Game (Den allvarsamm leken) and the one act play Aftonstjarnan. The first publication to appear written by Par Lagerkvist, People (Manniskor), a collection of short stories was also printed that year as well.

In the United States, Mary Pickford had a year earlier left Biograph where she had filmed under the direction of D. W. Griffith and Frank Powell to film with Thomas Ince at IMP studios during the first two months of the beginning of 1911. Among the films she made there were Their First Misunderstanding, The Dream, Maid or Man, At Duke's Command, The Mirror, While the Cats Away, Her Darkest Hour and Artful Kate. Before returning to Biograph, she spent the last two months of 1911 at The Majestic Company, filming under the direction of George Loane Tucker and Owen Moore.

The year of 1912 was to mark the first film with Lillian and Dorothy Gish, An Unseen Enemy, along with the Mary Pickford film A New York Hat, the first photoplay written by Anita Loos. Within the short scenes of the film, Mary Pickford is shown in to the right of the screen in medium close shot trying on a hat, her hands and bended elbows in frame. Griffith cuts on the action of her leaving the frame to exterior shots. In a later scene, Griffith positions her to the left of the screen, and, his already having shown time having elapsed between the two two scenes, then brings the ensuing action back to the right of the screen frame. As an early reversal of screen direction, or screen positioning, there is the use of scene editing in between the complementary positions of showing her in the same interior. During the film, the actress is, almost referentially, often kept in right profile, facing the right of the screen's frame.

During the Biograph silent film short The Musketeers of Pig Alley (1912) Griffith frames Lillian Gish at a table, only half of her visible in the frameline untill she leaves the table, and then cuts on the action of her leaving the frame as she crosses the screen from one interior into the adjacent one, her crossing the screen from left to right in both the shots Griffith had edited together, toward the far left side of the screen in the first, toward the middle of the screen in the next. Vertical space allows a disclosure in the film, one allowed by the moving figure as Gish skirts from one room to the next, her moving into the unexpected space the audience may or may not have already seen where there is action that has been simultaneously transpiring within the temporality of the film. In a film from the same year in which Gish only briefly appears, A Burgler's Dilema, Griffith again cuts on action often, particularly during entrances, but interpolates very brief exterior shots in between scenes, increasing their frequency and interspersing within the scene as the film continues and the pace of the action hastens, or complicates, with the plotline.

If it is that spatial compostition can be included as a part of the grammar, or syntax, of film, within that is pictorial continuity and the use of visual tropes. A spatial relation is established through screen direction as figure movment becomes motion within the frame and action that the camera can cut on before continuing it in the subsequent frame, the camera cutting within the scene for effect. The spatial movement of the character is continued from shot to shot, linking each of them through a directional continuity, and yet, within the scene, the contour of objects, their proximity to the camera and their arrangement in front of the camera as its various positions cause it to become more authorial, is varied with each contrast between the adjacent shots within the temporality of the scene. As an inscription of its own being authorial, the camera could participate in narrative drama as an unseen presence, particularly through its own repostioning, unobtrusive if omnipresent in its guiding the spectator toward the action of the scene. Establishing the relation between spectator and content, the actress as an element of the film's pictorial compostion, in turn, could, as an aesthetic object, often substitute for the gaze of the female spectator, particularly as a motif for femininity, quite possibly more noticebly during cut in close ups where, while photographed with the space between her and the camera only represented by her near filling the area of the frame, spectator interest would recess into brief plateau before the narrative would climb into an increase of identification untill the quiet, slow stillness of the close up that would come next.

The following year Mary Pickford would go from Biograph to Famous Player to make Bishop Carriage (four reels), Hearts Adrift (four-five reels) and A Good Little Devil (five reels) with the director Edwin S. Porter. Of the film, Pickford wrote, "we were made to read our entire speeches before the camera. The result was a silent reproduction of the play, instead of what should have been, a restatement of the play in terms of action and pantomine." For the most part, when filming her, Porter used medium and long shots; Kirkland would later use the close up. Writing about 1912 in her autobiography Sunshine and Shadow, silent film actress Mary Pickford remembers her first close up, "Billy took the shot, which was a semi-close up, cutting me at the waist...It was a new image of my face that I was waiting to see. What a frightening experience when my grotesquely magnified face finally flashed on the screen...But I was critical enough to notice the make up...'I think there's too much eyebrow pencil and shadowing around my eyes,' I said. Later,on a seperate occaision, she had realized there was low light reflected back towards her while she was readying her make up for a scene and had asked her director to use artificial light from below while filming her. The autobiography of silent film star Douglas Fairbanks, Laugh and Live, is apparently no longer available online from sunrisesilents.

Having directed The Indian Massacre and Across the Plains the year before, Thomas Ince directed the silent films The Invaders (three reels), starring its co-director, Francis Ford,and Ethel Grandin, Shadows of the Past and Custer's Last Fight in 1912. Ince, and the directors that photographed with him, have been attributed with having been among the early directors to have varied camera postitions with the use of more than one shot during a scene, particularly the use of the reverse angle to cut around a scene and its use to develop the action of the scene during its climax. It is often acknowledged that Thomas Ince was the first director to use a shooting script. Author Kenneth MacGowan notes that Ince "strove for a theatric effect", but only with scripts that were "direct and tight" and used intertitles to advance character action, dramatically relating events as a technique of exposition. If this was later remarked upon as being part of a comparision and contrast, Mary Pickford was to write, "As I recall, D. W. Griffith never adhered to a script. Improvisation was frequently the order of the day. Sometimes the camera registered an impromputu piece of off-story action and that too stayed in the film." Lillian Gish in no way contradicts her by writing about how Griffith used the editing room to develop storyline, particularly by adding close ups and shots of objects, "Later, he would make sense of the assorted shots in the cutting room, giving them drama and continuity." These cut-in shots were inserted into the scene to add "depth and dimension to the moment".

During 1912 the first film that would star Mary Miles Minter would appear on the marquee, the one reel The Nurse and Anna Q. Nilsson would make her first film, the one reel Molly Pitcher. Oddly enough, Nilsson's studio, Kalem, had given the title role of The Vampire to Alice Hollister, the two later united on the screen in A Sister's Burden (1915). In addition to the films of Louise Glaum,whom Fred Niblo directed in Sex (1920, seven reels), and Valeska Suratt, another film of that title had starred Olga Petrova, it seeming that quickly " 'vamp' became an all too common noun and in less than a year it was a highly active verb, transitive and intransitive" (Ramsaye). Stiller had directed Sjöström in his first roles as an actor in For sin Karlekskull (Because Her Love), When Love Kills (Nar karleken dodar) in which he starred with Georg af Klercker, The Child (Barnet) and, coincidently, The Vampire (Vampyren/The Nightclub Dancer),in which he starred with Lili Bech. Anna Q. Nilsson would appear in War's Havoc, Under a Flag of Truce and The Soldier Brothers of Suzanna in 1912. Lillian Gish would later play a vamp in Diane of the Follies (1916). Birgitta Steene writes that in the films of Ingmar Bergman, "the vamp is portrayed as the social victim rather than the embodiment of sin."

Danish silent film direct Wilhelm Gluckstadt began directing in 1912 with the film The Blue Blood (Det blaa Blod), scripted by Stellan Rye and starring Elina Jorgen Jensen, Grethe Ditlevsen and Gudrun Houlberg. That year Wilhelm Gluckstadt also directed the exceptionally beautiful Danish film actress Eimilie Sannom in the films Konfetti, De to brodre and Zigeunerorkestret.  Danish film director Aage Brandt during 1912 would direct Vera Brechling in A Death Warning (Dodsvarlet)

Danish silent film director August Blom in 1912 filmed with the photographer Johanne Ankerstjerne for Nordisk Film, notably with the actress Clara Weith Pontoppidan, whom he directed in the film Faithful Unto Death (Et Hjerte af Guld) and had directed a year earlier in the film In the Prime of Life (Ekspedtricen), photographed by Axel Sorensen. Blom that year also for Nordisk Film directed Robert Dinesen in the films Stolen Treaty (Secret Treaty/ Den Magt Trede and The Black Chancellor (Den Sorte Kansler) with Valdemar Psilander, Ebba Thomsen and Jenny Roelsgaard, The Black Chancellor having been a film in which Danish silent film scriptwriter Christian Schroder appeared on screen as an actor. That year August Blom also directed A High Stake (Hjaerternes Kamp).

Danish film director Benjamin Christensen  followed with  Blind Justice (Haevnansnat, 1915), both films having starred the actress Karen Caspersen. The two films by Christensen were of the only three produced by the Dansk Biograf Compagni. Benjamin Christensen had starred as an actor with actress Karen Caspersen and Ellen Malmberg during 1913 in Skaebnebaeltet, directed by Danish silent film director Sven Rindom, his also that year having starred in the films Children of the Stage (Scenens Born, Bjorn Bjornson), starring Bodil Ipsen and Aud Egede-Nissen and Lille Klaus Og Store Klaus (Elith Reumert). Children of the Stage was produced by Dania Biofilm Kompagni.

For Ingmar Bergman,the first notable Swedish film is Ingeborg Holm from 1913. In an interview with Jonas Sima, he describes the directing of Victor Sjöström, "It is one of the most remarkable films ever made...Often he works on two planes, something being played out in the foreground,but then,through a doorway for instance,one sees something quite different is going on in the background.". Produced by AB Svenska Biograteatern and five reels in legnth, it is also his screenplay from a play by Nils Krook which Sjöström had adapted for the stage in 1907. Like Sarah Bernhardt, Hilda Borgström had came to film. Also in the film are Aron Lindgren and George Gronroos. William Larsson and Carl Barcklind both appear in the film as well. It is almost astounding that under the title Give Us This Day the legnth of the film is listed as having reached seven reels. Einar Lauritzen wrote, "The primitive tableau of the time cannot destroy the genuine feeling for both character and enviornment which Sjöström brought to almost every scene."

Much like it being that the films of Bergman "concern interior journeys: journeys into the soul of the character, or into the souls of two related characters" (John Simon), that Ingeborg Holm was a contemporary drama is particularly a matter for aesthetics, as was the observation that there may have been the photoplay of intimacy, the photoplay of action or the photoplay of splendor. As a side note from the present author, the caption on the cove Sat, August 8, 2015 - 11:18 PM permalink






Swedish Film



Edvin Adolphson directed When Roses Bloom (Na Rosorna sla

ut
, 1930), starring Sven Garbo. Greta Garbo

had visited her brother, Sven Gustafsson while in Stockholm. The film was co-scripted by Gösta Stevens and also stars Swedish actresses Karin Swanstrom, Margita Alfven, and Anna-lisa Baude. Else-Marie Hansen was given her first appearance on the screen with the film. John W. Brunius

directed two films that year, botth written by screen writer Pelle Stille, The Two of Us (Vi tva) in which Edvin Adolphson appeared as an actor with

Margit Manstad, Marta Ekstrom and Anna-Lisa Froberg, the film having had been being the first film in which the

actress was to appear, and The Doctor's Secret (Doktorns

hemlighet
) starring Pauline Brunius, Ann-Marie Brunius and Marta Ekstrom. Julius Jaenzon photographed and

directed the film Ulla My Ulla (Ulla Min Ulla), the

assistant director of the film having been Per-Axel Branner, it having been the first film in which actress Karin Granberg was to appear. Gustaf

Bergman directed his first film that year, The Dangerous Game (Den farliga leken), starring Jenny Hasselqvist, Olga Andersson and Elsa Wallin, his also during 1930 having directed Vera Schmiterlow and Anna-Lisa Baude in the film A Woman's Tommorow (En Kvinnas Morgondag). Swedish cinematographer Harald Berglund in 1930 began filming under the direction of Ragnar Ring on the film Lyckobreven. Gustaf Edgren that year directed the film The Crown's Cavaliers/ Crown escort

(Kronans kavaljerer) with Stina Berg and Lisa Wirstrom in her first appearance on the screen as an actress. In 1930 G?sta Ekman and Stina

Berg appeared in the film For Her Sake (For hennes skull)

written by Ivar Johansson directed by Paul Merzbach, which also starred

Inga Tiblad. In regard to the tradition in Scandinavian filmmaking of incorporating the enviornment into the storyline and the transition from silent film to sound, author Forsyth Hardy looks toward Hollywood to describe For hennes skull only to clarify the technique Gustaf Molander was soon to develop more fully behind the camera, "The film had little significance beyond its proof that in Sweden, as elsewhere, the microphone wa a cramping influence on the movement natural to the medium." And yet without mentioning how groundbreaking the films of the period were in the history of the relationship between the screenplay and the shootingscript, now that the photoplay had ended as a form of literature, Hardy continues by noting that during the early sound films photographed by Julius Jaenzon and directed by Victor Sjostrom both had tried to remain faithful to the old medium of silent film and its near precedence of plotline over dialougue by making the use of the microphone less noticeable during the film, possibly giving the new form more value. Paul Merzbach followed in 1931 with the film The False

Millionare
(Falska Millionaren), starring Fridolf Rhudin,

Gunnar Bj?rnstrand and Annalisa Ericson and photgraphed by Elner Akesson. Swedish director John Lindlof contributed the film Den Gamla Garden with Margareta Schöström,

Gustaf Bergman continued in 1931, directing Edvin Adolphson, Inga

Tiblad and Karin Swanstr?m in the film Generalen. Gustaf Bergman also that year directed Isa Quensel in

her first film appearance on screen, Karlek maste vi ha, with

Margit Rosengren, Anna-Lisa Baude and Valborg Hansson and the film En kvinnas morgondag starring Jenny Hasselquist, Elsa Wallin and Olga Andersson. Rune

Carlsten in 1931 directed the film Dangerous Paradise (Faroranas

Paradis
) with Ragnar Arvedson. Carlsten that year appeared in

Longing for the Sea (Langten till havet) directed by John W.

Brunius. Theodor Berthels in 1931 wrote and directed the film His

Majesty Will have to Wait
(Hans Majestat far vanta) with Margit

Manstad and Ragnar Arvedson. Greta Garbo director Eric Petschler

that year directed Guken Cederborg, Greta Anjo and Marta Claesson in the

film Flickan fran Varmland. The cinematographer Hilmer Ekdahl

photographed his first film in 1931, En karleksnatt vid Oresund,

directed by Ragnar Widestedt and S?lve Cederstrand, the first film in

which the actress Maritta Marke was to appear. The film also stars

Elisabeth Frisk. Per Axel Branner directed Astrid Bodin in her first film during 1931, Under roda fanor, photographed by Gösta Sandin.



Swedish film director Per Lindberg in 1931 established three theaters with actor Gosta Ekman, among them being included Vas-teatern and Konserthusteatern (The Large and Small room). Actor Hasse Ekman was given the play "Fredja" by Per Lindberg.

After returning to Sweden in hope that it was there that his daughters Victor Sjostromalso returned to the screen in a brief appearance with Swedish film directors Gustaf Molander and Gustav Edgren in the film

Motley Leaves/Gaudy Blade (Brokiga Blad) with Lili Ziedner, Edvin Adolphson, G?sta Ekman

and Annalisa Ericson. Sj?str?m had appeared in a short beauty contest

film, Froken, Ni linknar Greta Garbo (1931), along with Lars Hanson

and Karin Molander, both of whom had returned to Sweden, where Eivor

Nordstrom was chosen to be the most like Greta Garbo. Its photographer was

Ake Dahlquist, its director Per Axel Branner who had been the assistant

director to the film, The Markurells of Wadkoping, directed by

Victor Sj?str?m. Branner had directed his first film,

Tango-foxtrot, in 1930. Victor Sj?str?m's daughter, Guje Lagerwall

(Guje Sj?str?m, Guje Kanter) wrote the screenplays to two Swedish films,

Smeder pa luffen (Erik Hampe Faustman, 1949) and Lattjo med

Boccaccio
(Gosta Bernhard, 1949)- she appeared as an actress in seven

films that were made in Sweden. Gustav Molander directed both father and

daughter in films that were made in Sweden, Victor Sj?str?m in Love

(Karlek, 1952), and Guje Lagerwall in Franskild (1951). Also starring in Molander's film Franskild were Inga Tiblad, Irma Christensen and Marianne Löfgren.

the Swedish Sphinx



One Night (En natt, 1931) directed by Gustaf Molander and

written by Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius owes much of its construction to its

assitant director, Gosta Hellstr?m. Hellstr?m had been a film critic who

met with both Eisenstien and Pudovkin before returning to Sweden. It is

distinct from Molander's other film in its technique, in its editing.

Appearing in the film are Gerda Lundequist, Unno Henning, Sture Lagerwall,

Ingert Bjuggren and Karin Swanstr?m. The cinematographer to the film was

Ake Dahlquist.



Swedish Film actressthe Swedish Sphinx



Still photographs from the film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox scanned from the original negative and e-mailed through Yahoo by author Mark A. Vieira. Film clip linked with written permission from www.doctormacro.com. In a series of photo captions for the negatives that were in fact chosen for publication, author Vieira notes that by the time the portraits for The Fall and Rise of Susan Lennox were shot, Clarence Sinclair Bull had decided to no longer use a soft focus lens to photograph Greta Garbo, although he still used silk-covered softlights for the series.

In 1932, Gunnar Skogland wrote and directed the film Landskamp

with Fritiof Billquist, George Blomstedt, Gun Holmquist, Signhild Bjökman and Signe Lundberg-Settergren in her first film as an actress. The cinemaographer to the film was Elner Akesson. Actress Ingrid Bergman has a brief role in the film, as

does Corcordia Selander, and yet in her autobiography, My Story, Bergman

omits the name of Gunnar Skoglund entirely. Bergman, rather, relates an

account of her having been given a screen test with Gustaf Molander. "I

knew an actress named Karin Swanstr?m came into his shop from time to

time. She was a fine comedy actress, but now she was the artistic director

of Swedish Films", wrote Bergman. She quotes Karin Swanstr?m as having

told her that she would arrange a screen test for her within a week but

then abruptly telling Bergman, "No, wait a minute, I'll see if I can

arrange it now." It would be Gustaf Molander that would recommend her to

Edvin Adolphson until it would later become possible for her to film with

him.



Weyler Hildebrand in 1932 directed his first film, Baklaxan, as

well as the films Navvies of the Crown (Kronans rallare), Muntra musikanter,

starring Ulla Sorbon and Anna Olin and The Southsiders

(Soderkakr), starring Sigurd Wallen. Soderkakar was the first film in which actress Rut Holm was to appear. Gosta Rodin directed his first

film that year, Tva hjartan och en skuta, starring Birgit Sergelius, it being the first film in which Swedish actress Carin Swensson was to appear. Ragnar Arvedson was the

assistant director to the film Modern Wives (Modarna fruar, 1932), written and

directed by Edvin Adolphson based on the play written by Algot Sandberg. In 1932, Gustaf Molander directed three films;

Black Roses(Svarta rosor), photographed by Ake Dalquist and

written by Ragnar Hylten Cavalius, it having starred Einar Axelsson, Karin

Swanstrom, Ruth Stevens and Carl Barcklind, We Who Use the Servant's Entrance (Vi som gar koksvagen), also photographed by Ake Dalqvist while scripted by Tancred Ibsen and starring Tutta Rolf, Karin Swanström, Tollie Zellman, Rene Björling and Rut Holm and Love and Deficit

(Karleck ock kassabrist), scripted by G?sta

Stevens, which had starred Tutta Rolf, Sigurd Wallen and Edvin

Adolphson. It was also the first film in which actress Alice Carlsson

was to appear. Jag gifta mig- aldrig, the first film in which Viran Rydkvist was to appear, was brought to the screen that year by director Eric Berglund. In 1932, John Lindlof directed Tva man om en anka, written by Borje Larsson and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. The film stars Tollie Zellmann. Sigurd Wallen in 1932 directed the films

The Boys of Storholmen (Pojkarna pa Storholmen) with Margit Manstad, Anna Olin and Ruth Stevens and Lucky Devils (Lyckans

gullgossar
), the assistant director to the film Ivar Johansson. Gustaf

Edgren that year directed Annalisa

Ericson
in the film Varmlanders (Varmlanningarna) with

Hilda Borgstr?m.



The first volume of poetry published by Swedish poet Gunnar Ekel?f,

Late Arrival on Earth (Sent pa jorden), was among the first editions of

1932. In Denmark, two years earlier a novel about a poet, Havoc (Haevaerk) had begun a look at the world by Danish literature than would become from then increasingly more modern, although its author, Tom Kristensen, had in fact begun publishing poetry in Denmark in 1920 with the volume Freebooter's dreams (Fribytterdromme). In 1932 it would be followed by the novel Jorgen Stein, written by Jacob Paludan. Playthings (Legetoj), written by H. C. Branner would introduce H. C. Branner to Danish audiences in 1935. Branner would later write the novels The Riding Master (Rytteren) in 1949 and No One Knows the Night (Ingen Kender Natten) in 1955.



AB Europa, housed at 10 Drottingatan in Stockholm, began its production of film in 1930, among the films it made

being those of Schamyl Bauman, beginning in 1933 with Secret Agent Svensson (Hemliga

Svensson
), starring Fridolf Rhudin and Weyeler Hildebrand and

Saturday Nights (Lordagskvallar), starring Ejvor Kjellstrom

and Ruth Weijden. Both films also star Edvard Persson.



Swedish Sphinx

Swedish Sphinx



In that the photography for one film was concluding as the photography for the other was beginning, the photoshoots with Clarence Sinclair Bull for both As You Desire Me and Grand Hotel were finished during the same afternoon.



In 1933, Eric Malmberg and Rune Carlsten directed the first film in

which Signe Hasso was to appear, House of Silence (Tystnadens

hus
), with Fritiof Billquist. The film was the first to be

photographed by cinematographer Harry Hasso, who also appears in the film

as an actor. Like Greta Garbo, Signe Hasso travelled to Hollywood to film,

her appearing in the films Heaven Can Wait (1943, Lubitsch) and

A Double Life (1947, George Cukor). Swedish actress Emy Hagman

appearred in her first film that year, Flickan fran varuhuset,

under the direction of Anders Hendrikson and Torsten Lundqvist, Brita

Appelgren having starred with her in the film. Much like Swedish actress Guje Lagerwall, the daughter of Victor Sjöström and wife of Sture Lagerwall, who was included in the early sound films of Sweden, Dora Söderberg, the daughter of playwright Hjamler Söderberg and wife of Swedish actor and director Rune Carlsten, was afforded one of her early on screen appearances in the film House of Silence.





Tancred Ibsen directed his first film in 1933, Vi som gar

kjokkenveien
, his following it with Synnove Solbakken (1934),

starring Victor Sj?str?m and Fritiof Billquist. Gustaf Molander in 1933

directed the film Dear Relatives (Kara slakten), starring

Ruth Stevens, Dora Söderberg and Sickan Carlsson and written by G?sta Stevens. Edvin

Adolphson
in 1933 directed the film What do Men Know (Vad veta

val mannen
), scripted by G?sta Stevens as well. Gosta Rodin in 1933

wrote and directed She or No One (Hon eller ingen, produced by Europa Film and starring Inga Tiblad,

Anna Olin and Sture Lagerwall.



Ivar Johansson in 1933 wroted and directed both Boman's Boy (Boman's pojke),

with Birgit Tengroth, and People of Halsingland (Halsingar), the first film in which Aurore

Palmgren was to appear, with Karin

Ekelund
, Inga Tiblad and Edit Ernholm. Elner Akesson photographed the film for Svensk Talfilm. The former film was adapted by Ivar Johansson from a play by Siegfried Fischer, the latter film from a play by Henning Ohlsson. Marmstedt that year directed

G?sta Ekman and Karin Kavli in the film Perhaps a Poet (Kanske

en Diktare
), co-scripted with Torsten Flodin. Also appearing in the

film is Gunnar Olsson, who would direct his first film Jarnets man,

with Hjalmar Peters, in 1935. Janets man was written by Johan-Olov

Johansson and photographed by Eric Bergstrand. In 1934 Marmstedt follwed

by directing Ake S?derblom and Astrid Marmstedt in the film Eva Goes

Aboard
(Eva gar Ombord) and Birgit Tengroth and Edvin

Adoplphson
in the film Atlantic Adventure

(Atlantaventyret), also co-scripted with Torsten Flodin.



Hasse Ekman appeared on screen in 1933 under the direction of Ragnar

Widestadt in the film Hemslavinnor, with Maj Tornblad, Anna

Widforss and Isa Quensel. Gösta Stevens wrote the screenplay to the film. That year Hasse Ekman also appeared in the film A Night on Smygeholm (En

Natt pa Smygeholm
) under the direction of Sigurd Wallen, the film also

starring Annalisa

Ericson
and Anna Olin. It was scripted by Gösta Stevens and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Karin Ekelund appeared in her first film, Marriagable Daughters (Giftasvuxna dottrar), in 1933, the film directed by Sigurd Wallen from his own screenplay and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Also starring in the film are Birgit Tengroth and Maritta Marke. Arne Bornebusch directed his first film in

1933, Hur behandlar du din hund?, it also being the first

screenplay written by Bengt Idestam-Almquist. The pen name of

Idestam-Alquist was Robin Hood, his having had been being being one of the early film critics of

Sweden, later publishing the volume Den Svenska Filmens Drama: Sjöström och Stiller (1938). Idestam-Almquist had appeared as an actor in the 1920 film

Gyurkovicsarna.



One of the more widely read of the early novels of Swedish author Eyvid Johnson, Here is Your Life (Har har du ditt live), was published in 1933, as was the novel Cape Farewell (Kap Farval), written by Harry Martinson.



Birgit Rosengren starred in her first two films in 1934, The Girls from the Old Town (Flickorna

fran Gamla St'an
) with Karin Ekelund and The Women Around

Larsson
(Kvinnorna kring Larsson), with Sture Lagerwall, the

director of both films having been Schamyl Bauman. The following year she

appeared in the film Flickor pa Fabrik directed by S?lve

Cederstrand. Schamyl Bauman followed in 1934 with the film Larsson's

Second Marriage
(Larsson i andra giftet).



In 1934 Gustaf Molander continued directing with the films A Quiet

Affair
(En Stille flirt) and Bachelor Father

(Ungkarlspappan), both films from screenplays written by G?sta

Stevens. Gustaf

Edgren that year directed the film Karl Fredrick Reigns

(Karl-Fredrik regerar) with Gunnar Skoglund and Pauline Brunius and Brit-Lis Edgren in what would be her first screen appearance.

The cinematographer to the film was Martin Bodin, the scriptwriter, Oscar

Rydqvist. Ivar Johansson that year directed Sickan Carlsson and Greta

Woxholt in the film The Song to Her (Sangen till henne) and Anna Olin in the film Uppsagd, both films photographed by Martin Bodin. Uppsagd was the first film in which actress Margit Andelius was to appear. Emil A Lingheim directed his first

film in 1934, Bland karparoch foreller. That year John W. Brunius

directed with Pauline Brunius and Karin Albihn the film False Greta (Falska

Greta
), John W, Brunius. Brunius had appeared as actor in the 1931

film Red Day (Roda dagen), directed by Gustaf Edgren and

written by S?lve Cederstand.



Photographed by Ake Dalqvist and directed by Edvin Adolphson and Sigurd

Wallen, The Count of the Monk's Bridge (Munksbrogreven,

1934-5) is a showcase for a young Ingrid Bergman. The screenplay is listed

as having been written by Arthur Natrop and Siegfried Fischer (Greven

fran Gamala Sta'n
) and the scenario as having been penned by G?sta

Stevens. In her autobiography, Ingrid Bergman recounts that during her

first scenes she had nearly overstepped her bounds with the actress Tollie

Zellman and that Edvin Adolphson had added a kind word for her.



Per G. Holmgren directed his first film in 1935, Havet lockar.

Gosta Rodin in 1935 directed Sickan Carlsson and Lili Ziedner in the film

Karlek efter noter, written by Torsten Lundqvist and photographed

by Martin Bodin. That year he also directed Sickan Carlsson for Svensk Talfilms in

The People of Smaland (Smalanningar), also scripted by Torsten Lundqvist. Rune Carlsten that year directed The Marriage

Game
(Aktenskaplekan) with Zarah Leander, Anna Olin and

Ingeborg Strandin, the assistant director to the film Rolf Husberg, the

script written by Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius. Directed by Edvin Adolphson for Wivefilm,

cowritten with the director by Oscar Hemberg and photographed by Elner

Akesson, Flickornas Alfred (1935) was to star Birgit

Tengroth
, Hilda Borstr?m and Olga Andersson. Andersson had starred

with Greta Garbo in 1920 in the short films photographed by Ragnar

Ring.



The first film edited by Oscar Rosander, Valborgsmassoafton, directed by Gustaf Edgren, was filmed in 1935. Its stars actress Linnea Hillberg.



After having directed the film Under False Colors (Under

Flask Flagg
, 1935), scripted by G?sta Stevens and starring Tutta Rolf, in 1936 Gustaf Molander

directed the films The Honeymoontrip (Brollopsresan),

starring Karin Swanström, Ulla Sorbon, Karin Albihn, Edvin Adolphson and Anne Marie Brunius, The

Family Secret
(Familjens hemlighet), from a screenplay by G?sta

Stevens and On the Sunny Side (Pa solsidan), starring Edvin

Adolphson
, also from a screenplay written by Gösta Stevens. Ingrid Borthen

had a small role in the film The Family Secret, it being the first

film in which she was to appear. Gideon Wahlberg directed his first film

in 1936, Soder om landsvagen, starring Agda Helin, Inga-Bodil Vetterlund, Mim Ekelund. It is particularly interesting that Swedish silent film director George af Klerker also appears in the film as an actor. The King is

Coming
(Kungen kommer), written and direted that year by Ragnar

Hylten-Cavallius, starred G?sta Ekman, Birgit Tengroth, Ingeborg Strandin

and Tollie Zellman and was produced for Terra film.



The beautiful Finnish actress Ansa Ikonen began starring in film durring 1935-36 in two films under the direction of Finnish director Valentin Vaala, Everybody's Love (Kaikki rakastavat) and Surrogate Wife (Vaimoke), both having starred Tauno Palo.

Ragnar Arvedson in

1936 wrote and directed the films The Ghost of Bragehus (Spoket pa Bragehus),with Annalisa

Ericson, Poor Millionares (Stackars Miljonarer), with Anna Olin and Are We Married (A vi

giftas?
) with Karin Ekelund. Johan Ulfstjerna (1936), starring

Edith Erastoff and Einar Hanson, was directed by Gustaf Edgren and

photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Edgren followed with the film The Russian Flu (Ryska

snuvan
, 1937), starring Edvin Adolphson. Greta Garbo biographer

Fritiof Billquist appeared with Karin Ekelund and Birgit Rosengren in

Flickor pa fabrik (1935) directed by S?lve Cederstrand, the first film in which actress Britta Estelle was to appear. Arthur

Natorp in 1936 directed his first film, Karlek och monopol,

photographed by Eric Bergstrand. Anders Henrikson in 1936 directed the film Annosera!, photographed by Martin Bodin. Gunnar Fischer that year worked as assistant cameraman with Swedish cinematographer Elner Akesson under the direction of Anders Henrikson on the film He, She, and the money (Han, hon, och pengarna), starring Ruth Stevens, Kirsten Heiberg and Maritta Marke. The film was editied by its assistant director, Rolf Husberg. Swedish actress Margit Andelius starred as the protagonist of Raggen, That's Me (Det ar jag det) that year, the film having been directed by Schamyl Bauman and photographed by Hilmer Ekdahl. The film also starred Anna Olin, Aino Taube, and Isle-Norre Tromm.



Swedish poet Harry Martinson had two novels that appeared in bookstores during 1935 and 1936, Flowering Nettles (Nassloma blomma) and The Way Out (Vagen ut), respectively.



Cinematographer Ake Dahlqvist may very well be presently be known to audiences in the United States as the cameraman behind the viewfinder to the film Intermezzo (1936) directed by Gustaf Molander from a script he co-scripted with Gösta Stevens. Both Hasse Ekman and Anders Henrikson appear in the film, as do Inga Tiblad, Britt Hagman, Swedish silent film star Emma Meissner and the young actress that still directs audiences to the film by her having later remade it in the United States, Ingrid Bergman. Intermezzo was the first film in which actress Millan Bollanden, who was seen onscreen with Ingrid Bergman often, was to appear.



In her autobiography, Ingrid Bergman writes that she was reluctant when

asked to film One Night Only (En Enda Natt, 1937) and that she had hoped to star

in the film A Woman's Face (En kvinnas Ansikte, 1936). Both films were directed by

Gustaf Molander and scripted by G?sta Stevens. "Look," she had said, "I'll

only do your film if you let me do the girl with the distorted face." She

quotes Gustaf Molander as having said, "The technicalities of the

distorted face were fine, but I couldn't get the story right." There is

and account given by Ingrid Bergman of her having had been being asked to

supply an eding to the plotline before the shooting of the film had

finished and of the concluding scenes of the film having been based upon

her idea. One Night Only was photographed by Elner Akesson, the

assistant director the film having been Hugo Bolander. A Woman's

Face
was photographed by Ake Dahlqvist.



"From letters to his wife during the summer and autumn of 1936 we can very well follow the work on the script, the planning, and the shooting of Under the Red Robe". Begnt Forslund chronicles the retSwedish film director Victor Sjostrom to film directing in England with a script based on the writing of Stanely Weyman, which had already appeared on the stage as dramatized by Edward Rose.



Signe Hasso appeared on the screen during 1937 under the direction of Schamyl Bauman, starring in the film Witches Night (Haxnatten) with actresses Ruth Stevens, Gerda Bjorne and Marta Lindlof. John Lindlof in 1937 directed the film Odygdens beloning. Gustaf

Molander in 1937 directed Tutta Rolf in the film Sara lar sig

folkvett
, written by Gösta Stevens and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Jaenzon also that year photographed the film Cleared for Action/Clearly to drabbning (Klart till drabbning), in which Edvin Adolphson directed his daughter, Swedish actrees Anna-Greta Adolphson. The film was scripted by Weyler Hildebrand and Torsten Lundqvist and also stars Ake Söderblom and Sickan Carlsson. Gosta Rodin wrote and directed the film The Pale Count (Bleka greven), photographed by Sven Thermaenius. Produced by Svensk Talfilms, the film stars Anna Olin, Karin Ahbihn and Aina Rosen.



Alice Babs starred in her first film in 1938, Thunder and Lightning/Flash and Thunder (Blixt och dunder),

directed by Anders Henrikson and also starring Hasse Ekman, Frida Winnerstrand, Marianne Aminoff and Sickan Carlsson. Also starring in her first film in 1938 was Sif Ruud who appeared with Linnea Hillberg, Olga Hellquist, Gudrun Lendrup and Birgit Rosengren in Kloka gubben, directed by Sigurd Wallen and written by Gosta Werner. Hortensia Hedstrom that year appearred in her first film, Svensson ordinar allt, directed by Theodor Berthels. Co-scripted by Berthels and Gosta Werner for Svea Film, it stars Swedish silent film director George af Klerker, Karin Albihn, Sally Palmblad, Helga Hallen and Olga Hellquist. Anders Henrickson brought Tutta Rolf, Mimi Pollack and Karin Swanström to the screen in 1938 in the film The Great Love (Den stora Karleken) which he wrote and directed for Wivefilm, Stockholm. That year Gunnar Fischer photographed his

first film, Only a Trumpter (Bara en trumpetare), scripted by Torsten Lundqvist and

also directed by Henrikson. Director Nils Jerring in 1938 brought Wera

Lindby and Ruth Weijeden to the screen in the film Figurligt talat,

photographed by Martin Bodin. Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius that year directed

Lars Hanson and Karin Ekelund in the film Wings around the

Lighthouse
(Vingar kring fyren), Cavallius also having the

screenplay.



Gustaf Molander in

1938 directed Ingrid Envall in her first film Dollar, starring Georg Rydeberg, Tutta Rolf,

Kotti Chave and Birgit Tengroth. Filmed from a script co-written by Stina

Bergman, the cinematographer to the film was Ake Dahlqvist. Dollar begins as a film of interior shots and Molander tracks with his characters as he cuts between close shots, oftent cutting with the camera one moment and abruptly cutting to brief dialouge shots, or in between fairly quick dollyshots and close shots positioned from varying angles during an early card game scene. In the adjacent interior scene, Ingrid Bergman dances with her own shadow and the shadow of her parrot as Molander's camerawork is moved into a drawing room with four women, each crossing the set untill the men and women later pair together, a pairing together that locates the rest of the film in ther interior of a ski resort. The pace established by shot legnth then slows down and the editing becomes less pronounced as the men and women are the kept together more often as a group, more often in full shot as the storyline relies almost entirely upon dialouge for its development as each character crosses the set from one conversation to the next. Molander often cuts quickly after a line of dialouge, often constructing the shot-structure of the individual scenes by cutting on action. The is only one character other than the one played by Edvin Adolphson introduced during the film, that of an actress from the United States, Mary, the dollar princess.



Sven Thermaenius that year photographed the film Du

gama du fria
, written and directed by Gunnar

Olsson
and starring Hilda Borgstr?m, Karin Ekelund, Sigurd Wallen and

Gull Natrop. The film was produced by AB Europafilm. Kaj Aspegren directed his first film, Studieresan, in 1938, photographed by Erik Bergstrand and starring Signe Lundberg-Settergren and Marta Dorff.





Swedish Film actress Greta Garbo



In 1939, Victor Sjostrom appeared as an actor in two films,The Old

Man's Coming (Gubben kommer) ,with Birgit Tengroth, Olaf

Molander, Aino Taube and Tora Teje, directed by Per Lindberg, and in

Towards New Times (Mot nya tider), directed by Sigurd Wallen

and starring Carl Barklind, Anna Olin and Marianne Aminoff. Per Lindberg

in 1939 also directed the film Glad dig din Ungdom, starring Birgit

Tengroth, Hilda Borgstr?m, and Anna Lindahl. Photographed by Ake

Dahlqvist, the film was co-scripted by Vilhelm Moberg with Per Lindberg

and Stina Bergman from his novel Sankt Sedebetygi>

Weyler Hildebrand in 1939 directed Sickan Carlsson and Ake Ohberg in

Landstormens lilla Lotta, scripted by Torsten Lundqvist. Rolf

Husberg
began as an assistant director to the film Giftasvuxna

dottrar
(1933). He directed his first film, Midnattsolens in

1939. Gustaf Molander used the talented pioneer Julius Jaenzon in 1939 to photograph Filmen om Emelie Hogvist

starring Signe Hasso and Elsa Burnett, the first film in which Karin Norgren

had been given a small role. Elsa Burnett also starred in Molander's film

Ombyte fornojer, with Tutta Rolf. Both films were scripted by Gösta Stevens. Signe Hasso would also that year appear in the film Us Two (Vi Twa), directed by Schamyl Bauman and starring Ilse-Norre Tromm and Gunnar Bjornstrand in an early film role. Schamyl Bauman in 1939 directed

Anders Henriksson and Sonja Wigert in the film Her Little Majesty

(Hennes Lilla Majestat), the film also starring Swedish film

directors Carl Barklind and Gunnar Hoglund. Also directed by Schamyl Bauman that year was the film Efterlyst, photographed by Hilmer Ekdahl and starring Edvin Adolphson, Birgit Rosengren, Isa Quensel, Carin Swensson and Linnea Hillberg. Anders Henrikson in 1939 directed the film Valfangare, with Tutta Rolf. Ragnar Frisk directed Ann-Margret Bergendahl in her first film in 1939, Den Moderna Eva, photographed by Karl-Erik Alberts and starring Ake Uppström. Siv Ericks appeared in her first film that year Rosor varje kvall, directed by Per Axel-Branner. Also in the film are Carl Barklind, Hjordis Petterson, Ake Ohberg and Tore Lindwall. Gideon Wahlberg in 1939 directed Ann Mari Udderberg and Naemi Briese in the film We from the Theater (Vi som gar scenevagen). Gosta Rodin during 1939 directed the film Charmers at Sea (Sjocharmorer) produced by Fribergs Filmbyra and photographed by Albert Rudling. The film stars Aino Taube, Karin Swanstrom, Marianne Lofgren and Ullastina Rettig.




Both Sigurd Wallen and Olaf Molander appeared in front of the camera with Britt-Lis Edgren in the 1940 film A Big Hug (Stora Famnen), Britt-Lis the daughter of the director of the film, Gustaf Edgren. The film was photographed by Julius Jaenzon and also stars the Swedish actresses Gerda Lundqvist and Signe Hasso. Gustaf Molander in 1940 directed the film A, but one lion (En, men ett lejon) with

Fridtjof Mjoen and Annalisa Ericson. The screenplay to the film was

written by G?sta Stevens and again, Molander would be behind the camera while Julius Jaenzon was the film's photographer. On the marquee that year, along with the name

Aino Taube, was the film Everybody at His Station (Alle man pa

post
) written by Torsten Lundqvist and directed by Anders Henrikson,

the assistant director to the film Ragnar Fisk. That year, Alf Sj?berg

wrote and directed the films They Staked Their Lives (Med livet

som instats
) and the first film in which the actresses Barbro Flodquist and Hedvig Lindby were to appear, and Blossom Time (Den blomstertid), photographed by Harald Berglund with Goran Strindberg as assistant cameraman and starring Sture

Lagerwall, Gerd Hagman, Carl Barklind and Arnold Sj?strand. Barbro

Flodquist also that year appeared in the film Hanna i societen,

directed by Gunnar Olsson and starring Elsa Carlsson and Carl

Barklind. Schamyl Bauman in 1940 directed the films Heroes in Yellow in Blue (Hjaltar i gult och blatt), starring Tollie Zellmann, Barbro Kollber and Emy Hagman, and An Able Man (Karl for sin hatt), starring Birigit Tengroth, Vera Valdo and Gull Natrop starring Ake Ohberg directed his first film in 1940, Romance (Romans) in which Fritiof Billqvist appeared. Introduced to the screen that year by Ragnar Arvedson, Eva Henning premiered in the film Gentleman att hyra, photographed by Martin Bodin. Sigge Furst and Mimi Pollack also appear in the film. June Night (Juninatten) was directed in 1940 by Per Lindberg.



Swedish Film actress Greta Garbo



Still photograph from the film Two Faced Woman scanned from the original negatives and emailed via Yahoo by author Mark A. Vieira.



After directing June Night, the following year Per Lindgren directed the the film The Talk of the

Town
(Det sags pa stan, 1941), photographed by Ake Dalqvist and

starring Marianne Lofgren, Gudron Brost, Elsa Marianne von Rosen, Mona

Martenson, Elsa Widborg and Bojan Westin, in what was to be her first appearance on the screen. Bojan Westin has recently appeared in several films, including Brevbaravens hemlighet (2006, Hanna Andersson), Koffein (2007, Akesson, Olsson) and Dorotea i dodsriket (2007, Kati Mets). The assistant director to the film Talk of the Town was Arne Mattsson. Produced by Svea Film, Stockholm, it was one of

the first two films in which Eva Dahlbeck was to appear, the other being

Only a Woman (Bara en kvinna), directed by Anders Henrikson for Wivefilm, Stockholm and photographed by Elner Akesson. Also starring in the film is Karin Ekelund. Anders Henrikson also that year directed Anio Taube in Life Goes On (Livet gar vidare), which he cowrote with Begnt Idestam-Almquist. The film also stars Hasse Ekman. Director Gunnar Skoglund that year teamed Karin Ekelund and Edvin Adolphson in the film Woman on Board (En Kvinna Omboard), photographed by Hilding Bladh and also starring Sigge Furst. Ragnar Arvedson in 1941 directed the

films Sa tukta en akta man, the assistant director to the film Arne

Mattsson. Ung dam med tur, photographed by Harald Berglund and

written by Torsten Floden, was also directed by Ragnar Arvedson in 1941,

it starring Sonja

Wigert
, Elly Christiansson, Stina Hedberg and Ake Ohberg. That year

G?sta Cederlund directed his first film, Fransson den

forskracklinge
with Hilda Borgstr?m, Rune Carlsten, Elof Ahrle, Sonja

Wigert and Marianne Lofgren as well as the film Uppat igen starring

Elof Ahrle, Vera Valdor and Berit Rosengren.



In 1941, Gunnar Olsson directed Mai Zetterling in her first film,

Lasse-Maja, photographed by Harald Bergland and written by Torsten

Floden, in which Zetterling starred with Margit Manstad and Sture

Lagerwall
. She next appeared in Sunshine Follows Rain/Rain

Follows the Dew
(Driver dag faller regn, 1946), directed by

Gustaf Edgren and based on a novel by Margit Soderholm. Alf Sj?berg in

1941 directed the film Home from Babylon (Hem fran Babylon)

starring Gerd Hagman and Arnold Sjostrand. Gustaf Molander in 1941

directed Tonight or Never (I natt-eller aldrig) with Tollie

Zellman and Bright Prospects (Den ljusnade framtid) with

Elly Christiansson, Julius Jaenzon the photographer of the latter. Produced by Svea Film in 1941, Cosy Barracks (Hemtreunad i kasern) was directed by Gosta Rodin and photographed by Erik Bergstrand. The film stars Tollie Zellman, Anna-lisa Baude, Annalisa Ericson and Rut Holm.



Anders Henrikson in 1942 both directed and starred with Sonja Wigert in

both Youth in Chains (Ungdom i bojor) and Fallet Ingegerd Bremssen, which,

starring Ivar Kage and G?sta Cederlund, was the first film in which Siv

Thulin had been given a small role. Anders Henrikson

also starred with Sonja Wigert inBlod och eld (1945), the assistant

director to the latter Bengt Palm. Gunnar Skoglund in 1942 directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in the film Varat gang. Gunnar Fischer worked as an assistant camerman in 1942 under Swedish cinematographer Ake Dahlqvist on a film edited by Oscar Rosander, Jacob's Ladder (Jacobs Stege), directed by Gustaf Molander and starring Birgit Tengroth, Marianne Lofgren and Viran Rydkvist. Gustaf Molander also that year directed Hilda

Borgstr?m, Erik Hampe Faustman, Eva Dahlbeck and Anders Ek in the film

Ride Tonight (Ride This Night/Ride Tonight, Rid i natt, 1942), based on a novel by Vilhelm

Moberg. Doctor Glas (Doktor Glas, 1942), adapted from a

novel by Hjamar Soderberg by Rune Carlsten and directed by Gustaf Edgren,

was to include the actresses Hilda Borgstr?m and Irma Christenson, it also

having been the first film in which Victor Sj?str?m's daughter, Guje

Lagerwall, was to appear. Hugo Bolander directed his first two films in

1942, Three Glad Fools (Tre glada tokar), and Sextuplets (Sexlingar). Bolander had been the

assistant director to the film Steel (Stal, 1940), directed

by Per Lindberg, a film that had starred not only Alf Kjellin and Gudron Brost, but Signe Hasso, Karin Swanstrom and Torre Svennberg.





The following year, Erik Hampe Faustman directed his first film ,

Night in the Harbor (Natt i hamn, 1943) and scripted the film, its

cinematographer having had been being Gunnar Fischer. Eric Hampe Faustman

also directed the film Sonja that year, which he co-scripted with

G?sta Stevens, it having starred Birgit Tengroth, Else Albiin, Gunn

Wallgren and Sture Lagerwall. Sonja was photographed by cinematographer Hilding Bladh. Hampe Faustman that year appeared as an actor in Gustaf Molander's film Alsking, self give me (Alsking jag ger mig), which was also written by Gösta Stevens. Starring with Faustman in the film were Sonja Wigert, Elsa Carlsson, Marianne Lofgren and Carin Swensson. Haustman followed in 1944 by directing the film

The Girl and Devil (Flickan och Djavulen), starring Hilda

Borgstr?m and Torgny Anderberg.



In 1943, Olof Molander directed Mimi Nelson in her first film, I

Slew
(Jag drapte), also starring Mai Zetterling, Anders

Henrikson, Hilda Borgstr?m and Irma Christenson. That year G?sta Cederlund

directed her in the film Kungsgatan, which also starred Barbro

Kollberg. Ragnar Frisk in 1943 directed For lack of evidence (I

brist pa brevis
), scripted by Per Holmgren and Arne Mattsson and

starring Birgit Tengroth and Holger Lowenadler. Frisk also that year directed Nils Poppe in the film The Actor (Aktoren), photographed by Hilmer Ekdahl and co-starring Sigge Furst and Agda Helin. Begnt Janzon in 1943 wrote

and directed the film We Met the Storm (Vi Motte Stormen),

with Stig Jarrel and Anna-Lisa Baude, for AB Nordisk-Filmproduktion. Ivar Johansson that year wrote and

directed the film Young Blood (Ungt Blod), with Toivo Pawlo

and Olof Widgren. Johansson also that year directed Ake Gronberg in the film Captured by a Voice (Fangad av en rost) photographed by Ernst Westerberg and produced by Film AB Lux. Sigge Furst that year also starred in the film Ghosts, Ghosts (Det Spokar, Det Spokar) directed by Hugo Bolander and produced by Film AB Image. Eva Henning that year appeared in the film The Awakening of Youth (Nar

Ungdomen vaknar
), directed by Gunnar Olsson. Cinematographer Sven

Nykvist photographed his first film, along with photographer Olle

Nordemar, in 1943, In the darkest Corner of Smaland (I morkaste Smaland), under the direction of

Schamyl Bauman, the film starring Sigurd Wallen, Eivor Landstrom, Eric Petschler and Gull Natrop. Silent

film director Eric Petschler also appears in the film. Gunnar Skoglund in 1943 directed the film En var i vapen starring Ingrid Borthen, Eric Hampe Faustman, Rita Sandstorm, Fritiof Billquist and Birgit Lindkvist in what was to be her first film appearance. Bjorge Larsson during 1943 directed the film A Girl for Me (En Flickan for mej) for Europa Film, it starring Sickan Carlsson, Kerstin Lindahl and Hilda Borgstrom. Ragnar Arvedson in 1943 brought Irma Christenson and Ann-Margret Bjorlin to the screen in the film Herre med Portfolj.



Gustaf Molander in 1944 brought the film The Invisible Wall/The Unseen Wall (Den osynliga muren), starring Inga Tiblad, Irma Christenson, Hilda Borgström and Britta Brunius, to the screen. Swedish film directors Rune Carlsten and Eric Faustman also appear in the film. In 1944, Gunnar Ollsson directed The Turn of the Century (Nar

seklet var ungt
) his following it in 1945 with The Happy Tailor

(Den Glade skraddaren), both films being among those in which

Fritiof Billquist had appeared. The Turn of the Century (Nar seklet var ungt) had been

the first film in which Brita Billsten had been given a small role, her

having had appeared in it with Stina Hedberg, Marianne Gyllenhamar and Mim Eklund. En dotter fodd, the first film in which Ruth Kasdan was cast, was directed in 1944 by Gosta Cederlund and starred Barbro Kollberg. Ake Ohberg in

1944 directed Swedish Film actress Karin Ekelund in the film Snowstorm

(Snostromen), photographed by Harald Berglund. Also appearing in the film are Liane Linden and Helga Brofeldt. Ivar Johansson that year directed Birgit Tengroth in

the film Skogen ar var arvedel, the assistant director to the film

Arne Mattsson. Weyeler Hildebrand in 1944 directed Sonja Wigert, Mona Martenson and Gunnar

Bj?strand in the film My People are Not Yours (Mitt folk ar icke ditt). Ragnar Falck, who appeared as an actor in several Swedish Films during 1930-1960, directed

his first two films, Fia Jansson from the South Side (Fia Jansson fran Soder), for Kungsfilm, and Your Relatives Are Best (Slakten ar

blast
), for Wive Film, that year. Fredrick Anderson in 1944 brought Ingid Bouthen,

Annelie Thureson and Eivor Rolke to the screen in the film Karleck och

allsang
. Rune Carlsten that year wrote and directed the film Count only

the Happy Moments
(Rakna de Lyckliga Stunderna Blott), with

Sonja Wigert, Arnold Sj?strand and Eva Dahlbeck. Gunnar Skoglund in 1944 brought Vibeke Falk and Monicka Tropp to the screen in the film The Clock of Ronneberga (Klockan pa Ronneberga). Alf Sjoberg that year wroted and directed the film The Royal Hunt (Kungajakt), starring Inga Tiblad.



Filmed in Sweden and directed by Carl Th. Dreyer, Two People

(Tva Manniskor, 1944) was not released in Denmark due to low box

office returns and a second Swedish film to be directed by Dreyer was

cancelled. Dreyer reportedly had wanted Anders Ek and Gunn Walgren to

portray the couple upon which the on screen action of the film is

centered, his describing the female character of the film as being "young

warmblooded and sensual". When filmed the couple was portrayed quite

differently by Wanda Rothgart and George Rydeberg.



Sailors (Blajackor 1945), directed by Rolf Husberg with

Annalisa Ericson, was photographed by Gunnar Fischer. Rolf Husberg directed Siv Hansson and Ann Sophie Honeth that year in the film The Children from Frostmo Mountain (Barnen fran Frostrnofjallent), photographed by Sven Nykvist.



Molander in 1945 directed Galgmannen and in 1946 directed

It's my Model(Det ar min modell),starring Alf Kjellin and

Maj-Britt Nilsson, both films photographed by Ake Dalqvist. The screenwriter of It's My Model was Rune Lindström. Rune Lindstrom that year wrote and directed the film Aunt Green, Aunt Brown and Aunt Lilac (Tant Grun, Tant Brun, och Tant Gredelin), starring Britta Brunius, Elsa Ebbensen-Thorblad, Irma Christenson and Sigge Furst. Cinematographer Max Wilen

photographed his first film that year, Det var en gang, directed by

Arne Bornebusch with Mona Martenson. Ake Ohberg in 1945 brought Barbro

Kollberg to the screen in the film Girls in the Harbor (Flickor

i hamn
) and Eva Henning to the screen in Rosen pa Tistelon,

G?sta Folke the asistant director to the latter film. Bjorge Larsson in

1945 directed Annalissa Ericson, G?sta Cederlund and Sture Lagerwall in

the film A Charming Miss (En fortjussande Froken) and the film The Thirteen Chairs (13 stolar), photographed by Sven Nykvist. Adapted

from the novel published by Vilhelm Moberg in 1933, Mans Kvinna,

starring Edvin Adolphson, Birgit Tengroth and Gudron Brost was that year

directed by Gunnar Skoglund; coscripted by Vilhelm Moberg, Ankeman

Jarl
, starring Ingrid Backlin and Maritta Marke was that year directed

by Sigurd Wallen. The assistant director to the latter was Lennart

Wallen. The Serious Game (Den Allvarsamma leken, 1945), based

on a novel by Hjalmar Soderberg and starring Viveca Lindfors and Eva

Dahlbeck, would be directed by Rune Carlsten.



That year was also to mark the appearance of a new director of Swedish film, Ingmar Bergman, his writing his own screenplay to the film A Young Girl's Troubles (Kris) as an adaptation of the play A Mother's Heart (Moderdyret), penned by Leck Fischer. The cinematographer to the film, which starred Inga Landgre as its central character, was Gösta Roosling and its editor was Oscar Rosander. It was during 1942 that Ingmar Bergman had begun adapting screenplays for Svensk Filmindustri. As noted by Donner, the first had been a screen version of the novel Katinka, written by Astrid Varing; noted by Peter Cowie the first had been a novel entitled Scared to Live. In his autobiography, Images, Ingmar Bergman writes without noting the author of the novel, and explains that after he was given an office,the script department was under Stina Bergman, to whom, it almost completely belonged, seemingly.

























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Greta GarboThe 100th birthday

of Greta Garbo was a perfect time to recognize the efforts of Ase

Kleveland, if only to introduce her as a proponent of classic film and the

viewing of film with an interest in film history; she during September

2005 at the Cinemateket Filmhuset not only introduced Greta Garbo to

Swedish audiences, but marked the love for the actress throughout

Scandanavia. In an e-mailed correspondence to the present author, she

wrote, "Many thanks for your greetings. I can assure that the Garbo

celebrations was a great success indeed." Both Stockholm and Goteborg

screened the Greta

Garbo
film Camille

(Kameliadamen, George Cukor, 1937) on September 16, 2005, the

former at the Biografen Sture, the latter at the Biografen Svea. The film

co-stars Robert Taylor and Henry Daniell. Just as the films of Victor

Sjostrom
have toured the United States, the Greta Garbo Centenary is

marked by screenings of films representative of the body of work the

actress appeared in on screen before her retiring. Among the films being

shown near her birthday, and into early December of 2005, are a four minute print of Greta Louise Gustafson in Luffar-Petter and a two minute print of her crossing the Atlantic from Stockholm to the United States in an unidentified film that would seen to more than a number of dedicated Garbo viewers to be footage from the film En decemberdag pa Atlanten, directed by Ragnar Ring and photographed by Gustav Berg, there being an account of Garbo and Ring having spoken to each other while crossing the Atlantic.



Greta Garbo.







In the

United States, during the summer of 2005 the Niles Essany Silent Film

Museum added a film to its June schedule in which Greta Garbo is at her

most beautiful because it is one of her most melodramatic, the silent film

The Kiss (Kyssen, Feyder, 1929, seven reels) with Conrad

Nagel. An emailed thankyou-newsletter from the San Fransisco Silent Film

Festival not only announced the opening of the Edison Theater of the

Silent Film Museum in Niles and its series of films for the summer in its

listings of upcoming events, but added among its listings a week long

screening of films of Greta Garbo at the Stanford Theatre in Palo Alto,

during which the Silent Garbo film A Woman of Affairs (Grona hatten,

Clarence Brown, 1928, nine reels), starring Lewis Stone and John Gilbert

and including Johnny Mack Brown and Douglas Fairbanks Jr. was screened on

September 21, 2005. A Woman of Affairs flickered across the

silverscreens of the Filmhuset in Stockholm, Sweden to begin the month of

October, 2005 and inside the screening rooms of the Garbo Society in

Hogsby, Sweden on November 14, 2004. Accompanied by the Hogsby exhibition, the film later was introduced by Kevin Brownlow during a January, 2006 screening in Erlangen, Germany.


Greta GarboAs part of the Toronto International Film Festival, in a series that

concluded June 25,2005 with Greta Garbo in the film A Two Faced

Woman
(George Cukor), there was a screening of not only Part I + Part

II of The Saga of Gosta Berling, an entire 183 minutes, but also of

a ten minute print of The Divine Woman (Victor Sjostrom, eight reels, 1928) and

a four minute print of Reklamfilm Pub Greta Garbo (1921, Ragnar

Ring. The silent Garbo film Flesh and the Devil (Atra, Clarence Brown, 1926 nine reels), starring Lars Hanson and John Gilbert, The

Mysterious Lady
(Den mystika kvinna, Fred Niblo, 1928 nine

reels) and the A Woman of Affairs were projected onto screens in

Finland at the Forssa Silent Film

Festival, August 27-28, 2004. The Forssan Elavienkuvien Teatteri was open

from 1906 to 1930 before being reopened in 2001. The Divine Woman, directed by Victor Sjostrom and starring Greta Garbo was featured on YouTube in a 2007 listing and could be viewed as a fragment of the lost film over the internet; it has since been relisted and can still currently be viewed in a 2009 listing on Google Video-You Tube.















The silent film of Greta Garbo is featured in the Kevin Brownlow documentary Trick of the Light narrated by James Mason and is

presently offered online in Windows media, divided into two parts and

including the silent film documentary Hollywood

Trick of the Light pt. 2, by dograt.com/hollywood.html. Greta Garbo visited James Mason in 1949 while they were planning to film La Duchesse de Langeais, an adaptation of Balzac's novel The Thirteen.



Greta Garbo Kevin Brownlow is

the director of the biographical documentary Garbo (2005), a film

which quickly after having been aired was mentioned in the e-mailed posts of members that

correspond using several different Yahoo mailing list groups in the United States and which

was also screened at the Filmhuset as part of the Swedish Film Institute's

marking Garbo's 100th birthday. Not all of the posts having had been being on mailing lists specificlly dedicated to the actress Greta Garbo, in an e-mailed correspondence to the present author, John Gilbert biographer Leatrice Gilbert Fountain, wrote, "I hoped you watched the Garbo documentary on Sept 6 on TCM. I run through a lot of it and am very pleased the way they handled my father. Perhaps you can watch for a rerun." In the documentary she introduces Flesh and the Devil, describing the actor and actress during a sequence that is spliced with a segment of film of the director Clarence Brown; while describing Greta Garbo as having been independent of other people. Brown in the film praises Greta Garbo for her work in from of the camera and her work during retakes by noting that behind the camera he was at a distance from her and that her acting translated into movement what he wanted to appear on the screen. Interviewed in the

documentary are Greta Garbo author Karen

Swenson, Greta Garbo, who is more Garbo like in her providing an emotional rather than detailed account of the actress, and author Mark Vieira, who introduces cameraman William Daniels and The Torrent. In that the documentary begins to address the extratextural discourse that accompanied the characters that were to be portrayed on screen by Greta Garbo, it begins with footage of the city Stockholm and the two visits Greta Garbo made to the city, as well as brief footage of Sjostrom and Stiller bookended by footage of Swedish actress Mimi Pollack. Near to the 100th bithday of Greta Garbo, Mark Vieira emailed members of a Yahoo group announcing that his forthcoming book will be about Irving Thalberg and that it will include many photographs of Norma Shearer and Jean Harlow. The daughter of Norma Shearer, bookstore owner Katherine Thalberg, died in the beginning of January, 2006.



Two of the brief scenes introducing Sunday Silent Nights on Turner Classic Movies are from the silent films of Greta Garbo. A scene from the film Flesh and the Devil with Greta Garbo and John Gilbert dancing together is used in the introductory sequence, and later in the sequence a scene from The Kiss with Greta Garbo in close up is used. The scene with Lillian Gish peering out at the storm is from The Wind, directed by Victor Sjostrom. The other silent films in the Turner Classic Movies introductory sequence, all of which were filmed in the United States, include two scenes from Our Dancing Daughter (1928, Beuamont), one which is a room full of balloons and the other an actress in front of a mirror, The Big Parade (Vidor), with John Gilbert kissing a leading lady, The Four Horseman of the Apocalypse with a brief scene of Rudolf Valentino smoking, two scenes from Greed (von Stroheim), one with actress Zazu Pitts in a hat and the other to conclude the sequence with Gibson Gowland, Noah's Ark with Goerge O'Bien looking into the rain, The Crowd with actor James Murray smiling, Show People with Marion Davies using a handkerchief as a prop and a brief clip from Keaton's The Cameraman that shows his eyes.




















Greta GarboThe Associated Press marked the 100th birthday with Jan-Erik Billinger having announced the opening of a new library at the Swedish Film Institute, one that includes film magazines from the United States from the early silent film period. Jan-Erik Billinger, who remarked the it was mostly coincidental that the library was ready in time for Garbo's centenarry, is the Head of the Information Department at the Swedish Film Institute. Soon there will be a display at the Swedish Film Institute; when

Pictures of Greta (Bilder av Greta), a collection of photographs,

is finished being viewed at the Stura Cinema in Stockholm, it will be

transferred to the Film House.



Swedish Film-GarboAlong with it will be shown costumes the

actress wore while filming The Saga of Gosta Berling with director

Mauritz Stiller, her private correspondence as well as her personal

belongings from childhood. Of the film that first paired Greta Garbo and Lars Hanson, one webpage author on the internet, Hazel, in her latest update reviews the onscreen performance of Greta Garbo, "Already in her first movie, Garbo gave a nuanced and mature performance." An e-mailed newsletter during April of 2006 from Kino Video announced the release on DVD of the first movie in which Greta Garbo appeared, The Saga of Gosta Berling, along with the release two other films directed by her first director, Mauritz Stiller.





















In The Perfect Murder (Det Perfekte Mord),directed by Eva

Isaksen, Anna-Lena Hemstrom believes herself to be Garbo,or rather the characters

portrayed by Greta Garbo. During the making of a film, she enacts

particular scenes from Garbo's films, in her bedroom before making love,

the actress on the screen becoming the spectator within the film through

an identification with the action of the film actress, the idealized

appropriated into the dramaturgy of the erotic;her movements are those of

Greta Garbo in character- the only way to become authentic is to be the

absolute object of her look, and only then by being her paramour.

Intringuingly, the fabula of the film, the events of each particular

scene, and its syhuzet, the presentation of its plotline, merge as its

characters encounter each other, as she entices each lover toward fantasy,

toward the sensual. Visually, the film represents the act of love as being

both abstract and concrete: it only depicts the actress during sex in as

much as each instance, and the accompanying dialouge, is particularly

connected to the narrative, there being a specificality within each of the

scenes upon which the plotline is dependent, one in which the actress is

convinced that she knows each of her lovers from a specific Greta Garbo

film and that she has to make love to them according to the juncture of

events that comprise the scene in the film. She is an actress entertaining

the fantasies of the actress Greta Garbo and yet, although there are no

abstract shots during the film, their being shown in the bedroom

uninterruped by cut in shots that would add meaning to the scene, sex

acquires something that is metaphoric in that she is Garbo and for each of

her lovers it can only be fantasy, it becoming intangible at the very

moment of sexual climax to where their very corporeality is unknowable,

that in fact quite possibly known only by Garbo as well- there is an

objectification of the actress as Garbo and it is her tragic beauty that

has validity, her making love as the Garbo she has portrayed on the screen

that carries her to the next lover from a different, later film of Greta

Garbo, sex a metaphor for Garbo's elusiveness and her star quality. Early in the film Anna-Lena Hemstrom is in the role of an actress in the audience of the on-screen Greta Garbo, "How can one surrender oneself so completely." From there ,in a white bedroom and white nightgown symbolic of post-coital solitude, she introduces an eroticism of both reclusiveness and of sphinx-like mystery, of Garbo in character and only in character and of Anna-Lena Hemstrom as Greta, in character and only in character whispering, "Not now." "Not now."

Mai

Zetterling has said, "I don't have Garbo's austere tragic beauty." Just as

the film establishes the narrative on two levels, that of the actress that

can play a character on screen other than herself and invites the director

of the film she is making to her apartment and that of the actress as

Garbo in front of the camera, only known through the fulfillment of their

being conjugal, Garbo herself was described by Nils Asther, who starred

with her in Wild Orchids (Vilda orkideer, Sidney Franklin,

1929, eleven reels) and The Single Standard (En kvinnas

moral
, 1929, eight reels), as being shy, while Lon Chaney is quoted as

having said, "I told Garbo that mystery served me well and it would do as

much for her." Norma Shearer had said, "She was very cordial with me- and

then, after clasping my hand, she was suddenly gone." In his Film Essays

and Criticism, a valuable introduction to film theory, Rudolf Arnheim

gives Greta Garbo only a two page "portait", but it is from 1928 and may

be more than what is a cursory glance, his writing, "On cat's feet, her

coat pulled tightly about her and her hands folded in her lap, Greta Garbo

passes censorship." Arnheim sees Greta Garbo as erotic, as an erotic object.

The Perfect Murder has been aired in the United States on The

International Channel. Eva Isaksen newest film is currently being

unspooled in Norway.



Kerstin, a Swedish writer from Stockholm, was among the first of several Swedish bloggers to notice that Greta Garbo, the actress and the mystery, will be portrayed by Anna-Karin Eskilsson in the film Garbo, Svenska Dagbladet having announced during September of 2008 that the film, a biography, was slated to be lensed by Budd Bregman and screened to audiences during 2010.













Greta Garbo-Flesh and the Devil.



Louise Brooks (Diary of a

Lost Girl, Das Tagebuch Einer Verlorenen
Pabst, 1929 nine reels) had

written, "Garbo is all movement. First she gets the emotion, and out of

the emotion, comes the dialouge."
Greta Garbo
















Greta Garbo


And yet, not only was

Greta Garbo an actress, a figure of shadow sauntering across the screen,

gracefullness moving as image, but she insofar as she was sought after was

also a model, particularly when photographed by Arnold Genthe, Ruth Harriet Louise, George Hurrel, Edward Steichen or Cecil Beaton- Garbo

brought had with her the quality of being a model long after the last

publicity photo of her in studio costume. It was the quality of being a

model that is particularly shown by three photographs by Nickolas Muray,

whether it is an ebullient Greta

Garbo
, a pensive, or longing Greta

Garbo
, or the ethereal Greta

Garbo
that brings us only to the beginning of her mystery.










Greta Garbo



The Nordic Museum (Nordiska musset) in Stockholm, on Djurgarden, recently shown an exhibition of photos of herself owned by the actress Greta Garbo, which began June 2, 2006 and ran September 3,2006. Present during the exhibition was Derek Reisfield. Included in the exhibition are portraits taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull during the filming of Romance (Romantik, 1930), Mata Hari (1931) and Som du vill ha mig (1932). The year 2007 marked the Centennial of the museum.










"The Truth about Garbo is in pictures." The year 2006 also marks the online publication by Ture Sjolander of Garbo, his 1971 biography of Greta Garbo. It follows Garbo from her childhood and her home at Blekingatan, in Stockholm, to her third visit to Sweden in 1935, to photos taken while the actress was living as a recluse, her briefly passing the camera and allowing it only a glimpse of herself.


Greta Garbo
















And yet, before Garbo,it seems Swedish cinema was established by a

director who later came to the United States to direct Lillian Gish in

screenplays by Frances Marion, Victor

Sjöström.












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Wed, July 8, 2015 - 9:07 PM permalink








Please enjoy my first screening of the Danish Silent Film The Abyss, starring Asta Nielsen.







Scott Lord
Fri, March 20, 2015 - 7:27 PM permalink
originally published at Scott Lord :Silent Film
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Greta Garbo

For those familiar with the history of Danish Silent Film Lady of the Camellias, (Kameliadamen, Camille) adapted from the novel by Dumas, was filmed by Viggo Larsen, who starred in front of the camera as well as creating from behind it, as he was often won't to do, the film also starring Oda Alstrup, Robert Storm Petersen and Helga Tonnesen. It was produced by Nordisk Film and Ole Olsen and it's cinematographer was Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen.





The Divine Bernhardt that was immortalized as a model for Alphonse Mucha exists, the plays that Louis Mercanton adapted for the screen, Jeanne Dore (1915, three reels), starring Madame Tissot with actress Sarah Bernhardt and shown in the United States by Bluebird Photoplays, and Adrienne Lecouvveur (1913, two/three reels), do not, and belong to the province of Film Preservation, if not Lost Films, Found Magazines, a vital part of From Stage to Screen, the transition of the proscenium arc to visual planes achieved by film editing and composition having been relegated to desuetude. By all accounts there still is a copy of Sarah Bernhardt performing Camille on film.



Camille (J. Gordon Edwards, 1917) starring Theda Bara is, like The Divine Woman (Victor Seastrom), a lost silent film, there being no surviving copies of it. Motography not I coincidentally revealed, "Theda Bara in a sumptuous picturization of Camille is the latest announcement of William Fox to the public...Theda Bara as the unhappy Parisian girl who sacrifices herself on the altar of convention, has surpassed all her previous work. This production...Parisian life is followed in every detail so that the atmosphere of the story fits admirably with the acting in it." Surepetitiously, Motion Picture News used the exact same wording, it concluding with, The tears it caused were genuine and the emotions it stirred were deep."



It was a year during which Goldwyn Pictures had spotlighted Mary Garden in Thais, Jane Cowl in The Spreading Dawn(Basil King) and Mae Marsh in Sunshine Alley. Metro Pictures Corporation touted Ethel Barrymore in The Lifted Veil.







Using a still where the two lovers were in embrace on a couch, reminiscent of John Gilbert and Greta Garboin Flesh and the Devil, captioned with "Armand pours out his love to the adored Camille, Picture Play magazine during 1927 introduced the film starring Norma Talmadge and Gilbert Roland as "the latest screen version of the Dumas' masterpiece." Motion Picture magazine noted that it was a film in which Norma Talmadge would wear her hair bobbed, the studio having reported to the magazine that it would be an adaptation located in the then present day Paris of Gerturde Stien, Fitzgerald and Hemmingway and that the cast of the film would also include Lilyan Tashman.





The 1915 screen version of Camille was scripted by Frances Marion. the five reel film starred Clara Kimbal Young under the direction of Albert Cappellani.

Greta Garbo insert banner



Victor Seastrom insert Greta Garbo banner
Sat, August 22, 2015 - 11:17 AM permalink
The photo caption beneath Einar Hanson's photograph Picture Play Magazine read, "Einar Hanson, who, made his debut in Corinne Griffith's Into her Kingdom is romantic adventurous, much more like a Latin than Scandinavian." In the article Two Gentlemen from Sweden, Myrtle Gebhardt relates about having dinner with him, her having at first hoped to interview Lars Hanson and Einar Hanson together in the same room. "For it appeared that Einar was working not for Metro, but for First National...Two evenings later I ringed spaghetti around my fork in a nook of an Italian cafe with Einar Hansen...Prepared for a big, blond man, whose bland face would be overspread with seriousness, I was startled by his breathtaking resemblance to Jack Gilbert. "Ya," he admitted, "Down the street I drive and all the girls call, 'Hello Yack' and I wave to them."



Motion Picture News announced the decision for the directorial assignment to the film with Director or Interpreter, "Svend Gade, the Danish director now making Into Her Kingdom is wondering whether he is engaged as a megaphone weirder or interpreter. In directing Miss Griffith, of course, he uses English; but Einar Hanson receives his instructions in Swedish" Meanwhile it also introduced Griffith's co-star, "Einar Hansen, 'The Swedish Barrymore' has arrived in Hollywood to appear opposite Corinne Griffith in her newest First National starring vehicle, Into Her Kingdom, by Ruth Comfort Mitchell." it had been announced by the magazine during early 1926 that, "Corinne Griffith is already planning to start work the first week of March on Into Her Kingdom though now she is only now finishing Mlle. Moditte, both of which are to be First National releases.

motion Picture Magazine in 1927 published an oval portrait of Einar Hansen with the caption, "In Fashions for Women, Einar is the first man to be directed by Paramount's first woman director. How's that for a record? Incidentally, Einar has become a popular leading man as quickly as anyone that ever invaded Hollywood." The caption to the somber portrait published in Picture Play magazine that year held a more sundry description, "Einar Hansen, the young man from Sweden who looks so like a Latin has fared well during his year in this country. he is now under contract to Paramount and has the lead opposite Esther Ralston in Fashions For Women." The film was the first directed by Dorothy Azner, who had worked uncredited with Fred Niblo on Blood and Sand.



Greta Garbo



Silent Greta Garbo



Danish Silent Film



Remade by Greta Garbo



Silent Film
Thu, August 20, 2015 - 5:42 PM permalink


Victor Seastrom-Greta Garbo

"The Image Makers see their images emerge out of the story. And then suddenly: darkness."- Per Olov Enquist in Bildmakarna, a fictional account of Victor Sjostrom, Julius Jaenzon, Tora Teje and Selma Lagerlof
"The stylistic changes brought about by Sjostrom's moving to Hollywood may not have been as definite as film history would have it according to the paradigm. Still the story of Sjostrom was transformed by his transition to Seastrom"- Bo Florin
An actress tells a film director, with whom she is having a brief affair, that he is not the author of the film he is making, "Hon menar att det ar hennes bok Victor. Inte din. Du mekar bara."/ "She means that it is her book Victor. Not yours. You are just tinkering with it."- Lynn R Wilkinson on the film Bildmakarna
While evaluating, or comprising, a filmography of silent film of the Swedish directors of Svenska Bio and Svenska Filmindustri; Mauritz Stiller, Victor Sjostrom, John Brunius and Georg af Klerker, and with them the camerman Julius Jaenzon, It was refreshing to find that author Astrid Soderberg Widing tries to agree with film critic Leif Furhammar that Georg af Klerker, who began as a filmmaker at Svenska Biografteatern, can be placed with Sjostrom and Stiller as being an autuer of the pioneering art form, in that, although he seldom wrote scenarios, he added a "personal signature" to filmmaking contemporary to the other two directors- during the centennial of the two reeler in the United States  and of Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller having become contemporaries at Svenska Bio. "Of the utmost importance is an appreciation of film, film as a visual literature. film as the narrative image, and while any appreciation of film would be incomplete without the films of Ingmar Bergman, every appreciation of film can begin with the films of the silent period, with the watching of the films themselves, their once belonging to a valiant new form of literature. Silent film directors in both Sweden and the United States quickly developed film technique, including the making of films of greater length during the advent of the feature film, to where viewer interest was increased by the varying shot lengths within a scene structure, films that more than still meet the criterion of having storylines, often adventurous, often melodramatic, that bring that interest to the character when taken scene by scene by the audience." The study of silent film is an essential study not only in that the screenplay evolved or emerged from the photoplay, but in that it is imperative to the appreciation of film technique. In my earlier webpage written before the death of Ingmar Bergman I quoted Terry Ramsaye on filent film,"Griffith began to work at a syntax for screen narration...While Griffith may not have originated the closeup and like elements of technique, he did establish for them their function." Director Ingmar Bergman  had been among those who had spoken on the death of the Swedish actor- American director Victor Sjostrom

While Ingmar Bergman was not unknown for his efforts toward film preservation- Widding credits hism with having preserved the film Nattiga Toner directed by Georg af Klerker- Gosta Werner painstaking restored Swedish Silent Films "frame by frame", taking thousands of frames from envelopes and reassembling them before copying them into a modern print, his enlarging prints made on bromide paper and then in order to reconstruct their shot structure, comparing them to stills from several films to insure the director's sense of compostition, his also recommending the searching for of all material on the film, including a synopsis of the plot and other descriptions of what the film contained. Essential to the viewing Swedish Silent film is the evaluation of the thematic technique of conveying a relationship between man and his environment, the character to the landscape, but before even introducing this the present author would share that there is an interesting quote form Gosta Werner the archivist from his having examined the restoring the films The Sea Vultures (Sjostrom), The Death Kiss (Sjostrom), The Master Theif (Stiller) and Madam de Thebes (Stiller), "In pre-1920 films, close ups were very rare, as were landscapes devoid of actors. Actually, shots without actors were very rare. Almost every shot included an actor involved in some obvious situation. The film told its story with pictures, but they were pictures of actors." It is with that appreciation of the art that the present author would look toward the photoplays that, with the development of both their dialogue and expository intertitles, became cinematic novels during the silent era. Werner further analyzes the early films and their mise-en-scene, making them seem as though they were in fact part of the body of work produced in the United States, "Many sequences begin with an actor entering the room and with the main actor (not always the same one) leaving the set." It is also of interest that the last film of the twenty seven that he restored was one of the most difficult in that it was a Danish detective film that lacked intertitles. Particularly because I found the cutting on the action of the actor leaving the frame of interest, if I can connect the quote to one from my own previous webpages on silent film, before reading Werner I had written, "The aesthetics of pictorial composition could utilize placing the figure in either the foreground or background of the shot, depth of plane, depth of frame, narrative and pictorial continuity being then developed together. Compositions would be related to each other in the editing of successive images and adjacent shots, the structure; Griffith had already begun to cut mid-scene, his cutting to another scene before the action of the previous scene was completely finished, and he had already begun to cut between two seperate spatial locations within the scene." It is now difficult to overlook the importance of Gosta Werner's having directed the short film Stiller-fragment in 1969. Produced by Stiftelsen Svenska Filminstitutet it showcased surviving footage from several silent films made by Mauritz Stiller in Sweden, including Mannekangen (1913) with Lili Ziedner, Gransfolken (1913) with Stina Berg and Edith Erastoff, Nar Karleken dodar(1913) with Mauritz Stiller behind the lens and George af Klerker and Victor Sjostrom both in front of the camera, Hans brollopsnatt (1914) starring Swedish silent film actresses Gull Nathorp and Jenny-Tschernichin-Larson and Pa livets odesvager.

It may be fitting that, although a film version of the novel the Atonement of Gosta Berling had been planned by Skandinavisk Film Central, a company that had merged the Danish Silent Film companies Dania Biofilm and Kinogram into Palladium, between 1919 and 1921, the first part of The Saga of Gosta Berling, during March of 1924 premiered in Stockholm at The Roda Kvarn, it's second part having premiered a week later- not only is the art-deco, art-nouveau theater famous as having continued into the twenty first century, but when constructed in 1915 by Charles Magnusson, included in the first films screened in the art-house theater were those directed for Svenska Biografteatern by Mauritz Stiller, particularly, the 35 minute film Lekkamraterna, written by Stiller and photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, which starred Lili Bech, Stina Berg and Emmy Elffors, and the 65 minute film Madame Thebes, written by Mauritz Stiller and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, which starred Ragnar Wettergren, Martha Hallden and Karin Molander. It is often written that Swedish silent film before Molander had paid devout attention to Scandinavian landscape and its effect upon the characters in the drama, there also being an underlying sense that the conception of space, traveling through space according the the seasonal, played a transparent part during the recoding of the now ancient, therefore runic, Prose and Poetic Eddas. true to form the daughter of Ingmar Bergman, Journalist Linn Ullmann, included the historical place of Swedish Filmmaking in her second novel, Stella Descending. "The once thriving ostrich farm in Sundbyberg was sold, taken over by two rival companies, Svensk Bio and Skandia, who joined forces to build Rasunda Filmstad, home of the legendary film studios. Here the filmmakers Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller worked alongside such stars as Tora Teje, Lars Hanson, Anders de Wahl, Karin Molonder and Hilda Bjorgstrom. Greta Garbo turned in an impressive performance in Gosta Berling's Saga in 1924, "giving us hope for the future" to quote the ecstatic critic in Svenska Dagbladet. I can well imagine how Elias must have cursed the day his parents put their money in ostriches rather than the movies....And so it passed that Elias was part of the audience that evening in February 1934 to see When We Dead Awaken."
Swedish Film-Victor Sjostromsilent-film


Scott Lord-Silent Film Victor Sjostrom: Swedish Silent Film
Mauritz Stiller Peter Cowie writes of a voice that was described to Vilgot Sjoman as being "so nice and gentle" it having "a quiet huskiness that makes it interesting". "'Yes, this is Stiller's room, I know for sure.'

After Greta Garbo took off her glasses to show Ingmar Bergman what she looked like, her watching his face to measure the emotion of the director, she excitedly began discussing her acting in The Saga of Gosta Berling. When they returned to the room, one that had also been used by Molander, Bergman poeticlly studied her face." It had been Gustaf Molander, during 1923 while director of the Royal Dramatic Academy, who had been asked by Mauritz Stiller to decide upon two students to appear in his next film. Mona Martenson was already in Molander's office when Greta Garbo was called in and asked to report to Svenska Filmindustri's studios the following morning. Garbo went to Rasunda to meet Stiller for a screen test to be filmed by Julius Jaenzon, whom she happenned to meet on the train, it almost to presage the unexpected encountering she had years later with Swedish director ragnar Ring while crossing the Atlantic. While waiting for Stiller to arrive, cinematographer Julius Jaenzon told Greta Garbo, "You are the lovliest girl I've ever seen walk into the place." While visiting Stockholm during 1938, Garbo asked view the film The Saga of Gosta Berling, her having said to William Sorensen it was "the movie I loved most of all." Not incidentally, Bary Paris has since chronicled that it was Kerstin Bernadette that had brought Garbo to meet then renowned Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman, his having requested it in order for her to return to the screen in his film The Silence. One of the smaller theaters, one with 133 seats, at Borgavagen 1, is named after Mauritz Stiller, another one with 14 seats named after Julius Jaenzon, cameraman for Svenska Bio. Biografen Victor, with its 364 seats is a permanent tribute to Victor Sjostrom and the 363 ghosts that at anytime may accompany him to, perhaps in search of a new Strindbergian theater known as filmed theater, step into the past. My earlier webpages, which often noted film festivals in Scandinavian, namely Sweden, had mentioned that, "In previous years Cinemateket has screened the films of Mauritz Stiller, it having published with Svenska Filminstituet the volume Morderna motiv-Mauritz Stiller I retrospektiv, under Bo Florin, to accompany the screenings. Bo Florin and the Cinematecket have also published Regi:Victor Sjostrom= Directed by Victor Seastrom with the Svenska Filminstituet." It also noted that at that time that the silent films of Sweden were also being screened on Faro, where resided the Magic Lantern and the dancing skeletons that appear when lights are lowered, possibly representative of the magician-personnas we only for a brief time borrow, identify with, while spectators; Ingmar Bergman had added a screening room to Faro that sat fifteen with a daily showing at 3:00.
During her Photoplay interview, Greta Garbo continued on the film remarking that,' Lars Hanson played my leading man...but there were no love scenes, not even a kiss.' About Lars Hanson, after having seen The Saga of Gosta Berling, Lillian Gish wrote, 'When I saw it I thought that he would be the ideal Dimmesdale.' There is a similar earlier account written before her autobiography where she is quoted as having said that she had been told to go into the projection room to watch The Saga of Gosta Berling specificly to decide whether Lars Hanson would be aquirred by the studio to play against her in an adaptation of Hawthorne's novel, "The moment Lars Hanson appeared on the screen, I knew he was the man we wanted." Mauritz Stiller in 1921 had directed Lars Hanson in the film The Emigrants (De landsflyktiga) with Karin Swanstrom, Jenny Hasselquist and Edvin Adolphson. The script was co-written by Stiller with Ragnar Hylten Cavallius, it having had been being an adaptation of the modern novel Zoja, written by Runar Schildt. There also seems to have been an unused screenplay written by Ture Newman. Photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, it was the first film in which Tyra Ryman was to appear. Exhibitor's Trade Review during 1922 listed the film under the title In Self Defence, it also appearing as Guarded Lips. It wrote, "It has a closing of real power. And by power, we mean the final thousand feet...It is a generally sombre role that falls to Miss Hasselquist, but it is played with fine feeling and excellant judgement." Interestingly, actor Lars Hanson had been briefly mentioned in the United States in Pantomine magazine during March of 1922, in Out of the Make Up Box, On to the Screen, written by Helen Hancock. "Lars Hanson, who is one of the most versatile actors on the screen, and one of the most versatile artistic breakers of the hearts of the Swedish flapper, is an adept in the art of make-up." An appreciation of the film made by Hanson in Sweden was displayed by photos of Hanson not only as himself, but in greasepaint as men much older than himself, it including stills from Bluebeard's Eighth Wife, Andre the Red and The Lodge Man. Helen Hancock had only months earlier in Pantomine praised Swedish Silent Filmstar Lars Hanson in the article How About those Viking Ancestors, A little Talk about Swedish Matinee Idols. The photo caption read, "He looks mild- but dare him to do something" It reads, "A star of the legitimate stage, where for a number of years he has has been one of the principal attractions at the Intima Theatre, Stockholm, this virile specimen of manhood is best known for his psychological characterizations." The author then praised Hanson for his doing his own stunts, acting on screen without a stuntman. To highlight this, the magazine The Film Daily later reviewed the performance of Lars Hanson opposite Lillian Gish, "Hanson may lack looks, but is a splendid dramatic actor." During 1929, Photoplay Magazine reviewed the release of The Legend of Gosta Berling, "the only European film appearance of Greta Garbo before she was sold down the river to Hollywood..It need only be said that Hollywood has made The Glamorous One...You won't die in vain even if you miss this one." Greta Garbo was interviewed in Sweden during the filming of Gosta Berling's Saga by for the magazine Filmjournalen (Filmjournal) by Inga Gaate, who had interviewed Mauritz Stiller in 1924, Garbo in the article having praised Stiller for his direction and having referred to him as Moje. Greta Garbo appears on the cover of Filmjournalen 8, bareshouldered, in 1925. Stiller, incidently, had invited Sten Selander, a poet rather than actor, to Rasunda before his having decided upon Lars Hanson for the film. Jenny Hasselquist also appears in the film- Hasselquist was much like modern Swedish actress Marie Liljedahl in that she was a ballerina, her having been  introduced to readers in the United States in 1922 through Picture-Play Magazine with a photograph it entitled The Resting Sylph. Sven Broman has quoted Greta Garbo as having said, 'We sat in a lovely drawing room and Selma Lagerlöf thanked me for my work in Gosta Berling's Saga and she praised Mauritz Stiller...She also had very warm and lovely eyes.' While filming Gosta Berling's Saga, Stiller had said, 'Garbo is so shy, you realize, she's afraid to show what she feels. She's got no technique you know.', to which the screenwriter to the film, Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius, replied, 'But every aspect of her is beautiful.' To those either fascinated by her, or, bluntly, merely erotically stimulated by her body, one possible reason for this was alighted upon by biographer Raymond Durgnat, "The obverse of Garbo's divinity was her shyness. There were few close ups of her during Gosta Berling's Saga because of her nervous blink." He added that it continued into her filming with G.W. Pabst, who speeded up the camera to adjust for it. "Years after his death Garbo still spoke of him in the present tense: 'Maurice thinks...'" Appearing seperate to the hard cover biography titled Garbo written by John Bainbridge was his work published in magazine form, which was titled, "Garbo's Haunted Path to Stardom. A hypnotic director made over her very soul." In it he gives an account of Mauritz Stiller's first session with Greta Garbo at Rasunda, where he asked her to act in front of the camera, Stiller having been quoted as having said, "Have you no feelings. Do you know nothing of sadness and misery? Act, miss, act." Stiller instructed that there be close ups of Garbo shot and this is thought by Bainbridge to be the reason Stiller remarked upon Garbo's shyness. An eerie not arose in 1962 as the author of a volume entitled The Stars claimed John Bainbridge to be "Garbo's best biographer". The author of the now out of print volume used a quote acquired by Bainbridge from "a woman who workded at Svenska Filmindustri, particularly, "Stiller was always teaching and preaching, Greta solemnly listening and learning. I never saw anyone more earnest and eager to learn. With the hypnotic power he seemed to have over her he could make her do extraordinary things. But we had little idea that he was making over her soul." The author portrays Greta Garbo in retirement, adding "Perhaps the last sentence is hyperbolic but the essence of the reminiscence is true." More eerie still is the foregone conclusion that Greta Garbo had sealed herself into a crypt of retirement, the article published as though her comeback was out of the question, despite the amount of truth in that there may have been- a photo of Greta Garbo, middle adged, perhaps thin with her facial skin drawn a little tighter than in most photos, with dark sunglasses, the author adding, "There is reason to believe that Garbo knows her career was mismanaged, and that from time to time the knowledge still disturbs her."

During its filming Greta Garbo and Mona Martenson had stayed in the same hotel together. The beauty of Mona Martenson is miraculous, a deep beauty that can only be seen as wonderous. In The Story of Greta Garbo, a rare interview with Ruth Biery published in Photoplay during 1928, Garbo relates of Martenson's being in Hollywood and of her planning to later return to Sweden. Karin Swanstrom, who had already directed her first film, also appears in The Saga of Gosta Berling. Gloria Swanson, when asked what she enjoyed in literature by Picture Play magazine during February of 1926 replied, "Just now I am greatly interested in Gosta Berling by Selma Lagerlof. I first read it in the hospital in France during my illness and brought it home with me." By the time Stiller had begun co-writing the script to Gosta Berling's Saga, he and Selma Lagerlöf had begun to disagree in regard to how her novels were to be adapted. Lagerlöf had asked that Stiller be removed from the shooting of the film before the script had been completed, her having as well tried to acquire the rights to the film to vouchsafe its integrity as an adaptation. During the filming Stiller went further; he then included a scene that had not appeared in either the novel or the film's script. After Victor Sjostrom had directed several stories based on the writing of Selma Lagerlof, while in the United States he had been interviewed by the publication Scenario Bulletin Digest and had seemed to broach the subject of film adaptation that had brought a rift between Mauritz Stiller and Selma Lageloff, "'Some great works of literature should not be attempted in motion pictures yet,' says Victor Seastrom, famous European director now with Goldwyn. He says further that one should not try to film a masterpiece unless the picture can be made as fine as the book." Iris Barry briefly reviewed the film by Maurtiz Stiller in 1926, "In Sweden, the creative impulse has not some much died down as been bled away" and from that context sees a film that, "shows a gloomy and unusual subject, full of sincere passion and conflict and with the fine somber, photographic quality peculiar to the Scandinavian cinema." There is an account of Mauritz Stiller having introduced Greta Garbo to author Selma Lagerlof and an account of Lagerlof having complimented Garbo on her beauty and her "sorrowful eyes." In particular, Sven Broman has quoted Greta Garbo as having said, "We sat in a lovely drawing room and Selma Lagerlof thanked me for my work in Gosta Berling's Saga and she praised Mauritz Stiller...She also had very warm and lovely eyes." Although far from being a playwright or sceenwriter, Selma Lagerlof flourished as a novelist during the silent film era, despite many of her novels having had having remained unfilmed, including the earlier Invisible Links (1894), The Queens of Kungahalla (1899) and The Miracles of the Antichrist (1897). After her contemporary, Swedish poet Gustaf Froding, had died in 1911, a year during which Lagerlof had published Liljecrona's Home (Liljecrona's Hem), Lagerlof went on to publish Korkalen (Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness, one of the most important novels included in the screen adaptations of the silent era as it appeared on the screen in 1920 directed by Swedish director Victor Sjostrom, in 1911, and Trolls and Men (Troll och manniskor. During 1918 she included the novel The Outcast (Bannlyst) and published a second volume to Trolls and Men in 1921. It was during the filming of Lagerloff's The Phantom Carriage that an ostrich farm that had fallen into desuetude in Rasunda was converted into the Svenska Filmindustri studio, and with that named Filmstaden. Lagerlof wrote the autobiographical novel Marbacka in two parts, her concluding the volume in 1930 and publishing The Diary of Selma Lagerlof in 1932. Victor Sjostrom had met Selma Lagerlof when she had invited him to Flaun during January of 1917.

After The Saga of Gosta Berling was shot, Greta Garbo briefly returned to Sweden to the Royal Dramatic Theater before being brought to Berlin for its premiere- Stiller was also with Greta Garbo for the premiere of The Joyless Street Like Greta Garbo, actress Mary Johnson travelled from Sweden to Germany. Mary Johnson had starred with Gosta Ekman in the first film directed by John W. Brunius, Puss and Boots (Masterkattan i stovlar) in 1918 for Film Industri Inc Scandia. The film was co-written by John W. Brunius and Sam Ask and was the first in which actress Ann Carlsten was to appear. The following year Scandia merged with Scandia to team Charles Magnusson with Nils Bouveng to run AB Svensk Filmindustri. Having been an actress for several films directed by George af Klerker, Mary Johnson was also that year to appear in the Swedish silent film Stovstadsfaror, directed by Manne Gothson and photographed by Gustav A. Gustafson. Appearing with Johnson in the film were Agda Helin, Tekl Sjoblom and Lilly Cronwin. Actress Mary Johnson returned to the screen to act for director John W. Brunius and cameraman Hugo Edlund in 1923 for the film Johan Ulfstjerna in which she starred with Anna Olin, Einar Hansson and Berta Hilberg. To add a sense of the film as a vehicle for the actress, author Forsyth Hardy has written, "Brunius could work effectively on a large canvass." Significantly, that same year Johnson starred for silent film director Mauritz Stiller and cameraman Julius Jaenzon in the film Gunnar Hedes Saga, in which she starred with Pauline Brunius, Stina Berg, and Einar Hansson. The screenplay was co-written by Stiller and Alma Soderhjelm and it is what appears to be her only screenplay. The film was an adaptation of the novel Herrgarssagen. Forsyth Hardy on Gunnar Hedes Saga writes, "Again there is a distinctive combination of a powerfully dramatic story and a magnificent setting in the northern landscape.When reviewed in the United States during 1924 while screened as The Blizzard although the film was reported as an adaptation of "The Story of a Country House", the review featured two stills and the subtitle "Swedish Production is Entertaining."; it ran, "This is highly dramatic and interesting, with several excellant scenes of reindeer swimming across a wide stream and following their leader blindly. The stampede is most realistic and well filmed. The rest of the film is quite ordinary and drags near the end." A second review from the United States seemed all too similar, "unusual entertainment through a strong dramatic story. A bit gruesome but splendidly acted...Drama bordering on tragedy...It is unusual in theme and from a dramatic standpoint, a thoroughly strong and forceful theme." The reindeer stampede was hailed for its "genuine thrills" which were "splendidly pictorial" but from that point onward in the plotline, the story was said to "drag slightly." and its interest said to begin to disappear. While the direction of Mauritz Stiller was seen as "unusually good; displays great sense of dramatic values", "Mary Johnson is pleasing though rather lacking in expression." Einar Hanson appeared as Gunnar Hede on the cover of Filmnyheter during 1923; it is an issue in which there is an article that reads "Mary Johnson, var Svenska Filmingenue framfor kameran". One source, perhaps resource, of beautiful material on the film is the Svenska Filminstituet Biblioteket. On reviewing Mauritz Stiller'sSir Arne's Treasure/Snows of Destiny in 1922, Exceptional Photoplays wrote, "Mary Johnson, if she has a chance to become known on the American screen, will show us what it is to be lovely without being vapid, with the magic of a child and the magic of a woman- tenderness and sweetness that is not chiefly a product of simpering smiles and fluffy curls." Forsyth Hardy looks at the entire film, "Herr Arne's Penger was essentially visual in expression. Mauritz Stiller and Gustav Molander, who collaborated in writing the scenario, appeared to have absorbed the values of the Lagerlof story and translated them imaginatively into film form. The film had dramatic balance. It also had a visual harmony absent from some of the earlier films where the transition from interior to exterior was too abrupt." Kwaitkoski, in his volume Swedish Film Classics, writes, "Stiller and his scriptwriter Molander simplified the meandering plot of the story, making the narration more consistent and building up tension in a logical way justified by the development of events."

Swedish Silent Film Swedish Silent FilmMauritz Stiller-Silent Film



While Garbo was finishing the The Temptress, Stiller, having written the script before the script department had reworked its plot, had begun shooting Hotel Imperial (1927, eight reels) for Paramount; she went to the preview of the film. Greta Garbo had said, 'Stiller was getting his bearings and coming into his own. I could see that he was getting his chance.' The conversation between the two actresses related in retrospect by Pola Negri may almost seem eerie, her account beginning with a telephone call from Mauritz Stiller, "May I be permitted to bring along a friend? She does not know many people here yet. Greta Garbo." After dinner Negri gave Garbo advice in creating for herself a unique personna, something individual, her going so far as to say, "Never be aloof or private" with Garbo adding the rejoinder without noting that they were both actresses that had worked abroad that they were in fact both remaining private while in Hollywood and Negri telling Garbo that she would soon have to film without Stiller. Negri writes, "She held her head high. A look of intense interest was spreading over that perfectly chiseled face, making it the one thing that one would not have thought possible: even more beautiful." In a letter to Lars Saxon, Greta Garbo wrote, "Stiller's going to start working with Pola Negri. I'm still very lonely, not that I mind, except occaisionally." Motion Picture Classic gives a jarring account of Stiller's new assignment, "It's just one director after another with Pola Negri...And the blame has rested equally on the mediocre stories given her and on the directors. The latter have failed to understand her...So Pola, according to my spies on the Coast, will give Mauritz Stiller a chance to understand her moods and make the best of them. The tempermental swedish director has been given a verbal barrage of bouquets by the other foreigners who handle the megaphone. Practically all of them proclaim him the master of them all." It went on with a severity to explain that the director and star were forever joined by their being tempermental, and that that in fact was the reason Stiller was dismissed from The Temptress, it claiming "maybe it needs temperment to combant temperment." Paramount, having had been being reluctant to allow Stiller to direct, at the insistence of the producer relented and granted his artistic license and freedom to create with the other branches of the studio. "He wrote the scenario for the film in nine days." Biographer John Bainbridge quotes Lars Hanson as having said, "I saw Stiller when he was ready to shoot Hotel Imperial', Lars Hanson has recalled, "He was bursting with energy. He showed me the script of some of the scenes he was preparing to do- mass scenes of people in a square. According to the script, that was to take three weeks of shooting. Stiller did it in three days." The biographer continues later by writing that after Hotel Imperial Stiller told Lars Hanson he then intended, for financial reasons and for commercial success to make only one more film in the United States. Greta Garbo had intimated words very much to the same effect, "'I'm not staying here much longer,' she told the Hansons when they talked about leaving Hollywood, 'Moje and I will go home soon.'"

Of Stiller's camerawork in the film, Kenneth MacGowan wrote, 'Hung from an overhead trolley, his camera moved through the lobby and the four rooms on each side of it.' In a brief review of the film R.E. Sherwood complimented Stiller on his use of camera postion and shot structure, but while praising Stiller as a director and the film's "visual qualities", which included "trick lighting" among its camera effects, which according to the author harken back to earlier "photo-acrobatics" from silent film director F.W. Murnau, Sherwood sees a lack of depth or meaning in the film's screenplay or its message as an organic whole in its having moment. Maurits Stiller Whether or not the United States can be viewed as imperial, as it is as seen by Dianne Negra, she writes about Pola Negri's character in Stiller's film, her almost connecting thematically the difference between Negri's role in the film and earlier vamp roles with the film's ending and its reuniting of Negri and her lover in a plotline similar to that of Sjöstrom's The Divine Woman (En Gudomlig Kvinna). 'The film closes with its most emphatic equation of romance and war as a close up of a kiss between Anna and Almay fades to the images of marching troops.' Mauritz Stiller, when invited to a private screening of Hotel Imperial for Max Reinhardt had said, 'Thank you. But if not for Pola, I could not have made it.'

Photoplay Magazine reviewed the film favorably, "Here is a new Pola Negri in a film story at once absorbing and splendidly directed...Actually, "Hotel Imperial" is another variation of the heroine at the mercy of the invading army and beloved by the dashing spy. This has been adroitly retold here, untill it assumes qualities of interest and supspense...Miss Negri at last has a role that is ideal..."Hotel Imperial" places Stiller at the foremost of our imported directors." Motion Picture Magazine reviewed the film with, "It accomplishes almost to perfection those photographic effects which directors have been striving for; and so simply and directly that one is unconscious of the freakishness of the camerawork in one's absorption in the dramatic unfolding of the plot, with rapid succession...It is a smooth, eloquent tale told in an entirely new language- a thrilling language of pictures...Though one is ever conscious that it is essentially a war story, and the menace of wartime is (constantly) present, there are no actual battle pictures. It is almost altogether a story of the reactions of individuals to war." Motion Picture News during 1927 looked at the view, "The story could be stronger, yet its weakness is never manifested so expertly has the director handled it. The plot disntegrates toward the finish principally because it is so difficult to keep it so compact all the way. The story centers around The Hotel Imperial...Pola Negri plays the servant with splendid feeling and imagination." Under its section on Theme, the magazine summarized, "Drama of intrigue and decepetion revolving around hotel maid outwitting commander of army and finding happiness with her bethrothed."

In The Negri Legend, A new view of Pola Negri written by one who really knows her, Helen Carlise of Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "In Hotel Imperial we see a world figure who having sufferred much, having learned much, can with her great gift of artistry portray the soul of a Woman." When reviewed by Film Daily it was deemed that, "Although the vehicle does not offer her anything particularly fine, Pola Negri makes a fairly unimportant role outstanding...There is ready made exploitation in the star's name and the mention of her latest production." Paul Rotha writes, "Not only was it the comeback of Miss Negri, but it was a triumph of a star in a role that asked no sympathy." Paul Rotha extensively quotes Mr. L'Estrange Fawcett, but because The Film till Now is out of print, the present author will requote it here, "Some may remember the use of the travelling camera in Hotel Imperial...the stage accomodating the hotel was one of the largest in existence, and eight rooms were built complete in every detail...Suspended above the set were rails along which the camera mounted on a little carriage moved at the director's will. Scenes (shots) could be taken of each room above from every point of view...to experiment with angle photography, representing impressions of scenes taken from the point of view of a character watching the others...the story could be filmed in proper sequence. In Hotel Imperial, an attempt was made to build up cumulative dramatic effect following the characters swiftly from one room to another by means of several cameras and rolling shots." For those who may have seen the subjective camera of Carl Dreyer in Vampyr, the quote is intriguing.

Stiller also directed Pola Negri, and Clive Brook, in Barbed Wire (Ned med vapen 1927, seven reels). Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "Again in Barbed Wire, Pola Negri proves herself one of our great screen artists. It would seem that Pola is to match the European pictures in which we first knew her, after her appearing in countless poor American productions." Barbed Wire was adapted from the novel The Woman of Knockaloe by Sir Hall Caine. Author and curator Jan-Christopher Horak writing about scriptwriter Lajos Biro in Film History chronologically follows Barbed Wire with a script directed by Victor Fleming, "His next film was to be The Man Who God Forgot (released as The Way of All Flesh, 1927), again to be directed by Mauritz Stiller, which went into preproduction as Emil Jannings' first American film. Pommer and Stiller both disagreed with studio executives about the script." This, according to the author, lead to Pommer's resignation and to Stiller's dismissal from the studio. When Stiller directed the actress Pola Negri again, with Einar Hanson in The Woman on Trial (En kvinnas bekannelse 1927, six reels), Photoplay reviewed the film as "An unusually fine story and one that offers Pola Negri a chance for penetrating character study. Not for children." Motion Picture News reviewed the film as being "well-suited" for Pola Negri, "Having done pretty well by Pola Negri with Hotel Imperial, Mauritz Stiller takes her in tow and guides her through a likely melodrama- one in which she makes a strong bid for sympathy...The director uses the cutback method in building the plot. but he gets away from the obvious plan by refraining from flashing to the woman...the characters are sharply contrasted and as the cutbacks develop it is easy to guess...it is logically told and builds progressively. Miss Pola Negri gives a sincere performance and succeeds in establishing a sympathetic bond with her audience. The late Einar Hanson delivers some elegant pathos as the sick lover." During 1927, Film Daily foreshadowed, quietly and not ominously enough, that, "Immediately following The Woman of Trail, Pola Negri is planning a vacation trip to Europe." It had earlier that year reported that "Cortez Opposite Negri, Ricardo Cortez will play opposite Pola Negri in Confession." A month later it reported, "Pola Negri began work yesterday on A Woman on Trial with Mauritz Stiller directing and Ricardo Cortez and Lido Mannetti in the lead roles" That year Paramount advertised Negri as "The Empress of Emotions". Negri was in Paris during the early Spring while Stiller was viewing the rushes and working on the cutting. It was reported that upon her return from Europe that she would make one more picture for Paramount before filming and already decided film slated to be filmed with Rowland V. Lee- it was elaborated that, "Although she is now a princess by virtue of her recent marraige, Pola Negri will not retire from the screen." She had by then wedded Prince Devani. The previous year Pola Negri had starred in the films The Crown of Lies (Buchowetski, five reels) and Good and Naughty (Malcom St. Clair, six reels). In her autobiography, Memoirs of a Star, Pola Negri describes her first meeting with Greta Garbo.'To tell the truth, I was also very curious about the girl...She smiled wistfully, as we shook hands...Through dinner she was resolutely silent...', her then giving an account of their conversation and of her having given Garbo advice. There is also an account of her attending a dinner party that Pola Negri had "given in her honor" "She had her hair waived and arranged in a novel style resembling a half-open parasol. Her gown for the occasion was equally sensational, being a silk green creation that had been to the cleaner's and shrunk so that the hem was at her knees." All four films that Stiller had begun directing at Paramount had been a collaboration between him and cameraman Bert Glennon. It was through Stiller that Greta Garbo became acquainted with Emil Jannings, who in turn had brought Garbo together with director Jacques Feyder, with whom Garbo often met with socially. Motion Picture News during 1927 published a photograph of "a little Sunday afternoon group of celebrities" in front of the home of Emil Jannings, the group consisting of Mauritz Stiller, F.W. Murnau, Jannings, and actor George O'Brien. That year the trade magazine reported that Emil Jannings' second starring film for Paramount, tentatively titled Hitting for Heaven, "was started last Monday under the direction of Mauritz Stiller." The Street of Sin (Syndens gata 1928, seven reels) starring Fay Wray and Olga Barclanova was begun by Stiller and finished by the director Joseph von Sternberg. It would be Stiller's last attempt to film in the United States before returning to Sweden in late 1927 and presently there are no copies of the film. Motion Picture Magazine during 1927 reported that, "Maurice Stiller, who was slated to direct Jannings in his first picture, will not be given that pleasure. Stiller is to handle megaphone work on Pola Negri's next production." Kenneth MacGowan writing about the film notes, 'The film was more distinguished for its players-Jannings and Olga Barclanova- than for its script by Joseph Sternberg. Paul Rotha wrote, "Taking shots through hanging iron chains did not establish the atmosphere of place, although it may have created pretty pictorial compositions. Sternberg seems lodged in this gully of pictorial values. He has no control over his dramatic feelings (Street of Sin and very little idea of the filmic psychology of any scene that he shoots. He has, however some feeling for the use of women. His contrast of Betty Copson and Olga Baclanova in the latter film was good." (It might be asked if this criticism is lacking in regard to the symbolic scenework of Ingmar Bergman, and that if his "pretty pictorial compositions" have been given just enough dramatic ambiguity to become symbolic in their being arbitary, a personal obscurity accepted as having layers of meaning.) Sternberg's work on Stiller's film has been credited as having secured his position as the writer and director of the silent films The Last Command (1928) with Evelyn Brent and The Case of Lena Smith (1929) with Esther Ralston. During 1928, actress Olga Barclanova also appeared in the films The Man Who Laughs (Paul Leni, ten reels), The Dove (Roland West, nine reels), Forgotten Faces (Victor Schertzinger, eight reels), Avalanche (Otto Brower, five reels) and Three Sinners (Rowland V. Lee, eight reels). Three Sinners, with Warner Baxter was the second film to pair Olga Backlanova and Pola Negri, their both having appeared in the film Cloak of Death in 1915. During 1928, Photoplay Magazine announced, "Lucy Doraine, of Hungary has been signed by Paramount. She is reported to be the successor to Pola Negri." During 1928, Fay Wray appeared in the films Legion of the Condemned (William Wellman, eight reels), The First Kiss (Rowland V. Lee). It was the year she began her lengthy first marriage to playwright screenwriter John Monk Saunders. Legion of the Condemned also that year appeared in bookstore. The Grosset Dunlap Photoplay Edition advertised John Monk Saunders as having been the author of Wings and published the film as a novel rewritten from one narrative form into another by Eustace H Ball, with illustrations from the film. Ball himself was an author, his having written the mystery novel The Scarlet Fox and had previously adapted into novel form the photoplay of the Douglas Fairbanks film The Gaucho. Pola Negri during 1929 had starred in The Secret Hour (eight reels), directed by Rowland V Lee.

The death of Mauritz Stiller is more frequently encountered when discovering the reaction of Greta Garbo, whom had heard of his passing while on the set with Nils Asther. Sjostrom, who had been with Stiller the night before and had telegrammed Garbo, described his last time seeing the then ill Stiller after his release from the hospital, "Then Stiller got desperate. he grabbed my arm in despair and would not let me go. 'No,no', he cried. 'I haven't told him what I must tell him!' The nurse separated us and pushed me toward the door. I tried to quiet and comfort him, saying that he could tell me tommorow. But he go more and more desperate. His face was wet with tears. And he said, 'I want to tell you a story for a film. It will be a great film. It is about real human beings, and you are the only one who can do it.' I was so moved I didn't know what to say. 'Yes, yes, Moje,' was all I could stammer. 'I will be with you the first thing in the morning and then you can tell me.' I left him crying in the arms of the nurse. There was no morning." Close Up magazine marked the director's passing, "The death of Mauritz Stiller has been a genuine loss to the whole cinema world. The great Swedish director, poineer of the artistic film, did more for the screen than people will realize. While others were despairing the lowly medium, when it was given over exclusively to vulgarity akin to that of the penny novelellete, Stiller was froming his conception of a great art, developing its potenialities, seeing far into the future. He was a great artist, working with profound care and intensity. His intensity may have been impart responsible for his early demise." Among the events of 1924 had been a visit by silent film stars Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks to Stockholm, Sweden. The two had that year appeared on the September cover of Motion Picture Magazine in the United States. There are accounts that while in Sweden, Pickford and Fairbanks sailed on the small vessel The Loris with Greta Garbo and Mauritz Stiller, their departing from Lilla Skuggan, and before arriving in Saltsjobaden, their passing where Charles Magnusson lived at Skarpo. As he was wont to do, biographer John Bainbridge quoted an unknown source in order to indirectly quote Garbo, possibly lifted from a fan magazine, or perhaps actually from a personal interview, "Content with her little circle of friends, Garbo resolutely refused to anything to do with the conventional social life of the film colony. When Mary Picford invited her to a dinner in honor of Lord Montbatten...Miss Garbo declined with thanks. Miss Pickford then wrote Miss garbo a long letter...This pleading missive brought no results. 'It would be the same old thing,' Garbo said to one of ther friends. 'Strangers staring at me and talking about me. I would be expected to dance and I despair dancing. I can't do it.'" Marion Davies laso gave a similar dinner for Lord Montbatten where Garbo also declined her invitation.

In the United States, Exceptional Photoplays, in an article titled The Swedish Photoplays distinguished the film of Svenska Bio for their "quality of composition" and "imaginative presentation" by introducing Mortal Clay, "Costume plays are often unconvincing on the screen because they fail to reproduce period atmosphere, but Mortal Clay (banal in nothing but its name) has succeded in creating for us the spirit of the Twelfth century...The plot is dramaticlly sound and absorbingly interesting. But the real claim to greatness which the picture posesses lies in the splendid composition of its scenes and incomparable lovliness of its lighting effects. There is a certain architectural magnificence in the picture". The magazine noted that Victor Seastrom was both actor and director and commended a "fineness of shading" in his performance. In the United States, during 1923 it was reported that the Sjostrom film Mortal Clay was screened by Little Theaters Inc, "an organization recently formed to boost the artistic standards of motion pictures." (Film Daily). That year the films Sjostrom had made in Sweden were becoming more widely reviewed in the United States- in an article that compared the no longer new art form of film to painting, Majorie Mayne, in The New Masters published in Pictures and PictureGoer, wrote, "And the director went to picture galleries for his data; Victor Seastrom reincarnated Renaisance art in his Love's Crucible, scene after scene of which remains an unforgettable memory, and in Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness, pictures of a different, thoroughly compelling type abounded." During January of 1922, Victor Sjostrom was already known in the United States as Victor Seastrom. Apparently he was then the object of the desire of the female spectator, which is reflected in the extratextual discourse of Helen Hancock, in Pantomine Magazine, who wrote, "We have kept Victor Seastrom untill the last. Because perhaps Mr. Seastrom might not like to be called a matinee idol- leaving that phrase to younger and perhaps handsomer men. But he is one, just the same...Of the heavy, rugged type, portraying men of strong emotions and virile personalities." She claims he was one of the foremost directors and a pioneer, and then compliments him on being an actor of the legitimate stage. Director Victor Sjostrom had left Sweden for Hollywood in 1922 upon the completion of the film The Hellship. Victor Seastrom Victor Seastrom The title of the book on Victor Sjostrom written by Bo Florin is fitting; the idea that Victor Sjostrom's coming to Hollywood to film would entail some type of transition and transformation was prefigured in Scenario Bulletin Digest, the Open Forum between the Writer and Studio, published by the Universal Scenario Corporation in 1923 when Sjostrom had first signed his contract with Goldwyn and the need to keep his artistic integrity was formulated by Sjostrom himself before he had toured the studio. The article illustrates the theme of Florin's book on Sjostrom by outlining the expectations of Sjostrom and Goldwyn, "The arrangement gives him a free hand in the artistic making of photodramas. The assurance that Mr. Seastrom will be unhampered in the development of his art is one of the most significant features of his connection with Goldwyn." The magazine quoted Sjostrom at a time when he had just only arrived in Hollywood and it would have been suprising that the quote had not come to the attention of Bengt Forslund, a biographer who had chronicled Sjostrom's transitions while becoming a revered, hallowed director of Swedish Silent Film and later through letters Sjostrom had sent while in Hollywood. "'No definite plans have been made as of yet,' he said, but I am to make pictures in the best way I am able, to satisfy myself as nearly as possible. That is all there is to it.'" He is again quoted,"The most striking attribute of American made motion pictures,' he continued, 'is their humanness. It is my hope that I will be able to develop this remarkable quality of humanness on the screen. It is this quality, i think that has made the popularity os so many American pictures abroad.'" It then profiled the director with, "Mr. Seastrom, who is also one of the most noted actors on the screen, has not decided, he said, whether or not he will appear in his productions in this country...Although Mr. Seastrom's fame has been more closely associated in this country with the grimmest sort of screen dramas. beautifully photographed, (some of his double exposure effects, notably in The Stroke of Midnight, never have been equalled) he has had striking success in his country with comedies." The Film Daily during January of 1923 announced that Sjostrom had signed with Metro: Victor Sjostrom had become Victor Seastrom, "Seastrom under the contract signed is understood to have the right to act in as well as direct his productions." Three months later it announced that Paul Bern was engaged to write continuity for The Master of Man. While noting that Name the Man had not been Sjostrom's Photoplay, Bo Florin records that while in Hollywood, where the techniques of Griffith and Ince had differed as to the details included in a shooting script, Sjostrom created from behind the camera, Paul Bern having had drawn the storyline into its treatment. "When compRing the script to the film, it becomes clear that these details consist of stylistic devices which Sjostrom in Sweden had been used to including at the script stage, but which are now added afterwards. Thus, Name the Man contains a dissolve combined with a cut across the line which shows exactly the same space from the reverse angle. While the dissolve remains quite conventional in its function, bridging a spatial transition, it's combination with the violation of the 180 rule creates an interesting effect." Oddly, as the studio was using Seastrom's name before filming had completed to advertise that "Golddwyn is doing big things.", the publication added to the extratextural discourse with "Americanizing Sweden by Films, Victor Seastrom, in a recent address stated that Sweden is fast becoming Americanized by American motion pictures." Early in June of 1923, it tersely reported, "Victor Seastrom has started shooting on Master of Man and later that month, if only to allow itself to be more concise, reported, "Edith Erastoff, a popular Swedish dramatic star, and wife of Victor Seastrom is en route to the Pacific Coast to join her husband who is Master of Man for Goldwyn." Exhibitor's Trade Review in March, 1923 reported similarly, "Another recent addition was the signing of Victor Seastrom, director and actor with Swedish Biograph to come to this country and direct productions for it. hat his first picture will be is not known." In April of that year it printed that he had selected The Master of Men, "The story selected is of such unusual dramatic quality that it will be worth all of the energy and directorial genius that Mr. Seastrom brings to bear upon his productions...The leading members of the cast are now being selected and the sets are being built." The film stars Mae Busch, Bo Florin noting that Sjostrom had not wanted Mae Busch for the lead, but that she had appeared in an earlier film, The Christian, an adaptation of the novel by Sir Hall Caine by Maurice Tourner- according to the studio, Sjostrom had to relent. Film Daily had avoided speculation for months before announcing, "Nagel replaces Schildkraut. Conrad Nagel will play the leading masculine role in Master of Man, which Victor Seastrom is now making for Goldwyn. Joseph Schildkraut was originally cast for the role." It soon added that "Hobart Bosworth will have an important role" before reporting in September that Sjostrom had finished while Alan Crosland was nearing the completion of his film Three Weeks. Motion Picture Magazine had a similar, but conflicting report during 1923, "Gost Ekman, matinee hero of Stockholm is coming over for the first American picture to be made by Victor Seastrom, the famous Swedish director...He plays in stock during the winter months- in pictures every summer. Seastrom's wife, Edith Erastoff, who usually plays opposite Ekman is coming to Hollywood to be with her husband. He has not stated whether she will go in the movies." During 1924 Carl Sandberg reviewed the film Name the Man (eight reels), his remarking upon Sjostrom's use of lighting, which, whether or not it may have had been a use of realism or naturalism, seemed underplayed to Sandberg and based on the enviornment rather than made more elaborate or as being artificial. "He was an actor, rated as Sweden's best, and his voice leads actors into slow, certain moods." Iris Barry is timely writing in 1924, imparting to the readers of Lets Go to The Movies, "Victor Seastrom, who had made Swedish pictures before Germany had begun its work (and too good to be popular) went last and they had they idiocy to put him to turning one of Hall Caine's intensely stupid stories into moving pictures. He did the best he could and played about a bit with the Yankee studio devices." And yet rather than providing a synopsis to the film, Motion Picture Magazine in 1923 relegated the novelization of the film to Peter Andrews. "She half rose as he returned and his bathrobe which she had flung around her slipped down, perhaps farther than it needed to." It was accompanied by a table explaining the cast of the film directed by Victor Seastrom and a capition which read, "told in short story form by permission from the Goldwyn Production of the scenario by Paul Bern." In his volume The Film Till Now, author Paul Rotha resonates a tone that can be likened to other critics his contemporary, "I cannot recall any example of a European director, who, on coming to Hollywood, made film better, or even as good as he did in his own surroundings." After mentioning Murnau, Leni and Lubitsch, the opines, "Sjostrom's Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness is preferable to Name the Man."

During 1923, Sjostrom wrote from the United States that he thought he might be given a script by Elinor Glyn to adapt into a photoplay, "I told them that I knew a film like that would succeed on her name, but that I didn't believe it was the kind of stuff I should do." He also writes that the novel Born av tiden (A Simple Life, written by Knut Hamsun, at that time could have been a possibility. 1922 had been the year during which appeared the second film directed by Gustaf Molander, Amatorfilmen, the first film in which actress Elsa Ebbengen-Thorblad was to appear, brought actress Mimi Pollack to Swedish movie audiences. Molander had made the film The King of Boda (Tyrranny of Hate, Bodakungen) in 1920. It was the first film to be photographed by Swedish cinematographer Adrian Bjurman and starred Egil Eide and Wanda Rothgardt. Karin Molander had in 1920 starred in two films by Mauritz Stiller, in When We Are Married (Erotikon) with Lars Hanson, Tora Teje, and Glucken Cederberg, and in Fiskebyn. She also that year appeared in the film Bomben, directed by Rune Carlsten. And yet Karin Molander would only later be mentioned to audiences in the United States, Photoplay Magazine noting in 1926 that she was no longer in Sweden and no longer married to Gustaf Molander, "With Lars Hanson came his wife, Karin Nolander, leading woman in the Royal State Theater of Stockholm and billed as 'Sweden's most beautiful woman' She hasn't appeared on the screen yet, but it shouldn't be long now with so many good Scandinavian directors over here." Karin Molander had been married to the Swedish director between 1910-1919, her and Lars Hanson having been paired together under the direction of Victor Sjostrom during 1917. Pictured together, a 1927 photocaption from Photoplay Magazine read, "When Mr. and Mrs. Lars Hanson worked for Swedish companies, Mrs. Hanson was popular on the European screen as Karin Nolander. But now that her husband has made a hit in this country, she has retired and decided to let his gather all the glory for the family." After their return to Sweden the Molander's were invited to a dinner party with Garbo acquaintance Knut Martin by visiting journalist Jack Cambell, who quoted Karin Molander in the article "I am the Unhappiest Girl in the World- says Greta Garbo", published by The New Movie Magazine. After Hanson related that he had lately seen very little of Greta Garbo, Karin Molander described the actress, "She was always a timid girl. terribly shy. Even in the old days in Hollywood, she used to go right home from the studio and go to bed. she'd never see anybody...You must admire her for the way she has fought herself upward, all alone, since Stiller." Picture Play magazine printed the article Two Gentlemen from Sweden, which was to comparatively interview both Einar Hansen and Lars Hanson. It read, "To crush flappers hopes, I regret that I must report he is happily married to Karen Nolander, formerly an actress in Sweden.She is charming and a lovely lady, whose sparkle and quaint naïveté have intrigued Hollywood." Victor Sjostrom wrote an article entitled The Screen Story of the Future, published by The Story World and Photodramatist in July, 1923, in which he advised, "The screenwriter must first of all have something to say, and secondly, the vitality and the sincerity that will enable him to say it in a deeply human way. But technique is vastly essential." As an act of spectatorship, Iris Barry looked at film directors in the United States, "Seastrom, the Swedish director, is a man whom America has ruined. In Sweden, one cannot help feeling the cinema has steered its own sweet course irrespective of a desire to please the people at all costs...There has been much poetry and a great deal of fancy in Swedish films." The Film Daily advised, "Keep your eye on Seastrom. He is liable to do some things that will make him one of the most important directors in this country." Readers in Sweden can affectionately know that it added, "Incidentally, if they can prevail upon him to act in one of of his productions he will also prove suprising." Photoplay magazine featured a magnificient photo Victor Sjostrom during 1923 in which he is holding a megaphone while standing next to his camera and camera crew in a foot of water while on location, shooting a scene from the middle of a stream; it is the same photo that appeared in Screenland Magazi Thu, August 20, 2015 - 4:28 PM permalink
Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo talar!

The private life of Greta Garbo escapes the slightest scrutiny of Richard Corliss, the earliest acting done by Greta Gustafsson only intimated as biography by a still photograph from the film Peter and the Tramp. By his own admission, Corliss only writes about the films Greta Garbo appeared in, as one of us, her many spectators, and keeps in front of the screen as a moviegoer in a theater. Referred to as peerless by Time Magazine, Corliss nevertheless acknowledges writes of biography as acquaintances that were brought to him though the study of actress Greta Garbo, among them being Ray Durgnant, Andrew Sarris and Molly Haskell, added to which are the names John Bainbridge, Kevin Brownlow, Pauline Kael and Norman Zierold that appear in his bibliography, which also attempts to add Parker Tyler, Georges Sadoul and Bosley Crowther. Nancy Gibbs, editor of Time Magazine reported the death of film critic Richard Corliss during the middle of 2015. These are the film's of Greta Garbo reviewed by Corliss, editor of Film Comment, for their value as films along with the interest in them and in the Greta Garbo that helped create them that was left unevaluated by the prolific film reviewer.



In the "First Interview She has Granted to any Magazine in Months", Greta Garbo in "The Swedish Sphinx Speaks" broke "her long silence" about when she would exit the silent film era, interviewed by Raplph Wheelwright in Screenland Magazine during 1929. "'I hated talking pictures when they first came out,' said Greta, stimulating a shudders guesture by way of adding emphasis to her words. 'They screeched and scratched. They were neither of the stage nor screen. Just monstrous nightmares. I thought to myself, I I have to appear in anything like that I ought to go home to Sweden and stay there. ugh! Now-' and Greta threw back her head and laughed. I am bored to death when I see a silent picture. It seems that something is lacking: life is gone when the players fail to speak their lines."

In the article Greta Garbo discussed there having had been being rapid technological developments in sound film while she had been in Sweden and mentioned her ability to fluently speak English, perhaps with little no Swedish accent. Not yet entirely completely refusing to be seen or quoted in public, she continued, "The public likes or dislikes a player solely upon what it sees of the player on the screen. I do not think a star's private life exposed in intimate detail serves any purpose than to satisfy curiosity. I am just a human being like anyone else. I resent prying into my personal affairs just as much as anyone in any other station or position rightfully resists similar intrusions.'" It was a monthly issue in which Helen Ludlam had introduced The New John Gilbert and Fashion Editor Adrain had introduced himself, authoring an article that was accompanied by one of his sketches and a photograph of himself with Greta Garbo taken three years earlier.

"Greta Garbo portrays the torments of love, but little else" was one photcaption that had accompanied Greta Garbo through the pages of fan magazines during 1930, specifically Picture Play Magazine, that had pages earlier praised sound film for having improved John Gilbert's image as a lover. Although correctly referred to a a hold-out for M.G.M, along with Lon Chaney, by author Richard Corliss, by then Greta Garbo by all accounts had made three sound tests, one from a monologue from Goethe's Faust, one a selection from Peer Gynt delivered in Swedish, and the other from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as Ophelia, the speech delivered in English. Norbert Lusk of Picture Play magazine was the film critic author Richard Corliss chose while deciding whom to select to relate the phenomenon of "The Voice: Greta Garbo's Sound films". To look at the article further and expand Corliss's quote, Lusk, who had serialized the photo plays of two reelers into fictional magazine adaptations, merely becomes perplexed by the baritone of Greta Garbo as the mystery of the Swedish Sphinx was to become more enigmatic and reach higher into the firmament reclusively. Significantly, or more significantly than is often viewed, by July of 1930, Talking Screen magazine has been added to the newsstand extra textual discourse. It read, "Gridley has fired. The Sphinx speaks! Greta Garbo has made a talkie. And the great myth of the movies- the legend of Hollywood- has received another tremendous impetus that will mean millions to M.G.M and it's sequestered Swede....according to director Clarence Brown...List to the oracle: 'I consider Greta Garbo one of the three Greta actresses the world has known, Bernhardt, Duse, and now Garbo.'" Author Herbert Cruikshank continued with his article Garbo Myth of the Movies More Amazing Than All the Mystery Stuff Is the Truth-Presented Herewith-Concerning Greta'" If not typical of the sentiment of the new adventure with sound, Talking Picture Magazine also went into publication as a proponent of the new moving, and talking, picture.

Greta Garbo





"Gorgeous Greta Garbo has swept into a national acclaim accorded few people in all of show history. The Phrase 'Greta Garbo Talks'- was blazoned from thousands of theaters. And ticket buyers came in droves." advertisement circulated by MGM to announce Greta Garbo in her second talking picture Romance, 1930




"Greta Garbo will have Charles Bickford as leading man in Clarence Brown's production of Anna Christie for M.G.M. and not John Gilbert as was first reported." After announcing the coming of a new Greta Garbo film, Motion Picture News printed an extensive series of advertisements by Metro Goldwyn Mayer on the new season of film. "Greta Garbo will appear in two all talking and one silent picture" appeared above the full page advertisement in Motion Picture News paid for by Metro Goldwyn Mayer. It ran below, "Greta Garbo in Anna Christie. Her first All-Talking picture! There's a title that will blaze mightily from marquees all over this broad land in the coming season. Greta Garbo, the divine beauty talking to her vast public!..In addition to the All-Talking picture Anna Christie, Greta Garbo will appear in a second All-Talking Drama, title shortly to be announced. This second speaking role for Miss Garbo is a vividly colorful characterization uniquely suited for her extraordinary beauty and talents. It will also be a silent production." "Garbo talar!!" was the title decided upon for the webpage authored by Louise Lagerstrom of the Swedish Film Institute. If it does seem more post-climatic than anti-climatic, actor John Barrymore had literally tried it first in an earlier film with synchronization, Pickford and Fairbanks both leaving their individual projects to co-star together shortly thereafter; Picture Play magazine speculated, "The Garbo Voice. What will it sound like? The Whole World waits to her the Swedish enchantress for the first time in Anna Christie." And yet, while audiences were waiting not all movie theaters were available for sound film and M.G.M divided their advertisement into a "Summary 16 Pictures Available for Theatres Without Installation: Greta Garbo, the flaming orchid whose seductive personality has made her an audience draw will appear in one silent picture, title of which is to be announced." While John Gilbert was scheduled to appear in his first sound picture Olympia, "Olympia:Title to Be Changed", Redemption, an adaptation of Tolstoy was being advertised as "A Fred Niblo Production, Screenplay by Dorothy Farnum". Before continuing to its advertisement of films "For Wired Houses", it included, "Lon Chaney in three thrilling silent pictures, the first Bugle Sounds. Titles of two more Lon Chaney silent pictures to be announced." Early during 1929, M.G.M. advertised Greta Garbo in Wild Orchids, "Sound or Silent", her having been assigned to "the most gripping story she's ever appeared in", and John Gilbert in Thirst "Equipped for Silent or Sound". Fred Niblo, introduced by a photo of Dorothy Sebastian in front of a microphone while filming one of her "new style scree tests, one for voice and one for photographic qualities", was attributed with having written the articles Crashing the Soundgates for Screenland magazine during 1929. The silent film director Niblo, noted in the photcaption for having directed Ben Hur, wrote, "Breaking into the talkie racket raises the ratio two thousand to one." Beneath them was a septagonal portrait of Greta Garbo Motion Picture News reported in July of 1929 that Greta Garbo was in rehearsals for Anna Christie, "her first talker". Picture Play magazine awaited the film, "At the very height of the talkie excitement, M.G.M. risked Garbo in an all silent picture in The Single Standard. It was a hit. Following her experiment in dialogue with Anna Christie, she may return to the silent fold, and I for one will not mourn. Garbo is a shadow. She suggests mystery, a mystery that has been in silence. What then will the spoken, tangible thought have to do with this peculiar appear? An out of character voice will ruin Garbo. She must speak as she looks- soft, alluring, and yet with a huskiness which her sophistication suggests...Always a good actress, Lilyan Tashman's throaty contralto has increased her prestige and emphasized her individuality. The talkie has given Conrad Nagel a new lease on popularity."

In 1930, Katherine Albert penned the article Is Jack Gilbert Through for Photoplay Magazine. She outlined Jack Gilbert's power of script approval, notifying audiences that his first sound film, Redemption had been "shelved by the studio." and that she wondered if it would ever be shown in theaters. The article reviewed his performance as having been "nervous", "too highkeyed and "sel-conscious". In the same issue, Photoplay released stills from Anna Christie, "This Clarence Brown filming of the O'Neil play for M.G.M. is eagerly awaited by Garbo fans everywhere. Garbo's first talkie is bound to be one of the sensations of the next few months."

Greta Garbo eludes, Greta Garbo evades

"There are many things in your heart you can never tell a person. They are you. Your joys and sorrows- and you can never, never tell them. It is not right that you should tell them. You cheapen yourself, the inside of yourself when you tell them."

Silent Film actress Greta Garbo

While waiting for the release of Anna Christie (Brown/Feyder, 1930), Picture Play magazine included a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull. Edwin Shallelert wrote, "Greta Garbo has gone to the extreme when exacting it within the studio itself...Greta Garbo has pursued the same phantom. The ordinary news gatherer, and the majority of the extraordinary, are not permitted on her set. It is told that once even some of her countrymen of the press came to visit and were ritzed, or felt they were." New Movie magazine devoted a page to Greta Garbo's first sound film, "Elsewhere in this issue Herbert Howe refers to Greta Garbo as the Hollywood Sphinx. But the Sphinx speaks in her next Metro Goldwyn picture, a new talkie version of Eugene O'Neil's Anna Christie once done by Blanche Sweet. Clarence Brown is introducing the Swedish Star to the microphone." The magazine also featured a portrait of Garbo dressed for tennis captioned, "The exotic Swedish star plays a great game of tennis. This isn't a posed sport picture. It's the real thing." Motion Picture News reviewed the film during 1929, "Her work is a sensation. Garbo has an exceptional talking voice, recording with a rich mellowness that exactly conveys her personality. A fine delivery of lines coupled with a splendid performance classes her among the finest of dramatic actresses...Clarence brown handled his direction with a deft hand that sustains the fullest interest in dramatic movement. His work is superb and the individual characterizations are particularly fine, with a small cast of four principals presenting sterling performances." It added, "Just as audiences repeat for Garbo in silent form, it is predicted the will do the same in her talker productions." "She was not pleased with the Anna Christie, writes John Bainbridge about a film that Garbo had first seen in the company of director Jacques Feyder and Wilhelm Sorensen, "'Isn't it terrible?' she whispered to them time and again as the picture unfolded. 'Whoever saw Swedes act like that?'" Although she apparently left early during the screening she visited actress Marie Dressler the following day with Chrysanthemums. Sorensen, after appearing in the refilming reversed their position, or emotion rather, "Garbo thinks this is one of the best pictures she has ever made, and she gives most of the credit to Jacques Feyder." Greta Garbo had worked out dialogue changes with the director during her second filming of Anna Christie. The character played by Dressler would in the second film be reenacted by Salka Viertel, who became, along with Mercedes de Acosta, one of Greta Garbo's more devoted companions during the period of early sound film, Feyder having returned to Europe after making the film, as had Hanson and Sjostrom. Garbo, who without entirely disappearing as though mysteriously, purportedly was travelling under the name of Gussie Berger, would infrequently be seen with Lilyan Tashman. After retiring from film, Garbo would later register at hotels as Mrs Harriet Brown. The magazine Hollywood Filmograph traced the early stardom of the entrance of Greta Garbo into sound film during 1930. It reported, "Niblo had planned to film Red Dust with Greta Garbo, but Romance was put on schedule ahead of this, so he will direct the Haines picture first, then Red Dust, according to present plans." It followed with the heading "Garbo in a new talkie", which read, "Forsaking the Swedish accent of Anna Christie for Italian dialect and garbed in crinolines in place of sweaters and oilskins, Greta Garbo has started work on her second talking picture. Romance, an adaptation of the famous stageplay...Clarence Brown, who filmed Garbo's first talkie for Metro Goldwyn Mayer, is directing." Hollywood Filmograph then alluded to Garbo's then next film, "Greta Garbo will be seen in at least three productions during the coming season, the first of which will be Red Dust. This is based on William Collison's story and presents the magnetic Swedish star as a Parisian." It later reported, "Fred Niblo, having just completed directing Easy Going starring William Haines at M.G.M., is right now preparing to direct Greta Garbo in her next story Red River which Fred De Grease is writing and adapting for the screen." Motion Picture News during 1930 echoed with a similar report on Red Dust, "M.G.M is preparing Red River as Greta Garbo's next talker following her current picture Romance. Fred Niblo is to direct upon finishing Easy Going. Red River is an original by Fred De Greasac and was formally known as Red Dust." With this was also, "M.G.M switches Niblo from Red Dust to Haines film- Fred Noblo will direct William Haines in the latter's next film for M.G.M, N original titled Easy Going...Niblo was originally scheduled to direct Red Dust with an all star cast but this has been postponed to follow the Haines picture so that Greta Garbo can take the starring assignment in Red Dust." The magazine later reverted to the title having had been being Red Dust and it having been based on a story by Wilson Collison, but it also carried an advertisement from M.G.M. itself, which read, "Greta Garbo in Red Dust" which claimed it would be Greta Garbo's third sound film. "The most unusual part she has ever played. On a Chinese rubber plantation her past in Paris is forgotten- gorgeous Greta Garbo gives the talking screen a performance such as you've never witnessed. This stageplay by Wilson Collison has the power of Sadie Thompson. It's going to be one of the year's greatest." The New Movie Magazine during 1930 looked at Garbo in regard to fashion. "The glamorous Garbo, away from the studio, affects dull tweeds and flat heel shoes. No expensive wardrobe for Miss Garbo. Yet she is Hollywood's most lavish purchaser of lovely lingerie. She spends thousands every year on fancy underthings. Above the photo of Garbo was a caption reading, "Spend between $5,000 and $25,000 on clothes." It continued pages later, "For evening Garbo is magnificent...She goes so little to social functions that one can do little speculating as to the number of outfits shew has, but the writer has seen a magnificent ermine wrap, with white fox trimming and several elaborate white satin, white lace, white chiffon, and white moiree gowns that could not cost less than three hundred dollars a piece." Within months the magazine added, "She wore a tan beret and a tan overcoat with a high collar and a pair of horn rimmed glasses. As time goes on the great Garbo seems to become more and more like a hermit." Another item read, "Greta Garbo loves spaghetti and never eats in the studio lunch room. Three years later the magazine interviewed the make-up girl at M.G.M., Lillian Rosini, "Greta Garbo has never used anything but the thinnest dusting of flesh-coloured powder, rather pinkish, and pale lip-rouge; nothing on her eyes at all. And by they way if I get anymore letters asking me if Garbo's eyelashes are artificial, I'll scream...I've been making her up for nine years...I ought to know her lashes are real.

Greta Garbo Advertisements sent by M.G.M. itself to Motion Picture News during 1930 relied upon the theme expressed on the cover of Exhibitors herald World, which almost comicly announced, "Greta Garbo talks again in Romance. Its her greatest"; after acknowledging the fame that Garbo had acquired by returning to the screen in a sound film, it depended on the recognition of her as an investment and it was discernably giving her press of its own, "Already the word comes out of Hollywood that Miss Garbo's new Talking picture Romance is destined to overshadow Anna Christie by far. There's no figure in all studioland whose screen activities are of such widespread interest. Long before a Greta Garbo attraction reaches the screen the magazines of the nation are heralding its approach, the public is breathless with anticipation. Its nice to have a Greta Garbo under contract to your theater. In 1930-31, the first of her three vehicles will Red Dust." Motion Picture Classic during 1930 noted in "Garbo at her best" that "It is probable that her latest and greatest photoplay, Romance marks the zenith of Greta Garbo's career. Garbo plumbs new dramatic depths. She adds new charm to her attractions, and is very much the star of the production...The selection of Gavin Gordon is less fortunate, but the shadow of the great Garbo softens the glare of his defects." Directed by Clarence Brown, the screenplay to the film was written by Bess Meredyth and Edwin Justus Mayer. Richard Corliss saw "recognizable curtain lines" that were to almost harken back to the proscenium arc of "filmed theater" during the cinema of attractions, deeming the blocking of the film playlike, "It was as if Clarence Brown, the admirable technician, had died with the coming of sound, and most of his later films were directed not by his spirit, but by his shade. The result is a feature-length series of static two shots, of statuesque poses instead of felt guestures." The portrait of Greta Garbo in costume from the set of Romance published in Motion Picture magazine was photographed by George Hurrell. Adela Rogers St. Johns, writing in New Movie magazine gave a portrait of Greta Garbo that veers from her being a recluse in The Heart of Garbo, How the Plight of her Leading Man Touched the Sympathies of the Star Who Walks Alone, Gavin Gordon went to Hollywood because he found out that Garbo lived and made pictures in the distant land of which he had heard so much." A still of them in the film Romance accompanies the article with the explanation of how Garbo insisted that he be in the cast and that she sent him roses, it quoting the actor, "'And she helped me through those scenes so wonderfully.' he said,'She didn't think of herself and how it would be for her. She was so kindly, she always made it possible for me to do each scene.'"

"Love?" She laughed softly, "Of course I have been in love. Love is the last and first of a women's education. How could you express love if you have never felt it? You can imagine, but its not like the feeling- who hasn't been in love?"

Greta Garbo- Photoplay magazine
Greta Garbo Faith Service, who had for more than a decade been writing about silent film and adapting photo-plays into magazine short-stories, printed the article "Garbo Never Sleeps- This is Her Tragedy- The Real Explanation of her strange life and her Broken Romance." Interesting to read, it contains what seems to initially be a plausible theory that begins to explain the mystery of Greta Garbo with, "The reason why she does what she does, the reason why she doesn't do the things other people do, the reason for her famous eccentricities and hermit-like existence, her lack of response to a social life, her lack of response to eager lovers is this- Garbo is an insomniac. She never sleeps." The article claimed that Mauritz Stiller had experienced bouts of sleeplessness before his death and go back and forth between rooms before finding a suitable bed, and that Garbo too had had mild instances on occaision that she was now using "constant sunbaths" and "endless walks up and down the beach" to preempt. It continued that John Gilbert's heart was still broken- "Garbo, too tired to love." Motion Picture Classic magazine during 1930 instructed, "To locate Greta Garbo, take out your binoculars and study the sun. Discover the hottest ray, locate where it strikes Hollywood and with the aid of a compass seek the spot. There you will find the mysterious one sunbathing. She never misses, so you will not have wasted a minute." New Movie Magazine during 1931 reported, "Greta Garbo seems to be emerging from her mysterious seclusion. She gave Malibu quite a thrill lately when she came down and spent a whole afternoon on the beach with friends." Journalist Cary Wilson later gave a portrait of the Greta Garbo he had met in Photoplay during 1936 claiming that he referred to her as "Fleck", which was short for "Svenskaflecka" and that he had first been introduced to her when she was standing on her head; she had been playing tennis which was then in turn followed by an hour's swimming and then another hour of hiking, "she still contained so much physical exuberance that standing on her head, on a sofa pillow, seemed to be the simple and desirable thing to do." Garbo had been winning at tennis after only having been playing for seventeen days. The extra-textural discourse depicting the off screen activities of motion picture actors, and sometimes directors, and more than often not the enigmatic ghostlike swirlings of the Swedish Sphix, Greta Garbo, who was by then established as the most reclusive actress in Hollwood, included an announcement during 1932 in the magazine Hollywood Filmograph, "Humphrey Pierson, one of Hollywood's best known writers was signed today by Joseph I Schnitzer and Samuel Schnitzner to do the adaptation and screenplay of "Greta, the Great", which is said to be based upon the life of Garbo." Earlier it had reported, "A number of feminine stars in Hollywood are said to be worried for fear that their private lives will soon be public since it has been revealed that Rilla Page Palmborg, author of the sensational 'Private life of Greta Garbo' is at work on a second book. It is not known whether or not this book will be a 'private life' although the book is said to concern Hollywood." Close Up magazine during 1932 also reviewed the biography, "But Rilla Page Palmborg in The Private Life of Greta Garbo got dope from Garbo's private servants. For the first time one learned that Garbo buys all the fan magazines and asks for her money back if there is nothing in them about herself. For the first time one learns that Garbo's favorite breakfast is grape fruit, creamed dried chipped beef, fried potatoes, an egg, home made coffee cake and coffee." Biographer John Bainbridge goes so far as to quote Gustaf and Sigrid Norin and after giving a similar account of Garbo reading, and returning fan magazines adds to that her bringing her lunch to the studio in a brown paper bag. "She also made a point of seeing every film directed by Ernst Lubitsch and Eric von Stroheim- in her opinion two of the most gifted directors in Hollywood. She usually saw her own pictures two or three times, on different occaisions." To the account is added that she avoided beauty shops and that she rinsed her hair after shampooing with camomile tea, which the housekeeper brewed from camomile seeds. Although Adrian had visited the house and had arranged its living room furniture and decorated its interior, the butler is quoted as having remarked that Garbo was apathetic about it and the making of purchases for it. During the filming of Sign of the Cross, Movie Classic quoted the film's director, without him expressing any further interest in the mysterious Garbo, and yet there is an allusion to the seductive roles that she was trying to ascend in his typifying her as a woman that could gain power through sensuality, "'The most voluptuous-looking woman in Hollywood,' adds DeMille. "is Greta Garbo. She has true voluptuousness- not of body, but of mind.'". To end the silent era, two months before Greta Garbo's last silent film, The Kiss (Feyder, 1929), Clarence Sinclair Bull became the gallery photographer of Greta Garbo, photographing her through several years, only in costume and only on the (closed) set. Author Mark A Vieira writes, "She liked him because, like Clarence Brown, he spoke softly, if at all." In an e-mailed correspondence with the present author, Mr. Vieira sent still photographs scanned from their original negatives in two seperate letters, their having been mostly left over and unused from the editorial decisions during the publication of his biography Greta Garbo, A Cinematic Legacy. One of the portraits taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull, as the reader will notice, is the one used on the cover of Mr. Vieira's biography without the publisher's title lettering. Vieira, who was an apprentice of Clarence Sinclair Bull, quotes Greta Garbo, "As she said, 'I had it all my own way and did it in my own fashion.' This is what ended her career and what makes her cinematic legacy the exquisite thing that it is."
One portrait of Greta Garbo included in the Estate of Greta Garbo auction was a gelatin silver print on double-weight matte paper with Clarence Sinclair Bull's blind stamp from the film Susan Lennox Her Rise and Fall. Motion Picture Magazine during the release of Susan Lennox Her Rise and Fall was explicit, perhaps perfunctory, in its publishing a portrait of Greta Garbo by Clarence Sinclair Bull with the caption, "The One- and Only" Underneath read, "There's only one gown in the world like this, just as there is only one Greta Garbo. It was designed by Adrian. An exquisite portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull appeared in Modern Screen Magazine in 1931 with the caption, "Although almost everyone in Hollywood knows where Greta Garbo lives, the swedish star hasn't moved for some time. Perhaps she's getting used to inquisitive fans peering through the hedges. She takes long hikes everyday and is usually accompanied by a woman companion." 1932 saw the article Garbo is like Lindbergh, written by R. Fernstrom and published in New Movie Magazine."Garbo is like Lindbergh. They act alike toward publicity.They shy away from reporters. Garbo is like the King of Sweden in many ways- kind, but aloof to everyone."
Greta Garbo It is a gendered spectatorship that places Garbo as a Cleopatra, who, as an alluring Queen, is looking at wealth as an abstraction in that to her it is aphrodisiac, her displaying herself as desirable admidst a backdrop of opulence; to know the secrets of her body is to be allowed by her within the solitude of grandeur. After Victor Sjostrom had returned to Sweden, Robert Herring, writing in Close Up magazine on Uno Henning in En Natt, a classic early Swedish sound film directed by Gustaf Molander, abruptly interrupted his essay to enter into a legnthy discourse on Greta Garbo, it being glaring that the section on Garbo is displaced in the essay, as if by overenthusiasm, to where he compares Garbo to Bridgette Helm only to stall with more on Greta Garbo before returning to Molander's film, "For with Garbo, too, there is the same sense of being linked to something more than one's personal life. Of carrying on and of being carried. Garbo in love, uses her lover as a means of reaching that land, that mood, that peace she requires. That is what is so difficult for her leading men, and so hard to find scenarios in which her leading man can continued to be wooed...Garbo has never lost this, this restless quiet..It is what makes her sometimes tired, which the movies try to turn into langorousness; it is what makes her dynamic, determined...Garbo astonishes people by being alternatively strangely careless and suddenly precise, right and assured." Film Daily reviewed the film Inspiration, "Greta Garbo dominates every situation and is the Garbo the fans want....Miss Garbo brings to the screen all the great possibilities of her talents with a combination of heart-gripping emotion and carefree indifference." With the superlative photography of Clarence Sinclair Bull, Greta Garbo inherited Photoplay Magazine journalist Katherine Albert, who summarized her writing during 1931 by herself paraphrasing her, "I'm bored with Garbo.", her looking at and foreward to the sensation differently with the articles Did Brown and Garbo Fight and Exploding the Garbo Myth, the former concerned with "the carefully guarded walled in stage where Garbo was starring in Inspiration, the latter making an event of Greta Garbo objecting to a line of dialouge on the set of the film Romance, including a photocaption which read, "the writer, who knows hers says there is not mystery about Greta Garbo". After explaining how successful artisticlly the work of Clarence Brown and Greta Garbo had been it asks what happenned during the filming of Inspiration, "The piece is an adaptation of Sappho. The book is now old fashioned. So is the play. A new script had to be written and neither Garbo nor Brown were entirely satisfied, but there was nothing to do but experiment on the set and see how it read. In order to get anything out of it, they must rehearse and rehearse and change and change. That's where the trouble began. Garbo would not rehearse." Photoplay reviewed the release of the film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox, "If you like your romance thick, your passion strong and your Garbo hot, don't miss this...M.G.M. stuck closely to the tale, modernizing it of course, and adding a trick ending. Garbo does her utmost with the tile role, natural for her." Although the announcement may seem odd to this century, The New Movie Magazine in 1931 had reported, "King Vidor has selected Ernest Torreace for one of the important roles in The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox, Greta Garbo's current picture." During 1932 it was well within the knowledge of "all the more studious Garbo fanatics" (Picture Play) that Greta Garbo was on the screen with Clark Gable, Their attraction to each other is understandable, their antagonism predestined, and their desperate reunion at the end of the picture holds no hope of tranquility." Picture Play thought highly of Greta Garbo adding, "Nor does she triumph in spite of her picture. it is a story entirely worthy of her." Richard Corliss includes Mata Hari with those films in which Greta Garbo's performance had been reviewed as "intentionally, or perhaps artisticly, lethargic". "M.G.M. had put Garbo through so many variations on the beautiful spider falling in love with the idealistic fly that the actress could have performed this part in her sleep- and more than one critic accused her of doing just that." During 1932 Regina Cannon directly quoted Ramon Novarro in New Movie Magazine in The Most Eligible Couple Will Never Marry, "Garbo is my ideal woman, but I shall never marry." The "startling frank article continued, "No other woman has impressed me so much; not even Barbara La Marr. Greta is everything that man desires. She has beauty, lure, mystery and aloofness that only men understand, for it is a quality which is usually to be found only in men. It is not coldness either. It is emotion." Journalist Ralph Wheelridge chronicled the making of Mata Hari for Photoplay magazine, "Announcements of the co-starring assignnment for Mata Hari sounded signal guns for rumors, conjecture and prognostication of all description. Those who have seen Miss Garbo about the lot during the making of the picture commented upon the gorgeousness of her costume and her unruffled contentment." The author mentions that her co-star had only met Greta Garbo socially on one or two occaisions, "On her dressing room table that morning Garbo found a huge mound of pink roses." He had sent a card reading, "I hope that the world will be as thrilled to see Mata Hari as I am to work with her- Ramon Novarro." Ben Maddox announced during the middle of his article Garbo and Novarro Together, Has Garbo found her Perfect Screen Lover at Last published in Screenland Magazine that he "had a long talk with Ramon during the making of Mata Hari. Ostensibly, little of it was about Greta Garbo, his quoting Novarro as having said, "Popularity is fleeting. So why should I be dazzled with a material success that is bound to end...However, I was delighted to do Mata Hari, it gives me an excellant role, one for which I am fitted. To me, the play is the thing. I like the co-starring plan. When one person alone is featured, the story is distorted to stress one character. And as a result the picture cannot be dramaticly effective..After thirty something happens to you. You get a more serious outlook on life."

Scott Higgins, currently. Professor of Film at Wesleyean University and recently the editor of Arnheim for Film and Media draws a portrait of Arnheim as an outdated, archaic formalist lacking vision, but notes that the author, a proponent of the visual as the basis of aesthetic theory, maintained that "an action can gain expressive power through 'indirect representation'. This may be in part evident in Arnheim's 1934 piece on Motion, "When in Grand Hotel Greta Garbo walked through the lobby with a springy, dynamic gait, she produced not only the most beautiful moment of the film, but also the most telling characterization of the dancer, whose part she was playing. Sr risk of doing an injustice to the most animated face in the history of film art, it may be said that Greta Garbo could give equally strong expression to the human soul by the rhythm of her gait, which depending on the Occaisionalism was victorious Nd energetic, transfigured, or tied, broken anxious and feeble."

Richard Corliss describes the work of Greta Garbo with director George Fitzmaurice, "As You Desire Me begins with a fascinating premise, and reworks a Pirandello play that seems intriguingly relevant to the creation of Garbo the star. indeed the film has everything going for it but good writing, acting and directing. Gor most of the film, Garbo looks as if she's simply finishing out her five year contract." Photoplay Magazine gave an eerie, perhaps unsettling, review of the film, " 'This may be the last Garbo picture you see' but at this moment she will not make any more now...if ever...And Garbo has never been more marvelous....The love scenes between Douglas and Garbo are the high points of the film and they Re almost equal to the ones played so long ago by Gilbert and Garbo. if this must be her last picture, we are glad it is such a fitting swan song. And you don't need us to tell you not to miss the film."

Film Daily tersely, perhaps succinctly, announced during 1932, "Greta Garbo, who gets more publicity by trying to avoid it, is reported due today with intentions of sailing on the liner Grispholm for Sweden. At the M.G.M. home office yesterday, nobody had any idea as to the whereabouts of the Glamorous Greta." It followed later with. "Greta Garbo wearing horn-rimmed spectacles and accompanied by the Countess Wactmeister has been reported in Paris for the last week shopping. She is expected to return to Stockholm this week. Hollywood Filmograph during 1932 chronicled that, "Greta Garbo, while in Djuisholm, Sweden, refused to see American reporters. But the door was opened to Rene Kraus, German writer. Greta told Mr. Kraus that she would not be back in Hollywood for two years. That Maurice Stiller had not left her any money. That she had not played a part in Ivar Kruger's life. That she was only a friend to Newspaperman Sorensen. That she had no intention of getting married." The magazine later continued, "WILL GARBO RETURN seems to be a much mooted question with the executives as well as the fans debating the question since the Swedish star left our shores, but she's still elusive." Movie Classic in 1932 reported that the United States was on tenterhooks as Greta Garbo neared the shores of Sweden, "She permitted a young American poet, named Philip Cummings to share her society- and even to laugh with her. And when her boat docked at Gothenburg, she was so excited that she actually summoned reporters to her! She told them- with a smile- that she was not afraid of reporters...but that she was tired of being written about so much. She added that she was not returning to America in the near future...She said she could tell no one her future plans." Movie Classic reported that while talking to reporters Garbo had to admit to the eventuality of her returning to the Hollywood screen. John Bainbridge gives an account of the events around Greta Garbo and her having departed for Sweden for an entirety of eight months. "Besides arranging to have her name omitted from the ships passenger list, she quietly slipped aboard the liner the night before it sailed. She had spent a period of weeks on an island swimming and sunbathing before returning to Stockholm, where she was visited by Mercedes de Acosta. She had read a biography of on encouragement of Salka Viertel about the throne of Sweden and of one who, during her reign, her "distaste of marriage was profound, she had swarms of lovers...she rewarded her favorites lavishly with money, land and titles...She also gave away half the crown lands." Garbo read the completed script to Queen Christina written Viertel and a colleague, it being made a stipulation of the renewal of her contract. She was met by Viertel on her return to the United States. Greta Garbo Nearing the end of 1933, Hollywood Filmograph reported. "The famous Lola Montez- will be the next character that Greta Garbo will try as M.G.M have bought a story of the dashing Lola that vamped The King of Bavaria. The title of the story Heavenly Sinner, which has a glamorous, picturesque background and should exactly fit the mysterious one. That year the periodical published Looking through the Telescope, by Lal Chand Mehra, which outlined filmic spectatorship as being concerned with "the channels of the mystery of knowledge" and that the spectator remained distant and aloof so as to mystify the view, "Greta Garbo's greatest appeal in my humble opinion lies in the fact that this consummate actress always leaves an air of mystery about her. Even though she has portrayed ordinary human characters in all her pictures, she has carried an aloofness that the audiences never understand. This very distance has made Miss Garbo an attractive character...Her human portrayals are mystically beautiful. This question is- what can she do in a real mystic part?" Rilla Page Palmborg, the journalist, who has on several occaisions been credited with having created the initial "Mysterious Stranger" image of Greta Garbo in regard to the interpretations of Greta Garbo's personal life and how they were or were not neccesarily translated on to the screen, returned to Photoplay in 1933 to write the article "Now Its $12,500 a week", the title coming from Garbo's apparently wondering if there would be an early retirement she would enter and if he current salary would compensate for her being neglected, "However that may be, Garbo is now busy with her friend, Mrs. Berthold Viertel, wife of the German motion picture director, hunting a house and otherwise getting established. Metro is humming with excitement- and these matters stand untill the next development." Garbo had returned from Sweden and "She didn't know whether she'd care to make pictures next year." To begin 1934, in Hollywood Reporter it was reported that, "M.G.M has quietly shelved The Paradine Case by Robert Hichens. Story was wrangled over as a possible vehicle for Greta Garbo, but no go, owing to a character problem that could not be cracked, to which it within months added, "M.G.M. cannot make up its mind as to the cast decisions for Indo-China, originally scheduling it under Bernie Hyman's wing for Constance Bennet, but now giving it serious consideration as possible Greta Garbo vehicle."

New Movie Magazine anticipated the release of Queen Christina in Advanced News of Films in the making, "The Garbo set, as usual, was closed to all but the people actually working on it...Miss Garbo's schedule during production never varies a minute. You could set your watch by the entrance of her limousine through the front gates each morning at seven forty five. She spends an hour studying her lines and being made up. At nine o'clock on the dot she arrives on the set. At nine thirty, the first scene rehearsed or made, she disappeares into her portable dressing room and has fruit juice and tea, her breakfast" New Movie went on to outline the rest of her predictable day of shooting. During 1934, Photoplay succinctly encapsulated the onscreen Greta Garbo, "in Queen Christina, Greta Garbo and John Gilbert have a rendezvous in an inn. To Christina, all the inanimate things in their chummy room become very dear, due to their association with her romance. One sequence consists of Garbo hovering about the room, caressing various objects while Gilbert watches silently. She takes her time too." The caption of a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull published in Photoplay during 1934 read, "Greta Garbo as Queen Christina is impressively beautiful." In Three Weeks with Garbo, published in 1936, Leon Surmelian began with, "After twelve years of entertaining the public as the screen's No 1 glamour gal, my and your weakness, the incomparable Garbo remains the same elusive shadow, the same lovely enigma to the world that worships her at her feet...It was during the filming of the memorable Queen Chistina when Katerine Hepburn tried to crash Garbo's stage as an extra and failed where I succeeded. And now I will give you an intimate closeup of the Swedish Sphinx out of my won personal observations." Greta Garbo It reviewed the film, "The magnificient Greta, after an abscence of over a year, makes a glorious reappearance on the screen...on the whole, Rouben Mammoulian's direction is admirable; S.J. Behrman's dialouge is scintillating; settings and costumes are rich." Tucked away in a secluded corner of a 1933-4 issue of Cinema Quarterly is a review of Queen Christina written by Paul Rotha. "I do not find it in me to write about this picture, but I must write instead about Garbo, who contrives, though Heaven knows how, to surpass all the badness they thrust upon her...Here a lithe figure sheathed in men's breeches and stamping boots, she strides into our prescence and again reveals her dynamic personal magneticism. She is a woman, it seems, destined to contrive in a world that spells misunderstanding...Queen Christina perhaps comes nearest; with its great close-ups and sublime fading shot. But the showman tricks of Mamoulian and the falseness of the environment conspire against her." Cinema Quarterly was also a magazine that published The Film Critic of Today and Tommorow, by Rudolph Arnheim, who wrote, "In an essay....Mamoulian was blamed for having allowed himself to be influenced by the "innocent vanity" of Greta Garbo. Almost simultaneously there appeared in a German newspaper, an interview in which Greta Garbo said, "You ask whether I am satisfied with the Christina film? Not at all. How could you think that? If I had any say in the matter, it would be quite different. But what one would like oneself is never realized. I shall never act the part of which I have dreamed." After continuing to write that he and his readers were not to be concerned "with a defence of Greta Garbo", Arnheim notes a creative dichotomy between actor and director, much like the one posited by silent film historians that saw the two reel film evolve into the eight reel during the time of Bitzer and Griffith where the scenario and photoplay emerged and developed. Hollywood magazine during 1934 published an article titled, "Garbo Finds Love" without revealing the name of its author, the headline reading, "The budding and blossoming of Garbo's romance with Mammoulian, as seen through the eyes of an actress who worked with her in Queen Christina, but for obvious reasons must remain anonymous." It began, "As one of those who worked with Garbo in Queen Christina, I saw her romance with Rouben Mammoulian bud and grow and flower into love. And I, like the rest of Hollywood, believe they will soon marry." The cover Movie Classic magazine hosted the title, "Will Garbo marry her Director". Between the covers, underneath an oval photograph of Greta Garbo as Queen Christina, read the caption,"Portrait by Bull". It stated, "Greta Garbo and John Gilbert were only a few feet away from the city clerk and matrimony when she turned away, shaking her head. 'I have changed my mind.', she said. But now apparently the man for whom she has waited has now appeared. Rouben Mammoulian, the famous director of stage and screen, is that man." Journalist Dorothy Manners for New Movie Magazine that year asked, "Will Garbo Marry Mamoulian during an article in which she quoted the director, "Mamoulian only shrugs, 'The story that Miss Garbo and I plan to be married is absurd.'" Mamoulian, Greta Garbo and Salka Viertel had been dining together that evening. Silver Screen during 1934 observed, "The Garbo Mammoulian romance seems to develop steadily. The two have been quietly lunching at the Ambassador and dining at the Russian Eagle quite often lately." It was nestled on a page titled More Gossip-Whispers are Little Daggers. John Gilbert would make only one film after having been reunited with Greta Garbo in Queen Christina, The Captain Hates the Sea (1934). Bainbridge writes, "It was reported, erroneously, that when Garbo was informed of his death she said, 'What is that to me?' Actually she was vacationing in Stockholm when Gilbert died [1936] and was given the news by a Swedish reporter in the foyer of the Royal Dramatic Theater during an intermission. She refused to make any comment; shortly afterward she left the theater." There is one account, if not more, that the role in Queen Christina was first going to be offered to Lord Olivier and was given to John Gilbert on Greta Garbo's insistence. Greta Garbo Hal E. Wood contributed Garbo Frowns Again to Hollywood in 1934, "Greta Garbo is anything but pleased over the action of Metro in signing assigning Victor Fleming to direct her in the Painted Veil. In fasct there are rumblings to the effect that the Swede is dusting off." The magazine claimed that Garbo wanted to leave for Sweden due to her lack of director approval and that she favored making a second film with Mammoulian, to which it appended, "Greta's lonely again" in its News Slueth section, "It's all over between garbo and Rouben mammoulian if you take the word of the chatters...Incidently, the star has rescinded her demand that Mammoulian, who directed her in Queen Christina be named her guide through The Painted veil and has approved Richard Boleslavsly as her megaphonist" Milton Brown photographed Greta Garbo on the set of The Painted Veil for The New Movie Magazine during 1934. It pointed out, "Notice the raised boards Garbo walks on to increse her height." A second photograph taken on the set of The Painted Veil by Milton Brown accompanying Garbo Starts Her New Picture took up more than three fourths of two pages in Photoplay, "Take 1- which means the first scene in Greta's new Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film, The Painted Veil. The first call of 'Camera' for a Garbo picture is always a thrilling second. This time it stirred more excitement than ever before...All the sets for The Painted Veil were constructed on stilts, as this photograph reveals. The set has a ceiling, which is unusual from a scenic angle." Hollywood magazine during 1935 printed the article "Garbo's Cameraman Talks At Last, where William Daniels was quoted as having said, "She has been pictured as gloomy, aloof, frightened, imperious and a hundred other things as unlike her real self as are midnight and noon. The real Greta Garbo is the most sensible woman I have ever known. The keynotes of her character are intelligence, simplicity and absolute sincerity....Garbo likes to look through the camera to see what the scene is going to look like, but she does n't thrust her opinions on any of her fellow workers....She almost never troubles to look at the 'rushes' of her films, nor even at the first rough assembly of the picture. Instead she waits for the previews." In the article there is a photo caption reading, "Camerman Daniels wants to photograph Garbo in color. He believes her complexion is the loveliest he has ever filmed." William Daniels is quoted by journalist William Stoll as having related, "When it came time to film retakes on The Painted Veil, Director Boleslawski had been called away to another studio, so W.S. Van Dyke took charge. He is probably the breeziest, quickest shooting director in the business, he literally cuts and edits his pictures as he shoots them. Our first retake was a scene of Miss Garbo coming down a long flight of stairs. we made the shot- once. Van Dyke said to me, 'Okay-wrap it up! Now, let's move over here!' Miss Garbo's face was a study; then she slowly smiled and said,'Well, I suppose there is only one way to walk down stairs.'" Memory would be insufficient to serve in regard to the often related story about Greta Garbo's slippers as to whether it originated with Mauritz Stiller or William Daniels, but as Hollywood folklore, John Bainbridge whispers that it was Daniels, "Whenever possible, she wore an old pair of carpet slippers on the set for the sake of comfort. before a scene was shot she always asked Daniels, 'Is the feet in?'. If they were out of camera range, she kept the slippers on, regardless of what fabulous Adrain creations she was wearing." Perhaps, the wearing of slippers had prompted her remark to Daniels about how an actress should descend a staircase. Greta Garbo departed from her usual portrait photographers for four photos "posed exclusively for Photoplay", her reconfirming herself as a fashion model as the two page layout "Garbo's first fashion sitting in five years" described in detail three gowns that Adrian had designed for the film The Painted Veil. The first of which was a gray silk teagown, with pleated organiza jabot and deep dolman type sleeves. The second article photograph was described as "the sports type of thing Garbo loves- nonchalance in the swagger lines of a white flannel coat" whereas the third included "a new version of the famous Garbo pillbox hat," and a corded felt with jade ornament. Richard Corliss writes, "Boleslawski's visual effects here are adept without being ostentatious- as when Garbo looks distractedly into a window, and the reflection shows a much more disturbed face." Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Photoplay during 1935 almost couldn't have seemed more inaccurate, it having printed, "Garbo from all indications to make Hollywood her home on her return. She's going to bring her two brothers with her." Silver Screen toward the end of 1935 reported, "From Stockholm comes news that Garbo is busy these days finishing up a scenario based on the life of a saint. Her fondest dream has been to star in a picture with a religious theme, and the studio offering her none, she has written her own script." In regard to the mystery of Greta Garbo, Stockholm reported in Motion Picture Daily during early March of 1936, "Greta Garbo will leave here tommorow aboard the Drottingholm." More than two weeks later, in the same periodical, Gottenburg reported, "Greta Garbo is expected to sail tommorrow for the United States on the Gripsholm." The periodical soon amended, "Greta Garbo, who arrived Sunday on the Gripsholm from Sweden is shifted to leave for Hollywood this afternoon." but with very little explanation spotted Greta Garbo in Chicago, "Greta Garbo and Berthrold Viertol had an exciting time here between the arrival of the Twentieth Century and The Chief. They went to the Field Museum and looked over the mummies." Photoplay provided a brief review of Greta Garbo in Anna Karenina during 1936, "The persuasive genius of Greta Garbo raises the rather weak picture into the class of art. Fredrick March is unconvincing as the lover for whom Greta sacrifices everything." It later rewrote its review, "This picture is really a weak and dull picture. yet the persuasive genius of Garbo raises it into the class of art. What should be moving seems dated, though the production is magnificient...But Frederick March seems stuffy." Film Daily reviewed the film not unsimilarily, "Greta Garbo in a sympathetic role that fits her admirably...with a fine appreciation of the poignant drama with all its subtle evaluations....Garbo has never appeared more human and appealing." Motion Picture Daily's review of the film included the assessment, "The Tolstoi novel of Russia, containing as it does dramatic elements repeated time without end in many and far less distinguished pictures, make a fitting vehicle for the screen's leading tragedienne...Anna Karenina, slightly ponderous perhaps from the view of story, is nevertheless, a thoroughly worthwhile motion picture directed by Clarence Brown with pronounced ability." Picture Play magazine looked at the film as a remake, "So old that it served Garbo before she broke her silence and lapses into her present perfect speech. Then it was called Love. The new version is more interesting because it is more painstakingly done, speech giving it new refinements and subtleties. meticulous costumes and seetings complete a marvelous reproduction of St Petersburg society." Motion Picture Daily early in the year reported, "Basil Rathbone intends to leave for Hollywood in six weeks. He has turned