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1812 1815 1860 1874 1855 1887 1831 1888

1812 1815 1860 1874 1855 1887 1831 1888


1812
2/7 - The strongest in a series of earthquakes strikes New Madrid, Missouri.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...-1812.php earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...st_us.php
March 26 – An earthquake destroys Caracas, Venezuela.
April 20 – George Clinton died, 4th Vice President of the United States
April 30 – Louisiana is admitted as the 18th U.S. state.
June 4 – Following Louisiana's admittance as a U.S. state, the territory by that name is renamed the Missouri Territory.
6/9 - Johann Galle born
November 5 – James Madison defeats DeWitt Clinton in the U.S. presidential election.



1815
March 5 – Franz Mesmer died, German developer of animal magnetism
March 20 – Napoleon enters Paris after escaping from Elba with a regular army of 140,000 and a volunteer force of around 200,000 beginning his "Hundred Days" rule.
4/10 - Mount Tambora VEI 7 eruption. the largest eruption in recorded history.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php
www.earlham.edu/~ethribe/web/tambora.htm
July 17 – In France, Napoleon surrenders at Rochefort to British forces.
August 5 – Edward John Eyre born, explorer of Australia
September 23 – The Great September Gale of 1815 is the first hurricane to strike New England in 180 years.
October 3 – The Chassigny Mars meteorite falls in Chassigny, Haute-Marne, France.
curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/...ssig.pdf
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chas...meteorite)
11/2 - George Boole born, British mathematician. As the inventor of Boolean algebra, which is the basis of all modern computer arithmetic, Boole is regarded in hindsight as one of the founders of the field of computer science
December 29 – Saartjie Baartman, aka 'Hottentot Venus', died in Paris, France; sideshow performer



1860
January 10 – The Pemberton Mill collapses in Lawrence, Massachusetts, killing 145 workers.
January 25 – Charles Curtis born, Vice President of the United States
April 9 – French typesetter Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville sings the French folk song "Au Clair de la Lune" to his phonautograph; producing the world's earliest known sound recording (however, it is not rediscovered until2008).
May 1 – A Chondrite type meteorite falls to earth in Muskingum County, Ohio near the town of New Concord.
www.mail-archive.com/meteori...838.html
books.google.com/books
www1.newark.ohio-state.edu/Prof...e.htm halfway on page
May 28 – One of the worst storms ever experienced in the region hits the east coast of England, sinking more than 100 ships and killing at least 40 people. Among those rescued at sea is the crew of the brig Hannah
June 24 – St. Thomas Infirmary, the first nursing school based on the ideas of Florence Nightingale, is opened in England.
7/19 - Lizzie Borden born, Fall River
web.archive.org/web/200802...endates.htm
August 13 – Annie Oakley born
9/28 - Paul Villard born; discovered gamma rays
11/6 - Abraham Lincoln elected



1874
February 9 – Amy Lowell born, American poet (d. 1925)
February 15 – Sir Ernest Shackleton born, Irish explorer
March 8 – Millard Fillmore died
March 24 – Harry Houdini born
March 26 – Robert Frost born, American poet
March 29 – Lou Henry Hoover born, First Lady of the United States
April 25 – Guglielmo Marconi born
June 21 – Anders Jonas Ångström died
August 6 – Charles Fort born, Dutch-American writer and researcher into anomalous phenomena
August 10 – President Herbert Hoover born
October 8 – Nance O'Neil born, stage & film actress, friend of Lizzie Borden
12/9 - transit of Venus observed by Henry Draper and by James Watson in China



1855
Bleeding Kansas ongoing
January 6 – Giacomo Beltrami died, Italian explorer of North America
1/23 - The region of Wairarapa, New Zealand is hit by the strongest earthquake ever recorded in New Zealand (Magnitude 8.1 on the Richter Scale); there are 5 deaths.
February 23 – Carl Friedrich Gauss died, German mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. After it had disappeared in the Sun, Gauss predicted a position for Ceres in December 1801—just about a year after its first sighting—and this turned out to be accurate within a half-degree when it was rediscovered by Franz Xaver von Zach on 31 December in Gotha, and one day later by Heinrich Olbers in Bremen.
3/13 - Percival Lowell born, Boston
www.boston.com/bostonglob...ented_mars/
May 10 – Sri Yukteswar Giri born, Author of The Holy Science
May 23 – Charles Robert Malden died, English explorer, discoverer of Malden Island
November 17 – David Livingstone becomes the first European to see Victoria Falls in what is now present-day Zambia–Zimbabwe.

1887
Jacob Snyder discovered the Mount Joy Meteorite in Pennsylvania, the largest US meteorite East of the Mississippi River
books.google.com/books

1831
6/1 - James Clark Ross discovered the North Magnetic Pole.
www.google.com/search
6/13 - James Clerk Maxwell born, Scottish physicist. His most prominent achievement was formulating classical electromagnetic theory.
7/4 - President James Monroe died
August 21 – USA: Nat Turner's slave rebellion breaks out in Southampton County, Virginia.
10/14 - Jean-Louis Pons died, French astronomer
November 19 – President James A. Garfield born
December 27 – Charles Darwin embarks on his historic journey aboard the HMS Beagle.


1888
1/3 – The 91-centimeter telescope is first used at Lick Observatory.
www.aip.org/history/cosm...efractors.htm mentions Alvan Clark
2/7 - Discovery photograph of Horsehead Nebula shot
tdc-www.harvard.edu/plates/gallery/ hea-www.harvard.edu/DASCH/gallery.php
March 11 – The "Great Blizzard of '88" begins along the eastern seaboard of the United States, shutting down commerce and killing more than 400.
5/13 - Inge Lehmann born, Danish seismologist. Argued that the Earth's core is not one single molten sphere, but that an inner core exists which has physical properties that are different from those of the outer core. She was the first to interpret P wave arrivals which inexplicably appeared in the P wave shadow of the Earth's core as reflexions at an inner core. This interpretation was adopted within two to three years by other leading seismologists of the time, such as Beno Gutenberg, Charles Richter, and Harold Jeffreys. Lehmann moved to the USA for several years and collaborated with Maurice Ewing and Frank Press on investigations of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. During this work, she discovered another seismic discontinuity, which lies at depths between 190 and 250 km and is usually referred to as "Lehmann discontinuity" in honor of its discoverer.
8/13 - John Logie Baird born, Scottish inventor
September 6 – Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. born
October 6 – Roland Garros born
11/6 - Benjamin Harrison elected president
November 7 – Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman born, Indian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
December 3 – Carl Zeiss died, Optician and founder of company now known as Carl Zeiss AG
December 23 – During a bout of mental illness, Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh infamously cuts off the lower part of his own left ear.






APRIL


4/1 ast usgs 2010
1578: Physician William Harvey, who discovered the function of the heart as a pump, is born
1940 – Wangari Maathai born, Kenyan environmentalist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
1946 – Aleutian Island earthquake: A 8.1 magnitude earthquake near the Aleutian Islands creates a tsunami that strikes the Hawaiian Islands killing 159, mostly in Hilo. earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1949 – The 26 counties of the Irish Free State become the Republic of Ireland.
1960: The 1st weather observation satellite, Tiros I, was launched & made the 1st television picture from space
1997 - Comet Hale-Bopp perihelion
2011 - Asteroid 2011 GM44, a PHA (Potentially Hazardous Asteroid), close approach to Earth. Robert McNaught discovered 2011 GM44 4 days later on 4/5/11.
remanzacco.blogspot.com/2011/0...44.html

4/2
1845: The first surviving daguerrotype photograph of the sun was taken by Louis Fizeau and Lion Foucault.
1998 - the TRACE telescope was launched.



4/3 ast ire usgs
1862 - James Clark Ross, discoverer of the North Magnetic Pole, died.
1865 – American Civil War: Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America.
1867 - Wilhelm Tempel discovered Comet Tempel 1, which reached perihelion in 2011 on the anniversaries of Comet McNaught's perihelion and the Haitian earthquake.
1868 (4/2 Hawaii time) - mag 7.9 earthquake, 77 dead from tsunami and landslide
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...04_03.php
1888 – The first of eleven unsolved brutal murders of women committed in or near the impoverished Whitechapel district in the East End of London, occurs.
1955 – The American Civil Liberties Union announces it will defend Allen Ginsberg's book Howl against obscenity charges.
1956 – Hudsonville-Standale Tornado: The western half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan is struck by a deadly F5 tornado.
1958 - Alec Baldwin born; wore bear rug in The Edge
1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech.
1974 – The Super Outbreak occurs, the biggest tornado outbreak in recorded history. The death toll is 315, with nearly 5,500 injured.
1980 - Edward Bullard died; geophysicist, known for “dynamo” theory of geomagnetism, according to which the Earth’s magnetic field results from convective movements of molten material within the Earth’s core. Made the first satisfactory measurements of geothermal heat-flow through the oceanic crust. Bullard was also one of the first to develop the theory of continental drift. Studying the rifted continental borders along the two sides of the Atlantic Ocean, he tested their precise fitting by computer-based analyses and presented his results to the Royal Society of London: The fit was perfect. Instead of using the shorelines, like other geophysicists had done, he used a depth of 2000 meters (6560 ft) below sea level. This depth corresponds to about halfway between the shoreline and the ocean basins and represents the true edge of the continents. By doing this he discovered a near perfect fit among the continents put together. With this discovery he helped further the idea of a supercontinent that earlier geophysicist, Alfred Wegener, had suggested calling Pangaea.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
www.ldeo.columbia.edu/vetlese...bio.html
2000 - Terence
2011 - Saturn at opposition
www.steamboatpilot.com/news/2...vents-/



4/4 ast
1809 - US astronomer Benjamin Peirce, who computed the general perturbations of the planets Uranus & Neptune, is born
1818 – The United States Congress adopts the flag of the United States with 13 red and white stripes and one star for each state (then 20).
1841 – William Henry Harrison dies of pneumonia becoming the first President of the United States to die in office and the one with the shortest term served.
1850 – Los Angeles, California is incorporated as a city.
1853 – Tad Lincoln born, son of U.S. president Abraham Lincoln
1905 – In India, the 1905 Kangra earthquake hits the Kangra valley, kills 20,000, and destroys most buildings in Kangra, Mcleodganj and Dharamshala.
1966 – Mike Starr born, guitarist (Alice In Chains)
1968 - MLK murdered
Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 6
1969 – Dr. Denton Cooley implants the first temporary artificial heart.
1973 – The World Trade Center in New York is officially dedicated.
David Blaine born
1975 – Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque, New Mexico
1977 – Stephen Mulhern born, British magician
2004 - Casey Sheehan killed in Iraq
2010 - earthquake, 7.2, north mexico/s. california (easter sunday)
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...14607652/



4/5 ast ire usgs
1622 - Vincenzo Viviani born, Florence, Italy; From 1655 to 1656, Viviani edited the first edition of Galileo's collected works.
1676 – John Winthrop, the Younger died
1722 – The Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen discovers Easter Island.
1804 – High Possil Meteorite: The first recorded meteorite in Scotland falls in Possil.
www.hmag.gla.ac.uk/John/Hun...hposs.htm
1915 - Jess Willard beat Jack Johnson to become world heavyweight champ.
1916 – Gregory Peck born
1936 – Tupelo-Gainesville tornado outbreak: An F5 tornado kills 233 in Tupelo, Mississippi.
John Kelly born, Belfast; Irish republican politician; founder member and a leader of the Provisional Irish Republican Army in the early 1970s.
1952 – Mitch Pileggi born *He's on "Criminal Minds" right now.
1982 - Kelly Pavlik born; WBC and WBO Middleweight champion
1994 - Kurt Cobain died
1999 - Paul David died, French-Canadian cardiologist, founder of the Montreal Heart Institute, and Senator. It was under his direction that the first heart transplant ever performed in Canada was carried out at the Institute, in 1968.



4/6 ast
1748: Excavations began at Pompeii
1852 - Edward Sabine announced that the 11 yr sunspot cycle was "absolutely identical" with the geomagnetic cycle. Sabine studied the Earth's magnetic field, and discovered that irregular variations of the sunspots and Earth's magnetism fluctuate together (1852) which was the first link known between the Sun and the Earth other than the sun's radiation and its gravity.
docs.google.com/viewer page 3
1890 - Andre Danjon born; astronomer; Danjon devised a method to measure "Earthshine" on the Moon; Danjon Luminosity Scale.
1928: Geneticist & biophysicist James Watson, who co-discovered the molecular structure of DNA, is born
1931 - Baba Ram Dass (Richard Alpert) born, Newton, MA. Alpert flew his private plane to Cuernavaca, Mexico, where Leary first introduced him to teonanácatl, the Magic Mushrooms of Mexico. By the time Alpert made it back to America, Leary had already consulted with Aldous Huxley, who was visiting at M.I.T., and through Huxley and a number of graduate students they were able to get in touch with Sandoz, which had produced a synthetic component of ergot rye fungus called LSD. Alpert and Leary brought a test batch of both substances back to Harvard, where they conducted the Harvard Psilocybin Project and experimented with LSD relatively privately.
1963 - Otto Struve died, Berkeley, CA; Ukrainian-Russian-American astronomer; one of the few eminent astronomers in the pre-Space Age era to publicly express a belief that extraterrestrial intelligence was abundant, and so was an early advocate of the search for extraterrestrial life.
1973: Pioneer 11 was launched to Jupiter & Saturn.
1978 - The Rhythm Devils became a standard fixture at all Dead shows.
2003 – Babatunde Olatunji died, Nigerian drummer
2004 - Niki Sullivan died; guitarist in The Crickets, Buddy Holly's backup band. Born in South Gate, Los Angeles Co., CA
2007 - Detection of SN 2007bi
www.newscientist.com/article...ast.html
www.weizmann.ac.il/home/gal...-008.html
jcconwell.wordpress.com/2009/1...2007bi/
esciencenews.com/articles/...t.its.kind
2009 - A 6.3 magnitude earthquake strikes near L'Aquila, Italy, killing 307.
2010 - Asteroid 824 Anastasia occultation of Zeta Ophiuchi, the third brightest star in the constellation of Ophiuchus. Viewable is Western North America. "The projected path of this stellar eclipse — just 25 miles wide — will run from Southern California (encompassing a part of the Los Angeles metro area)… where the Easter earthquake hit on Sunday!!!!!!! astroguyz.com/2010/04/05/...bright-star/
wise.ssl.berkeley.edu/gallery...chi.html
mag. 7.7 earthquake, Sumatra; dozens injured
earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...stats.php
Huntington Beach, CA ufo www.realufos.net/2010/04/f...ic-hb.html
2011 - Tennessee Fireball: meteor brighter than the crescent Moon
lunarmeteoritehunters.blogspot.com/2011/04/dyersburg-tennessee-meteor-6apr2011.html
www.spacedaily.com/reports/..._999.html



4/7
1906: An eruption of Mt Vesuvius reached its climax with lava fountains, earthquakes & an eruptive column of ash & gas
1911: Kenneth Oakley, who developed a method to date fossils bones by measuring their fluoride levels, is born
1959: The 1st atomic generated electricity was produced at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
2010 (local time) - Earthquake, 7.7, Sumatra earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Natur...ew.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...2010utc5/



4/8 ast usgs 2010 2011
1732 - American astronomer, instrument maker & inventor David Rittenhouse is born. Observed June 3, 1769 transit of Venus
1779 - Physicist Johann Schweigger, who invented the galvanometer, a device to measure the strength of an electric current, is born
1820 – The Venus de Milo is discovered on the Aegean island of Melos.
1886 – William Ewart Gladstone introduces the first Irish Home Rule Bill into the British House of Commons.
1902 – Andrew Irvine born, British mountaineer (d. 1924)
1906 – Auguste Deter, the first person to be diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, dies.
1911 - Biochemist Melvin Calvin, who elucidated the mechanism by which carbon dioxide is incorporated into green plants, is born
Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovers superconductivity.
1913 – The 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution, requiring direct election of Senators, becomes law.
1918 – Betty Ford born, Former First Lady of the United States
1947 - The largest sunspot group ever recorded, estimated at 7 billion sq miles, was observed on the Sun's southern hemisphere
www.eaas.co.uk/cms/index.php
scienceray.com/astronomy/...ut-the-sun/
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/194....59..109H CONTRADICTS THIS 1947 CLAIM
sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/classr...SUNSPOT
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/194....59..145. CALLS IT "SECOND LARGEST GROUP" AND DOESN'T PROVIDE EXACT DATE
1957 - perihelion of Comet Arend-Roland
1959 – A team of computer manufacturers, users, and university people led by Grace Hopper meets to discuss the creation of a newprogramming language that would be called COBOL.
1973 – Pablo Picasso died
1990 – Ryan White died, American AIDS activist (b. 1971)
2010 - Near-Earth asteroid, 2010 GA6, flew by Earth within lunar orbit. It was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey. Santa Catalina is where Jodie Nelson departed on her Paddlesurf for Cancer on 3/28.
2011 - 4/8+9 - new Aten asteroid officially designated 2011 GP59 discovered. Close approach to Earth on 4/15/11.
www.universetoday.com/84830/a...g-alert/
remanzacco.blogspot.com/2011/0...ch.html
britastro.org/blog/



4/9
1895: Astronomer James Keeler's spectrogram proved that the rings of Saturn are composed of meteoric particles.



4/10 ast usgs 2010
1606 – The Charter of the Virginia Company of London is established by royal charter by James I of Englandwith the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.
1815 - Mount Tambora VEI 7 eruption. the largest eruption in recorded history.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php
www.earlham.edu/~ethribe/web/tambora.htm
1865 – American Civil War: A day after his surrender to Union forces, Confederate General Robert E. Lee addresses his troops for the last time.
1867 – George William Russell born, Irish nationalist
1874 – The first Arbor Day is celebrated in Nebraska.
1880 - Johann Palisa discovered asteroid 216 Kleopatra
1887 – On Easter Sunday, Pope……..
1912 – The Titanic leaves port in Southampton, England for her first and only voyage.
1919 – Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead by government forces in Morelos.
1941 – World War II: The Axis Powers in Europe establish the Independent State of Croatia from occupied Yugoslavia with Ante Pavelić's Ustaše fascist insurgents in power.
1959 – Davy Carton born, Irish musician (Saw Doctors)
1962 – mag. 4.2 quake, Vermont. The largest historical earthquake in Vermont. Slight damage at Montpelier. Also felt in Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Massachusetts. earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
Stuart Sutcliffe died, English musician (The Beatles)
1971 – Ping Pong Diplomacy: In an attempt to thaw relations with the United States, the People's Republic of China hosts the U.S. table tennis team for a weeklong visit.
1972 – mag. 7.1 quake, Fars Province of southern Iran killing over 5,000
20 days after he is kidnapped in Buenos Aires, Oberdan Sallustro is executed by communist guerrillas.
Ed Byrne born, Irish stand up comedian and actor
1979 – Red River Valley Tornado Outbreak: A tornado lands in Wichita Falls, Texas killing 42 people.
1991 – A rare tropical storm develops in the South Atlantic Ocean near Angola; the first to be documented by satellites.
2010 – A pulsar system known as Swift J1749.4-2807 -- J1749 for short -- erupted with an X-ray outburst. The pulsar is a rapidly spinning neutron star -- the crushed core of a massive star that long ago exploded as a supernova. Neutron stars pack more than the sun's mass into a ball nearly 60,000 times smaller. With estimated sizes between 10 and 15 miles across, a neutron star would just span across Manhattan.
www.nasa.gov/topics/univ...-pulsar.html
www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblo...t=Twitter
Polish Air Force Tu-154M crashes near Smolensk, Russia, killing all 96 people on board including President Lech Kaczyński.



4/11
1862 - American astronomer William Wallace Campbell born. Specialized in spectroscopy.
1875 - Astronomer Heinrich Schwabe died. Remembered for his work on sunspots.
1901 - American Astronomer Donald Menzel born. Early UFO skeptic.
1905 - Albert Einstein published his Special Theory of Relativity in Annalen der Physik
library.tc.columbia.edu/news.php
1908: Japanese electronics pioneer Masaru Ibuka, who co-founded Sony Corporation, is born
1986: Halley's Comet made its closest approach to Earth this trip (39 million mi) on its outbound journey
2011 - "Welcome back Uranus to the north celestial hemisphere - first time this has happened since 1969 August 2, almost 42 years ago!" Richard Miles on Twitter 4/11/11. twitter.com/#!/astromiles



4/12
1852: Mathematician Ferdinand von Lindemann, who was the 1st to prove that Pi is transcendental, is born
1853: James Mackenzie, who was 1st to make simultaneous records of arterial & venous pulses to evaluate heart condition, is born
1924: Physician Peter Safer, whose mouth-to-mouth resuscitation procedure is credited with saving countless lives, is born
1961: Yuri Gagarin became the 1st man to orbit the Earth in his spacecraft, Vostok 1




4/13 ast usgs 2010
1625: The word "microscope" was coined as a suggested term in a letter written by Johannes Faber of Bamberg, Germany
1728 Astronomer Paolo Frisi born. Worked on problems of gravitation and the motion of the Moon.
1742 – George Frideric Handel's oratorio Messiah makes its world-premiere in Dublin, Ireland.
1743 - Thomas Jefferson born
1808 – Antonio Meucci born, Italian inventor telephone
1850 British astronomer Arthur Matthew Weld Downing born. Established astronomical constants.
1888: John Hammond Jr, whose development of radio remote control served as the basis for modern missile guidance systems, is born
1905 - largest historic earthquake in Iowa
Bruno Benedetto Rossi born; At MIT he initiated rocket experiments that pioneered the direct measurements of the interplanetary plasma. As a consultant to American Science and Engineering, Inc. he initiated the rocket experiments that discovered the first extra-solar source of X-rays, Scorpius X-1.
1909: Mathematician Stanislaw Ulam, who played a major role in the development of the hydrogen bomb at Los Alamos, is born
1920 – Liam Cosgrave born, fifth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland
1941 – Annie Jump Cannon died, American astronomer. With Edward C. Pickering, she is credited with the creation of the Harvard Classification Scheme, which was the first serious attempt to organize and classify stars based on their temperatures.
1970 – An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, putting the crew in great danger and causing major damage to the spacecraft while en route to the Moon.
1972 – Aaron Lewis born, American singer (Staind)
2008 - John Archibald Wheeler died; "black hole" & "wormhole"
2010 - mag. 6.9 quake, China - 2,700 dead
2029 - asteroid 99942 Apophis is expected to pass a mere 18,600 miles (30,000 km.) above Earth's surface.
www.space.com/spacewatch/...ght_sky.html



4/14 ast usgs
Kristina Rose born; porn star *verified by her on her Twitter
1611 Prince Federico Cesi introduced Galileo's telescope at a banquet in Rome. The word "telescope" was first used in public by Prince Federico Cesi
1629 - b. Christiaan Huygens, founded wave theory of light, discovered shape of Saturn's rings & its first moon. His work included early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, the invention of the pendulum clock and other investigations in timekeeping, and studies of both optics and the centrifugal force. www.nasa.gov/worldbook/h...rldbook.html
1792 - Maximilian Hell died, Hungarian astronomer. Hell became the director of the Vienna Observatory in 1756. He and his assistant János Sajnovics went to Vardø in the far north of Norway (then part of Denmark) to observe the June 3/4, 1769 transit of Venus. Besides astronomy, Hell also had an interest in magnet therapy (the alleged healing power of magnets), although it was Franz Anton Mesmer who went further with this and received most of the credit.
1828 – Noah Webster copyrights the first edition of his dictionary.
1846 – The Donner Party of pioneers departs Springfield, Illinois, for California, on what will become a year-long journey of hardship,cannibalism, and survival.
1857: British physiologist & neurosurgeon Sir Victor Horsley, who was 1st to remove a spinal tumor, is born
1865 – U.S. President Abraham Lincoln is assassinated in Ford's Theatre by John Wilkes Booth.
U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell.
1866 - Anne Sullivan Macy born, Feeding Hills, MA
1868 - Annie Maunder born; assisted E. Walter Maunder at Greenwich Observatory, and she spent much time photographing the Sun and tracking the movements of sunspots. Accompanied Walter on solar eclipse expeditions. She published "The Heavens and their Story" in 1910, with he husband as the co-author. (She was credited by her husband as the primary author.) In 1916 she became the first woman elected to the Royal Astronomical Society. The investigations of the couple demonstrated a correlation between the variation in sunspot numbers and the climate of the Earth, leading to the discovery that the decrease period of solar activity during the Maunder Minimum likely resulted in the "little ice age".
1881 - The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight is fought in El Paso, West Texas.
1912 – The British passenger liner RMS Titanic hits an iceberg in the North Atlantic at 11:40pm. The ship sinks the following morning with the loss of 1,517 lives.
1917 – Ludovich Lazarus Zamenhof died, Polish creator of Esperanto
1927 – Chemist Alan MacDiarmid, who shared the 2000 Nobel Prize for the discovery & development of conductive polymers, is born
The first Volvo car premieres in Gothenburg, Sweden. *"Robyn will perform at the P3 Guld Gala in Gothenburg, Sweden on Jan 22! She is nominated in FOUR categories.." (via her fb page). _____ 69 - Swedish singer "Goth and Roll"
1930 – René Desmaison born, French mountaineer. Desmaison had climbed more than 1,000 mountains since the 1950s. He made the first ascent of 114 previously unclimbed mountains throughout the Andes, Alps and Himalayas. He is also credited with creating several new winter routes in the Alps
1932: The atom was split by a proton beam on a lithium target by 2 physicists, Sir John Douglas Cockcroft & Ernest Walton
1935 – "Black Sunday Storm", the worst dust storm of the U.S. Dust Bowl.
1936 – Kenneth Mars born, American actor Best known for his roles in several Mel Brooks films
1939 – The Grapes of Wrath, by American author John Steinbeck is first published by the Viking Press.
1949 - John Shea, actor, born in North Conway, New Hampshire and raised in Springfield, Massachusetts. *Tara's mushroom tea at Tex's / my tea at Heath's in North Conway or Conway.
1950 – Sri Ramana Maharshi died, Indian philosopher
1956 – In Chicago, Illinois, videotape is first demonstrated.
1958 – The Soviet satellite Sputnik 2 falls from orbit after a mission duration of 162 days.
1959 - Discoverer 2 becomes the first spacecraft to return a re-entry capsule from Earth orbit.
1968 - Anthony Michael Hall born, West Roxbury, MA
1969 – At the U.S. Academy Awards there is a tie for the Academy Award for Best Actress between Katharine Hepburn and Barbra Streisand.
1970 - Apollo 13 reaches altitude of 400,172 km, furthest distance humans have ever been from Earth.
1975 – Günther Dyhrenfurth died, Swiss mountaineer, geologist and Himalayan explorer. He led the International Himalaya Expedition (IHE) 1930 to Kangchenjunga, and another one, IHE 1934, to the Baltoro-region in the Karakorams, especially to explore the Gasherbrum-Group. This expedition made the first ascent of Sia Kangri and some of its sub-peaks and provided detailed information about the accessibility of the 8000ers Gasherbrum I and II. The first ascent of Gasherbrum I in 1958 was accomplished via the route proposed by Dyhrenfurth following the so-called IHE-spur and the SE-ridge.
Anderson Silva born, Brazilian mixed martial artist
1977 – Chandra Levy born, American intern (d. 2001)
1978 – 1978 Tbilisi Demonstrations: Thousands of Georgians demonstrate against Soviet attempts to change the constitutional status of the Georgian language.
1981 – STS-1 – The first operational space shuttle, Columbia (OV-102) completes its first test flight.
1986 – 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) hailstones fall on the Gopalganj district of Bangladesh, killing 92. These are the heaviest hailstones ever recorded.
1995 - mag. 5.7 quake, West TX; 2 slightly injured
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1999 – A severe hailstorm strikes Sydney, Australia causing A$2.3 billion in insured damages, the most costly natural disaster in Australian history.
2003 – The Human Genome Project is completed with 99% of the human genome sequenced to an accuracy of 99.99%.
2010 - Eyjafjallajokull volcano erupted again in Iceland. The ash caused stoppage of flights in Ireland & Scotland & UK; first time flights down there since 9/11.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Natur...ew.php
earthquake, Qinghai province, China; 3,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...2010vacp/
Calls came in from Madison, WS, and all over south central Wisconsin, and from as far away as St. Louis, reporting probably meteorite. Sharon Wisniewski, spokesperson for the Dane County Regional Airport, confirms pilots on two aircrafts witnessed what looked like a bright meteor in the sky. They believe it burned out. One pilot was flying a helicopter, the other a plane. Ken in Madison said the sky "Lit up just like daylight" and then it was gone.
www.wkowtv.com/Global/story.asp
www.msnbc.msn.com/id/370187...nce-space/




4/15
1452: Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect & engineer Leonardo Da Vinci is born
1707: Swiss mathematician & physicist Leonhard Euler, one of the founders of pure mathematics, is born
1793 Astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve born. Known for observations of double stars.
1800 - James Clark Ross, discoverer of the North Magnetic Pole, born.
1902 Samuel Kurtz Hoffman born. American engineer who specialized in rocket propulsion.
1941: Igor Sikorsky made the 1st helicopter flight, over 1-hr in duration, in his Vought-Sikorsky VS-300
1971 - Lynn Werbicki Bears born
1998 - Pol Pot died




4/17 ast usgs 2010
1598 – Giovanni Riccioli born, Italian astronomer and a Catholic priest. 1st 2 observe a double star, Mizar. Noted lunar observer.He was a Jesuit who entered the order in 1614. He was also the first person to measure the rate of acceleration of a freely falling body. He and Francesco Grimaldi extensively studied the Moon, of which Grimaldi drew a map. Much of the nomenclature of lunar features still in use today is due to him and Grimaldi. He also observed Saturn, and was one of the first Europeans to note that Mizar was a double star. Despite his stated opposition to Copernicus's heliocentric theory he named the prominent lunar crater Copernicus after him, and other important craters were named after other proponents of the theory Kepler, Galileo and Lansbergius. Craters that he and Grimaldi named after themselves are in the same general vicinity, while some other Jesuit astronomers have craters named after them in a different part of the Moon, near Tycho. This is sometimes considered to be tacit sympathy for Copernican theory, which as a Jesuit he could not publicly express.
1790 – Benjamin Franklin died
1863 - Augustus Love born; Love waves - earthquake waves that move horizontally with respect to the direction of travel, with no vertical motion.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1865 – Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
1886 William Robert Brooks found the 1st of 3 comets that he would find in the span of 5 weeks
1891 – George Adamski born, Polish-American author and ufologist
1915 – Sirimavo Bandaranaike born, Sri Lankan politician and the world's first female head of government
1949 – At midnight 26 Irish counties officially leave the British Commonwealth. A 21-gun salute on O'Connell Bridge, Dublin, ushers in the Republic of Ireland.
1964 – Jerrie Mock becomes the first woman to circumnavigate the world by air. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerrie_Mock
Maynard James Keenan born
1967: Surveyor 3, "2nd Surveyor to achieve a lunar soft landing", was launched.
1969 – Sirhan Sirhan is convicted of assassinating Robert F. Kennedy.
1970 – Apollo program: The ill-fated Apollo 13 spacecraft returns to Earth safely.
1975 – The Cambodian Civil War ends. The Khmer Rouge captures the capital Phnom Penh and Cambodian
government forces surrender.
2011 - lunar perigee early, Full Pink Moon late



4/18 ast ire usgs
1783 - Fighting ceases in the American Revolution, eight years to the day since it began.
1873 - Justus von Liebig died; German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry. He is known as the "father of the fertilizer industry" for his discovery of nitrogen as an essential plant nutrient, and his formulation of the Law of the Minimum which described the effect of individual nutrients on crops.
1880 – An F4 tornado strikes Marshfield, Missouri, killing 99 people and injuring 100.
1889 - First distant earthquake recorded. Ernst von Rebeur-Paschwitz made the first known recordings of a distant earthquake. The recording was made in Potsdam, while the earthquake was in Japan. The instruments were horizontal pendulums, designed by Ernst von Rebeur-Paschwitz to measure slight changes in the direction of the vertical. Two of these pendulums were located in Potsdam and Wilhelmshaven. The earthquake had been felt in Japan about an hour before it was recorded in Germany. journals.cambridge.org/action...ulltext Rebeur-Paschwitz obit
1902 – Quetzaltenango, second largest city of Guatemala, destroyed by earthquake. 2,000 dead.
1906 - San Francisco earthquake; 3,000 dead
1912 - Max Waldmeier born; was one of the leading personalities in solar physics of the 20th century. Waldmeier's systematic observations of various aspects of solar activity, from the photosphere to the corona, spanned several decades and have provided the foundation for much of our current knowledge about the Sun's activity cycle. Much of what we take for granted today can actually be traced back to pioneering work by Waldmeier.
1949 - The Republic of Ireland withdraws from the British Commonwealth. The British Parliament recognizes the declaration but asserts sovereignty over the six northern counties. Ireland does not recognize the claim
1955 - Albert Einstein died
Twenty-nine nations meet at Bandung, Indonesia, for the first Asian-African Conference.
1965 – Guillermo González Camarena died, Mexican inventor
1982 – Darren Sutherland born, Irish boxer (d. 9/14/2009)
1988 – The United States launches Operation Praying Mantis against Iranian naval forces in the largest naval battle since World War II.
2008 - earthquake, IL *another quake occurred in IL on 2/10/2010
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...2008qza6/
2010 - Ufo, Methuen, MA
ufoclearinghouse.webs.com/apps/...-light



4/19 ast usgs 2010
1739: American astronomer John Winthrop began a sunspot observation campaign
1770 – Captain James Cook sights the eastern coast of Australia.
1775 – American Revolutionary War: The war begins with the battles of Lexington and Concord.
1813: Samuel Gregory, US pioneer in the medical education of women & founder of the Boston Female Medical School, is born
1882 - Charles Darwin died
1889 - British astronomer Warren De la Rue died. Pioneered work in astrophotography.
1892 - Grigory Abramovich Shajn born; Together with Otto Struve, he studied the rapid rotation of stars of young spectral types and measured the radial velocities of stars. He discovered new gaseous nebulas and the anomalous abundance of 13C in stellar atmospheres.
1902 - mag. 7.5 quake, Guatemala, 2,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1904: US ecologist Richard Pough, who was founding president of the Nature Conservancy, is born
1912 – Glenn T. Seaborg born, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
1943 – Bicycle Day – Swiss chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann deliberately takes LSD for the first time.
1971 – Launch of Salyut 1, the first space station.
1979 - Supernova 1979c detected in M100 in Coma Berenices. On 11/15/2010, it was announced that astronomers may have discovered the youngest black hole ever found at the site of SN 1979c.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN1979C
www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/iauc/...8.html
www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/lists...#1979C
www.google.com/#sclient=p...d2276f2dcad
blogs.discovermagazine.com/bada...hole/
1995 – Oklahoma City bombing
2010 - ufo, geelong, victoria, australia www.youtube.com/watch



4/20 ast ire usgs
1534 – Jacques Cartier begins the voyage during which he discovers Canada and Labrador. Cartier, a French explorer of Breton origin, claimed what is now Canada for France. He was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona (Quebec City) and at Hochelaga (Montreal Island).
1535 – The Sun Dog phenomenon observed over Stockholm and depicted in the famous painting "Vädersolstavlan"
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File..._18_09.jpg
1586 – Saint Rose of Lima born, Peruvian saint; When she was admired, Rose cut off her hair against the objections of her friends and her family. Upon the censure of her parents, Rose disfigured her face with pepper and lye. She was very upset that she was so beautiful, and hurt herself to help others.
1646 – Charles Plumier born; French botanist, after whom the genus Plumeria is named.
1689 – The former King James II of England, now deposed, lays siege to Derry.
1718 - David Brainerd born; American missionary to the Native Americans who had a particularly fruitful ministry among the Delaware Indians of New Jersey.
1745 – Philippe Pinel born; French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral treatment. He also made notable contributions to the classification of mental disorders and has been described by some as "the father of modern psychiatry".
1775 – American Revolutionary War: the Siege of Boston begins, following the battles at Lexington and Concord.
1786 astronomer John Goodricke died. Known for his observations of variable stars.
1836 – U.S. Congress passes an act creating the Wisconsin Territory.
1862 – Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard complete the first pasteurization tests.
1874 - The conflict in Northern Ireland claims its 1,000 victim, petrol station owner James Murphy of Co. Fermanagh
1884 - Pope Leo XIII publishes the encyclical Humanum Genus. Coming in the ascent of the industrial age (andMarxism), it posited that the late 19th Century was a dangerous era for Christians, and condemned Freemasonry as well as a number of beliefs and practices allegedly associated with Freemasonry, including naturalism, popular sovereignty which does not recognize God, and the idea that the state should be "without God". Some of the encyclical's strictures remain in force today.
1904 - Max Wolf discovered asteroid 532 Herculina. 20th largest asteroid. *Asteroid 532 Herculina Occults HIP 60599 (6.2 Magnitude Star) in constellation Coma Berenices on 2/27/10.
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/....html#1002 asteroidoccultation.com/2010_0...651.htm
1905 - Albrecht Unsöld born; German astrophysicist known for his contributions to spectroscopic analysis of stellar atmospheres. His analysis of the B0 star Tau Scorpii, obtained on his 1939 visit to Yerkes and McDonald Observatories, provided the first detailed analysis of a star other than the Sun, and he was able to determine the physics and composition of the star’s atmosphere. He was also the author of many books, and his book Physik der Sternatmosphären mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Sonne was a bible for quantitative stellar spectroscopy and related fields, with special emphasis on the Sun.
1914: Physiologist Robert Galambos, who confirmed that bats use echolocation to avoid obstacles while in flight, is born
1927: Physicist Karl Alex Müller, who shared the 1987 Nobel Prize for discoveries in superconductivity, is born
1928 - Gerald S. Hawkins born; English astronomer and author most famous for his work in the field of archaeoastronomy. A professor and chair of the astronomy department at Boston University in the United States. In 1965 he published an analysis of Stonehenge in which he was the first to propose its purpose as an ancient astronomical observatory used to predict movements of sun and stars. Archeologists and other scholars have since demonstrated such sophisticated, complex planning and construction at other prehistoric earthwork sites, such as Cahokia in the United States.
1935 - earthquake Taiwan, 3,300 dead
1939 – Billie Holiday records the first Civil Rights song "Strange Fruit".
1940: 1st U.S. electron microscope was demonstrated in Phila, producing a magnification of 100,000 times
1962 – Henry Joseph Nasiff Jr. born; Hank the Angry Drunken Dwarf
Neil Armstrong reaches 207,000ft flying X-15 to Mach 5.33.
1964: The 1st picturephone transcontinental call was made between New York City and Anaheim, California
1972 – Apollo 16 landed on the moon commanded by John Young.
1979 – Nathan Marquardt born, American mixed martial artist; UFC middleweight champ
1991- Sean O'Faolain, writer, dies at 91; he is best known for his short stories, collected in such volumes as Midsummer Night Madness, The Man Who Invented Sin, The Heat of the Sun, and The Talking Trees (1971). Among his novels are A Nest of Simple Folk and Come Back to Erin
2003 - Bernard Katz died; German-born biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve biochemistry. He shared the Nobel Prize inphysiology or medicine in 1970 with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler. He was knighted in 1970.
2010 – Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion kills 11 and causes rig to sink, initiating a massive oil discharge in the Gulf of Mexico.

* Constellation Coma Berenices - name means "Berenice's Hair", and refers to the legend of Queen Berenice II of Egypt, who sacrificed her long hair.
"When she was admired, Saint Rose of Lima cut off her hair against the objections of her friends and her family."



4/21
1838: Naturalist John Muir, who championed the establishment of Sequoia & Yosemite natl parks in Calif, is born
1843: Anatomist Walther Flemming, who was the 1st to observe & systematically describe mitosis, is born
1913: Choh Hao Li, who isolated in pure form 6 of the 8 hormones known to be secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, is born
1926 Sir Henry Christopher Mance, the inventor of the heliograph died
1994 - The first discoveries of extrasolar planets are announced by astronomer Alexander Wolszczan.
tech.mit.edu/V114/N22/psr.22w.html



4/22 ast usgs 2010 2011
1500 – Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Celebrated as Discovery Day in Brazil.
www.vidaslusofonas.pt/pedro_a...al_2.htm
www.brazadv.com/brazil-his...scovery.htm
www.brazadv.com/brazil-his...-cabral.htm
www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm
1744 - James Sullivan born, Berwick, ME. Became 7th MA governor. He was the brother of John Sullivan.
www.nga.org/portal/site/...beeb501010a0/
1832 – Julius Sterling Morton born, Arbor Day founder
1834 - French physicist Gaston Planté, who produced the 1st electric storage battery, is born
1891 – Nicola Sacco born, American anarchist
Harold Jeffreys born. In 1926, Harold Jeffrey's measurements of tides in the solid Earth suggested that the Earth was less rigid than had been previously assumed. This led to the assumption that the core is fluid.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1904 – Robert Oppenheimer born, American physicist
1909 - Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italian neurologist, Nobel laureate for discovery of Nerve growth factor (NGF), a small secreted protein which is important for the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain target neurons (nerve cells).
1923 – Aaron Spelling born
1970 – The first Earth Day is celebrated.
1991 - mag. 7.6 quake, Costa Rica; 50 dead
1994 – Richard Nixon died
1996 - earthquake, Westport www.bc.edu/research/wes...catalogs.html
1999 – Chan Canasta died, Polish-British magician and mindreader *Same birthday as Richard Nixon
2002 – Linda Lovelace died, American porn actress
2010 – Deepwater Horizon, an oil rig owned by BP and Transocean, sinks to the bottom of the Gulf Of Mexico after having a blowout two days earlier.



4/23
1791 - President James Buchanan born
1792: Astronomer John Thomas Romney Robinson born. Director of Armagh Observatory.
1962 - Ranger 4 launched from CCAFS. Failed and impacted the lunar farside-Had a "roughlander."
1998 - rare lunar occultation of Venus and Jupiter
antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap980513.html
2009 - Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 090423 observed by the Swift satellite. 10 sec burst at redshift z=8.2, which makes GRB 090423 the second most distant object detected as of October 2010.



4/24
Mary Coyle born
1942: Mineralogist Leonid Kulik died. Researched meteorites including the 1908 Tunguska Event.
2010 - tornado, yazoo and choctaw counties, ms; at least 10 dead. "…all that remained of Sullivan's Crossroads Grocery in Choctaw County was a pile of cinderblocks and some jars of pickled eggs and pigs' feet. Owner Ron Sullivan, his wife and four other people were inside when the storm tore the wooden roof off. They came away with cuts and bruises. Sullivan had been on the phone, describing the weather conditions to a meteorologist, when the line went dead and the twister hit, hurling Sullivan into a cinderblock wall."I was levitated and flew 15 feet over there to the back wall," he said. "The only reason I wasn't killed was the wall was still there. After I hit it, it collapsed."A steel fuel storage tank, about 10 feet long, was uprooted by the twister and rolled into the store, coming to rest against a freezer. Hiding on the other side of the freezer was Sullivan's wife."



4/25
1701: Astronomer Anders Celsius died.
1859: Ground was broken for the Suez Canal in Egypt
1874: Guglielmo Marconi, who invented the wireless telegraph known today as radio, is born
1918 Astronomer Gerard de Vaucouleurs born. Specialized in the study of galaxies.
1945: The new U.S. President, Harry S. Truman was briefed on the status of the atomic bomb project
1953: The journal Nature published the structure of DNA, as suggested in a 1-page article by James Watson & Francis Crick
1983: Pioneer 10 crossed the orbit of Pluto to continue its voyage into the universe beyond our solar system
1990: The $2.5 billion Hubble Space Telescope was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery 381 miles above Earth



4/26 ast
1564 – William Shakespeare baptized
1889 - Ludwig Wittgenstein born. The mystical is not how the world is, but that it is. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
1900 - Charles Richter born
1909 - Doc Powers died; first baseball player to die of on-field injury. Second was Ray Chapman.
1914 – Bernard Malamud born, American author; "The Natural". Based a character, apparently, on Doc Powers
1920: The Shapley - Curtis Debate starts, concerning the size and structure of the universe.
1921: The 1st U.S. broadcast of the weather was made from St. Louis station WEW for the federal govt
1933 – Arno Allan Penzias born
1938 - Nino Benvenuti born; world middleweight champ; appeared in such films as Sundance and the Kid.
1961: The integrated circuit was patented by Robert Noyce
1962 - Ranger 4 spacecraft crashed into the far side of the Moon
1970 – Tionne "T-Boz" Watkins born, American singer (TLC)
1986 - Seamus McElwaine and another IRA member, Séan Lynch, were preparing to ambush an army patrol near Roslea in County Fermanagh when they were ambushed themselves by the SAS. Both were wounded but Lynch managed to crawl away. McElwaine was interrogated for several minutes and then killed.
Russia's Chernobyl nuclear plant exploded in the world's worst civil nuclear catastrophe
1991 – Seventy tornadoes break out in the central United States. Before the outbreak's end, Andover, Kansas, would record the year's onlyF5 tornado (see Andover, Kansas Tornado Outbreak).
1994 – A China Airlines Airbus A300-600R crashes at Nagoya Airport, Japan killing all but seven passengers, with a death toll amounting to 264. See also China Airlines flight 140.




4/27 ast usgs 2010
1521 – Battle of Mactan: Explorer Ferdinand Magellan is killed by natives in the Philippines led by chief Lapu-Lapu.
1791 – Samuel F. B. Morse born, Charlestown, MA.
1822 – President Ulysses S. Grant born
1840 – Edward Whymper born; best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. On the descent four members of the party were killed.
1848 - John Hind discovered Nova Ophiuchi 1848 (V841 Ophiuchi), the first nova of modern times (since the supernova SN 1604). - discovery of Nova Ophiuchi 1848 (second page) *see 4/6/10: Asteroid 824 Anastasia occultation of Zeta Ophiuchi
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/192....81..167B
books.google.com/books
cbat.eps.harvard.edu/nova_list.html
www.google.com/search
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/193....27..337P (p. 340 states "On the night of April 28, 1848, Hind observed…")
1865 – The steamboat Sultana, carrying 2,400 passengers, explodes and sinks in the Mississippi River, killing 1,700, most of whom are Union survivors of the Andersonville and Cahaba Prisons.
1875 - Maurice, 6th duc de Broglie born. Made advances in X-Ray diffraction and Spectroscopy.
1902 - Julius Sterling Morton died, Arbor Day founder
1903: Hans Kosterlitz, who co-discovered enkephalins, 2 potent naturally occurring opiates in the brain, is born
1913: Philip Abelson, who helped develop the atomic bomb & co-discovered the element neptunium, is born
1927 - Joe Moakley born
1931 - mag. 5.7 earthquake, Armenia; 2,800 dead
1961 - Explorer 11 carrying the first orbiting gamma-ray detector is launched, the beginning of gamma-ray astronomy.
1963 – Russell T Davies born, Welsh television writer and executive producer of Doctor Who
1988 – Fred Bear died, American bow-hunter
1998 – Carlos Castaneda died
2002 - last successful reception of telemetry from Pioneer 10, which sent back first close-up images of Jupiter on 12/3/73



4/28 ast ire usgs
1758 - President James Monroe born
1864 - Birth of William Ellison, clergyman and the sixth director of the Armagh Observatory. On his appointment in 1918, he donates the original late nineteenth-century telescope to the Observatory - an 18-inch Newtonian reflector, made by the famous English telescope maker George Calver; for many years it is one of the largest telescopes in Ireland. During the 1920s and 1930s, Ellison and others use the telescope for observations of the planets and for taking spectral images of the stars, using a spectroscope to split the starlight into its constituent colours
1900 – Jan Oort born, Dutch astronomer
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce.../Oort/ www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMBPC..._index_0.html
1903 - earthquake, Turkey, 3500 dead
1906 - Bart Bok born. Working closely with his wife, Priscilla Fairfield Bok, he studied the structure and evolution of star clusters and the Galaxy, mapping the spiral arms of the Milky Way, especially the Carina region, and the Magellanic Clouds. Bok initiated radio astronomy at Harvard and promoted it elsewhere. His investigations of interstellar gas and dust led to studies of star formation, and he became known for his work on small dark nebulae now called Bok globules.
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/bruce...x.html
1928 - Eugene Merle Shoemaker born, American astronomer
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/news82.html www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/news81.html
1930: 1st movie of the 1.5 minute total sun eclipse was taken from an airplane flying about 18,000 ft over Calif.
1983 - mountaineer Fritz Luchsinger vanished during an attempt on Shishapangma. Dead.
2001 - First space tourist, Dennis Tito, goes into space
english.ruvr.ru/2011/04/28/49595047.html



4/29
1699: The French Academy of Sciences held its 1st public meeting in the Louvre
1724 - John Michell born. Proposed the idea of a "dark star" capable of bending light.
1893: 1934 Nobel Prize winner Harold C. Urey, who discovered deuterium, the heavy form of hydrogen, is born
1898: Funds for the 1st cancer laboratory in the U.S. were appropriated in New York State.
1925: 1st woman elected to the U.S. Natl Academy of Sciences--Dr. Florence Rena Sabin of Johns Hopkins Univ
1949: The 1st fragments of the hominid Telanthropus were discovered in a limestone crevasse in Swartkhans, South Africa
2008 - Albert Hofmann died
2009 - Detection of Gamma Ray Burst GRB-090429B, 13.14 billion light years away and could be the most distant object ever seen.
www.cbc.ca/news/technol...-distant.html



4/30 ast usgs 2010
1006 – Supernova SN 1006, the brightest supernova in recorded history, appears in the constellation Lupus.
www.nashuatelegraph.com/news/7...st.html
apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap060430.html heritage.stsci.edu/2008/22/caption.html
www.skyandtelescope.com/news/3...86.html
spider.seds.org/spider/Misc/sn1006.html www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue...va.htm
1492 – Spain gives Christopher Columbus his commission of exploration.
1770 – David Thompson born, Canadian explorer mapped over 3.9 million square kilometers of North America and for this has been described as the "greatest land geographer who ever lived."
1773 - Johann Burckhardt born; focused his studies on the orbits of comets. director of the Paris Observatory. published Tables de la Lune, based on a lunar theory distinct from that of Pierre-Simon Laplace. Burckhardt's lunar tables enjoyed a substantial reputation for a time, and they were officially used for computing the lunar ephemeris in the Nautical Almanac from 1821 to 1861
1777 - Carl Friedrich Gauss born, German mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. After it had disappeared in the Sun, Gauss predicted a position for Ceres in December 1801—just about a year after its first sighting—and this turned out to be accurate within a half-degree when it was rediscovered by Franz Xaver von Zach on 31 December in Gotha, and one day later by Heinrich Olbers in Bremen.
1789 – On the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City, George Washington takes the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.
1803 – Louisiana Purchase: The United States purchases the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling the size of the young nation.
1812 – The Territory of Orleans becomes the 18th U.S. state under the name Louisiana.
1897 - Physicist J. J. Thomson announced discovery of the electron. 1st subatomic particle to be discovered.
1900 – Hawaii becomes a territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor.
1943 – World War II: Operation Mincemeat: The submarine HMS Seraph surfaces in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Spain to deposit a dead man planted with false invasion plans and dressed as a British military intelligence officer.
1945 – World War II: Fuhrerbunker: Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide after being married for one day. Soviet soldiers raise theVictory Banner over the Reichstag building.
1953 – In Warner Robins, Georgia, an F4 tornado kills 18 people.
1956 – Former Vice President for Harry Truman and Senator, Alben Barkley, dies during a speech in Virginia.
2009 – Venetia Burney died, Person who suggested Pluto's name for the planet







DECEMBER


12/1
1580 - Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc born; discovered Orion Nebula




12/3 ast ire usgs
The catalog of the National Earthquake Information Center shows that no earthquakes as large as magnitude 6 occurred anywhere on Earth during the interval November 25 - December 10, 1990.
1807 - David Alter born; credited with having invented spectrum analysis (1854), the idea that every element has its own emission spectrum: a breakthrough development in spectroscopy and an expansion of spectrum analysis (1855) to include the optical properties of gas. These discoveries were later implemented and included by Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen in the Three Laws of Spectroscopy
1818 – Illinois becomes the 21st U.S. state.
1838 - Cleveland Abbe born; American meteorologist and advocate of time zones. While director of the Cincinnati Observatory in Cincinnati, Ohio, he developed a system of telegraphic weather reports, daily weather maps, and weather forecasts. Congress in 1870 established the U.S. Weather Bureau and inaugurated the use of daily weather forecasts. In recognition of his work, Abbe, who was often known as Old Probability for the reliability of his forecasts, was appointed the first head of the new service.
1842 - Ellen Henrietta (Swallow) Richards born, Dunstable, MA; first woman admitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and its first female instructor, the first woman in America accepted to any school of science and technology, and the first American woman to earn a degree in chemistry.
1882 - James Challis died; He is best remembered for his missed opportunity to discover the planet Neptune in 1846. Challis began his, somewhat reluctant, search for the possible planet in July 1846. German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle, assisted by Heinrich Louis d'Arrest, finally confirmed Le Verrier's prediction on September 23. The planet was named "Neptune". It soon became apparent from Challis's notebooks that he had observed Neptune twice, a month earlier, failing to make the identification through lack of diligence.
1904 – First discovery photograph of Jupiter's largest irregular satellite, Himalia, are shot by Charles Dillon Perrine and team at Lick Observatory using the Crossley reflector. It was the sixth Jovian moon discovered. adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm
1917 - Strathmore Meteorite
1920 - William de Abney died specialist in the chemistry of photography, especially noted for his development of a photographic emulsion that he used to map the solar spectrum far into the infrared. Abney conducted early research into the field of spectroscopy, developing a red-sensitive emulsion which was used for the infrared spectra of organic molecules. He was also a pioneer in photographing the infrared solar spectrum (1887), as well as researching sunlight in the medium of the atmosphere.
1924 - Edwin Ernest Salpeter born; Austrian-Australian-American astrophysicist. In 1964 Salpeter and independently Yakov B. Zel'dovich were the first to suggest that accretion discs around massive black holes are responsible for the huge amounts of energy radiated by quasars (which are the brightest active galactic nuclei). This is currently the most accepted explanation for the physical origin of active galactic nuclei and the associated extragalactic relativistic jets.
www.news.cornell.edu/stories....ed.html
1934 – Charles James O'Donnell born, Irish politician served UK in India
1967 – At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, a transplant team headed by Christiaan Barnard carries out the first heart transplant on a human (53-year-old Louis Washkansky).
1971 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: Pakistan launches pre-emptive strike against India and a full scale war begins claiming hundreds of lives.
Vernon White born, American mixed martial artist
1973 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter.
1976 – An assassination attempt is made on Bob Marley. He is shot twice, but plays a concert two days later.
1979 – In Cincinnati, Ohio, eleven fans are suffocated in a crush for seats on the concourse outside Riverfront Coliseum before a Who concert.
1981 – Edwin Valero born, Venezuelan boxing champion (d. 2010)
1984 – Bhopal Disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000–600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.
1990 - Inauguration of Mary Robinson as President of Ireland
1993 - Two bombs explode in the center of Manchester, injuring 65 people; the IRA claims responsibility the following day
1999 – Six firefighters killed in the Worcester Cold Storage Warehouse fire in Worcester Mass.
2002 - Glenn Quinn died, drug overdose; "Roseanne". Born in Dublin 5/28/70 - anniversary of last occultation of Mercury by Venus. So he was born on the anniversary of the occultation by Venus of Mercury and on the anniversary of his death the next occultation by Venus of Mercury will happen in 2133.
www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi
2012 - Jupiter at opposition
www.seasky.org/astronomy/...r_2012.html
2133 - Occultation of Mercury by Venus
www.bogan.ca/astro/occul...occltlst.htm www.bookrags.com/wiki/Occultation climate.gi.alaska.edu/Curtis/astro4.html
www.sydneyobservatory.com.au/blog/ www.projectpluto.com/mut_pln.htm




12/4 ast usgs 2010
1574 - Georg Joachim von Lauchen, also known as Rheticus, died; He is perhaps best known for his trigonometric tables and for being Nicolaus Copernicus' sole pupil, who facilitated the publication of Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres).
1639 - transit of Venus. Jeremiah Horrocks was the only person to predict, and one of only two people to observe and record it. William Crabtree also observed and recorded it.
eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/transit...sit.html
1783 – At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, US General George Washington formally bids his officers farewell.
1798 - Luigi Galvani died; Italian physician and physicist. In 1783, according to popular version of the story, Galvani dissected a frog at a table where he had been conducting experiments with static electricity, Galvani's assistant touched an exposed sciatic nerve of the frog with a metal scalpel, which had picked up a charge. At that moment, they saw sparks in an electricity machine and the dead frog's leg kick as if in life. The observation made Galvani the first investigator to appreciate the relationship between electricity and animation — or life. This finding provided the basis for the current understanding that electrical energy (carried by ions), and not air or fluid, is the impetus behind muscle movement. He is typically credited with the discovery of bioelectricity
1821 - Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel born; German astronomer. He was a prolific discoverer of comets, discovering or co-discovering 21 in all, including Comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle, now known to be the parent body of the Leonid meteor shower, and 9P/Tempel, the target of the NASA probe Deep Impact in 2005. Other periodic comets that bear his name include 10P/Tempel and 11P/Tempel-Swift-LINEAR. ****9P/Tempel will reach perihelion on 1/12/2011.
1857 - Alexander William Roberts born; Scottish-born, South African teacher and an amateur astronomer. In South Africa he pursued his interest in astronomy, first measuring the parallax and proper motion of Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri. He then became a prolific observer of variable stars, particularly those that were members of a binary system. He continued his observations for over thirty years, and pioneered the study of close binary systems. He published over 100 works on these topics. Between 1891 and 1920 he made over 250,000 observations of 98 variable stars.
1867 – Former Minnesota farmer Oliver Hudson Kelley founds the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry (better known today as the Grange).
1875 – Rainer Maria Rilke born, Austrian poet
1925 – Lino Lacedelli born, Italian mountaineer who made the first ascent of K2
1944 - Frederick Slocum died; American astronomer. He assisted Samuel A. Mitchell in research with parallax measurement techniques, and these were published in 1913. In 1914 he became the first professor of astronomy at Wesleyan University, and supervised construction of the Van Vleck Observatory. He became director of the observatory in 1915, and held this post until 1944
1947 – Terry Woods born; Irish folk musician, specialising in playing the mandolin and cittern. He is known for his membership in such folk and folk-rock groups as The Pogues, Steeleye Span, Sweeney's Men and, briefly, Dr. Strangely Strange.
1957 - mag. 8.1 earthquake, Mongolia, 30 dead
1971 – Shannon Briggs born, American boxer; WBO heavyweight champion
1993 – Frank Zappa died, prostate cancer
1998 – The Unity Module, the second module of the International Space Station, is launched.
2010 - Venus at its brightest (occurred in early morn)
earthsky.org/tonight/gre...ember-4-2010
www.space.com/spacewatch/...-101201.html
Bano, Ecuador evacuated as activity of Tungurahua volcano increased to spewing out incandescent material and ash. Tungurahua, a 5,029-meter (16,500-foot) volcano, name means "throat of fire" in the local Quechua language.
2015 - occultation of Theta Ophiuchi by Mercury
www.occultations.net/occulta...able.htm



12/6 ast usgs 2010
1534 – The city of Quito in Ecuador is founded by Spanish settlers led by Sebastián de Belalcázar.
1586 – Niccolò Zucchi born, Italian astronomer. In 1616, he designed one of the earliest reflecting telescopes. A professor at the Collegio Romano, Zucchi developed an interest in astronomy from a meeting with Johannes Kepler. He invented the concave reflecting telescope, and on May 17, 1630 was the first person to discover two belts on the surface of Jupiter. Zucchi also examined the spots on Mars (1640). In 1652, he demonstrated that phosphors generate rather than store light. His book Optica philosophia experimentalis et ratione a fundamentis constituta (1652–56) inspired James Gregory and Isaac Newton to build improved telescopes.
1631 - A transit of Venus occurred as predicted by Johannes Kepler. He was the first to predict a transit of Venus in 1631, but no one observed it, because Kepler's predictions were not sufficiently accurate to predict that the transit would not be visible in most of Europe. The first observation of a transit of Venus was made by Jeremiah Horrocks on December 4, 1639. Kepler had predicted transits in 1631 and 1761 and a near miss in 1639. Horrocks corrected Kepler's calculation for the orbit of Venus and realised that transits of Venus would occur in pairs 8 years apart, and so predicted the transit in 1639.
1778 - Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac born; In 1804 he made a hot-air balloon ascent with Jean-Baptiste Biot to a height of 6.4 kilometres in an early investigation of the Earth's atmosphere. He wanted to collect sample of the air at different heights to record differences in temperature and moisture.
1799 - Joseph Black died; In 1761, he discovered that when ice melts it absorbs heat without changing temperature. From this he concluded that the heat must have combined with the ice particles and become latent
1805 – Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin born, French magician
1830 - The Depot of Charts and Instruments was established. It was made into a national observatory in 1842 and is now known as the United States Naval Observatory
1848 - Johann Palisa born, Austrian astronomer. He was a prolific discoverer of asteroids, discovering 122 in all, from 136 Austria in 1874 to 1073 Gellivara in 1923. Some of his notable discoveries include 153 Hilda, 216 Kleopatra, 243 Ida, 253 Mathilde, 324 Bamberga, and the Amor asteroid 719 Albert.
1849 – American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery. *Tubman died 3/10/1913
1863 – Charles Martin Hall born, American chemist
1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, banning slavery.
1877 – Thomas Edison, using his new phonograph, makes one of the earliest recordings of a human voice, reciting "Mary Had a Little Lamb".
1882 - The last transit of the planet Venus until 2004 occurs. The first known photographs of a transit of Venus were taken by David Peck Todd in 1882. He was chief astronomer at the Lick Observatory during the transit and he produced a complete set of photographs.
1884 – The Washington Monument in Washington D.C. is completed.
1893 - Johann Rudolf Wolf died (July 7, 1816 – December 6, 1893); Swiss astronomer and mathematician best known for his research on sunspots. Wolf was greatly impressed by the discovery of the sunspot cycle by Heinrich Schwabe and he not only carried out his own observations, but he collected all the available data on sunspot activity back as far as 1610 and calculated a period for the cycle of 11.1 years. In 1848 he devised a way of quantifying sunspot activity. The Wolf sunspot number, as it is now called, remains in use. In 1852 Wolf was one of four people who discovered the link between the cycle and geomagnetic activity on Earth.
www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/solar/ssn.html
1907 – A coal mine explosion at Monongah, West Virginia kills 362 workers.
1917 – Halifax Explosion: In Canada, a munitions explosion kills more than 1,900 people and destroys part of the City of Halifax, Nova Scotia.
1921 – The Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed in London by British and Irish representatives.
1922 – One year to the day after the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State comes into existence.
1955 - Nikolay Dmitrievich Moiseev died; Soviet astronomer and expert in celestial mechanics. His main works were devoted to mathematical methods of celestial calculations and theory of comet formation.
1957 - Robert-Albert-Charles Esnault-Pelterie died; first person to develop the equations for rocket flight in space.
1967 – Adrian Kantrowitz performed the first human heart transplant in the United States.
1971 – Ryan White born, American AIDS victim
1973 – The Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States House of Representatives votes 387 to 35 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States (on November 27, the Senate confirmed him 92 to 3).
1975 – Balcombe Street Siege: An IRA Active Service Unit takes a couple hostage in Balcombe Street, London.
1976 – Alicia Machado born, Venezuelan actress and former Miss Universe
1982 – Droppin Well bombing: The Irish National Liberation Army detonate a bomb in Ballykelly, Northern Ireland, killing eleven British soldiers and six civilians.
1991 – Mimi Smith died, maternal aunt and guardian of John Lennon
1992 – Extremist Hindu activists demolish disputed structure – in Ayodhya, India, which is believed to be the birthplace of Lord RAM by Hindus, in 16th century converted to mosque, which had been used as a temple since 1949, leading to widespread communal violence, including the Mumbai Riots, in all killing over 1500 people.
1997 – A Russian Antonov An-124 cargo plane crashes into an apartment complex near Irkutsk, Siberia, killing 67.
2006 – NASA reveals photographs taken by Mars Global Surveyor suggesting the presence of liquid water on Mars.
2007 – Katy French died, Irish supermodel
2008 – The 2008 Greek riots break out upon the murder of a 15-year-old boy, Alexandros Grigoropoulos, by a police officer.
2010 - lunar occultation of Mars www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
www.astronomylive.org/event/m...ber-2010
apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap101210.html
transit.savage-garden.org/en/oc...t.html



12/7
1905 - Gerard Kuiper born. Kuiper Belt. He was blessed with an extraordinarily sharp eyesight, allowing him to see magnitude 7.5 stars with the naked eyes, about four times fainter than visible to normal eyes. Kuiper discovered two moons of planets in the solar system, namely Uranus's moon Miranda and Neptune's moon Nereid. In addition, he discovered carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Mars and the existence of amethane-laced atmosphere above Saturn's moon Titan in 1944. Kuiper spent most of his career at the University of Chicago, but moved to Tucson, Arizona in 1960 to found the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona. In the 1960s, Kuiper helped identify landing sites on the Moon for the Apollo program.
1988 - In Armenia, an earthquake (6.9 on the Richter scale) kills nearly 25,000, injures 15,000 and leaves 400,000 homeless.



12/8
John Lennon
Sinead O'Connor
1864 - George Boole died, British mathematician. As the inventor of Boolean algebra, which is the basis of all modern computer arithmetic, Boole is regarded in hindsight as one of the founders of the field of computer science
1908 - John A. Volpe born, 61st and 63rd Governor of Massachusetts, 2nd United States Secretary of Transportation
1984 - Nicki Minaj born



12/9 ast ire usgs 2010
1508 - Gemma Frisius born; In 1533, he described for the first time the method of triangulation still used today in surveying.
1531 – The Virgin of Guadalupe first appears to Juan Diego at Tepeyac, Mexico City. *Not more than 2 hours ago, on PBS this very hallucination was mentioned.
1579 – Martin de Porres born, Peruvian saint
1667 - William Whiston born; His A New Theory of the Earth from its Original to the Consummation of All Things (1696), an articulation of creationism and flood geology which held that the global flood of Noah had been caused by a comet, obtained the praise of both Newton and Locke, the latter of whom classed the author among those who, if not adding much to our knowledge, "At least bring some new things to our thoughts." He was an early advocate, along with Edmond Halley, of the periodicity of comets; he also held that comets were responsible for past catastrophes in earth's history. In 1701 he resigned his vicarship to become deputy at Cambridge to Sir Isaac Newton, whom two years later he succeeded as Lucasian professor of mathematics.
1703 - Chester Moor Hall born; invented the achromatic lenses (1729 or 1733), which he utilized in building the first refracting telescope free from chromatic aberration (colour distortion).
1742 - Carl Wilhelm Scheele born; German-Swedish pharmaceutical chemist who discovered many chemical substances, most notably discovering oxygen before Joseph Priestley and chlorine before Humphry Davy
1861 - John O'Donovan, Irish language scholar, dies
1874 - transit of Venus observed by Henry Draper and by James Watson in China
1907 - Konradin Ferrari d'Occhieppo born; Austrian astronomer. He is primarily known for his book "Star of Bethlehem" in which he supports the theory proposed by Johannes Kepler. In 1614, Kepler determined that a series of three conjunctions of the planets Jupiter and Saturn occurred in the year 6 BC (7 BCE).
1910 - Henry Lee Giclas born, Flagstaff, American astronomer; discovered comets and asteroids
1958 - John Jackson died; Scottish astronomer. The first extensive task he undertook as Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory Greenwich was to prepare for publication all of the observations he had made of double stars, working on this with Herbert Hall Turner, the Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford University. Jackson also worked on calculating the rotation of the planet Neptune revising the accepted notion of a 7 hour rotation to 19 hours with a possible error of 20 percent, not too far from the true figure of 15.8 hours. He published two volumes, which covered the motions and spectral types of over 41,000 stars. Throughout his career Jackson took part in four expeditions to observe a total eclipse of the Sun.
1965 – The Kecksburg UFO incident: a fireball is seen from Michigan to Pennsylvania; witnesses report something crashing in the woods near Pittsburgh. In 2005 NASA admits that it examined an object.
1969 – Jakob Dylan born, American singer (The Wallflowers)
1973 - At Sunningdale, Berkshire, British Prime Minister Edward Heath, Irish premier Liam Cosgrave, and representatives of the Ulster Unionist Party, the Social Democratic and Labour Party and the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland, sign an historic agreement to set up a Council of Ireland
1996 – Mary Leakey died, English archaeologist and anthropologist
1998 – Archie Moore died, World Light Heavyweight Champion 17 Dec 1952–12 May 1962
2005 - President Mary McAleese and Queen Elizabeth II meet in Northern Ireland. According to President McAleese, this historic event could clear the way for an unprecedented State visit. No British monarch has made such a trip since George V visited Dublin in 1911, a decade before partition.
2010 - 12/8 & 9 & 10 - enormous white storm photographed on Saturn
www.pvol.ehu.es/image.jsp
acquerra.com.au/astro/gall.../index.live
www.cloudynights.com/ubbthre...2utc.jpg
alpo-j.asahikawa-med.ac.jp/kk10...1.jpg
alpo-j.asahikawa-med.ac.jp/kk10...1.jpg
2012 - Vesta at opposition dawn-aop.astro.umd.edu/calendar.shtml
books.google.com/books



12/10
Alfred Nobel died
1950 - Fragments of the St. Louis Meteor fall through a convertible.
2010 - Leonid Elenin discovered Comet Elenin



12/11
1863 - Annie Jump Cannon born, American astronomer. With Edward C. Pickering, she is credited with the creation of the Harvard Classification Scheme, which was the first serious attempt to organize and classify stars based on their temperatures. Cannon divided stars into the spectral classes O, B, A, F, G, K, M. Her scheme was based on the strength of the Balmer absorption lines. After absorption lines were understood in terms of stellar temperatures her initial classification system was rearranged to avoid having to update star catalogues. The mnemonic of "Oh Be a Fine Girl and Kiss Me" has developed as a way to remember stellar classification.
1931 - Osho born



12/12 ast usgs
1531 – Our Lady of Guadalupe (Spanish: Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe.) Juan Diego opened the cloak before Archbishop Juan de Zumárraga on December 12, the flowers fell to the floor, and in their place was the Virgin of Guadalupe, miraculously imprinted on the fabric. *See 1992 below - the Flores earthquake. Flores, according to the Flores wiki, is Portuguese for flowers.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_..._Guadalupe
1751 - Henry St John died, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, English statesman and philosopher
1786 - William L. Marcy born; U.S. Senator and the 11th Governor of New York, and as the U.S. Secretary of War and U.S. Secretary of State.
1787 – Pennsylvania becomes the second state to ratify the United States Constitution five days after Delaware became the first.
1803 - James Challis born; best remembered for his missed opportunity to discover the planet Neptune in 1846. Challis began his, somewhat reluctant, search for the possible planet in July 1846. German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle, assisted by Heinrich Louis d'Arrest, finally confirmed Le Verrier's prediction on September 23. The planet was named "Neptune". It soon became apparent from Challis's notebooks that he had observed Neptune twice, a month earlier, failing to make the identification through lack of diligence.
1838 - Sherburne Wesley Burnham born; American astronomer. He worked at Yerkes Observatory. All his working life, he served during the day as a court reporter and was an amateur astronomer, except for four years as a full-time astronomer at Lick Observatory. For more than fifty years he spent all his free time observing the heavens, principally concerning himself with binary stars. Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve and Otto Wilhelm von Struve had catalogued a good number of binary stars working at the Observatories of Dorpat and Pulkovo and using 23- and 38-cm telescopes. During the 1840s it was believed that essentially all the binary stars visible to the instruments of the day had been discovered. Burnham, with his 15-cm instrument, found 451 new binary stars from 1872 to 1877. The quality of his work opened the doors of observatories for him and he had access to more powerful instruments at Lick, Yerkes and other observatories. He is credited with having discovered 1340 binary stars.
1839 - Georges Rayet born; discovered Wolf-Rayet stars
1871 - Spectroscopic observations of an eclipse in India made by French astronomer Jules Janssen led him to propose that the corona, normally only visible during a solar eclipse, is a physical part of the Sun and is composed of both hot gases and cooler particles. Janssen also discovered the element helium.
1890 - Max Wolf shot the first photo of the North America Nebula
1897 – Belo Horizonte, the first planned city in Brazil, is founded.
1901 – Guglielmo Marconi receives the first transatlantic radio signal at Signal Hill in St John's, Newfoundland.
1915 – Frank Sinatra born
1921 - Henrietta Swan Leavitt died; Leavitt began work in 1893 at Harvard College Observatory as one of the women "computers" brought in by Edward Charles Pickering to measure and catalog the brightness of stars in the observatory's photographic plate collection. She noted thousands of variable stars in images of the Magellanic Clouds. In 1908 she published her results in the Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, noting that a few of the variables showed a pattern: brighter ones appeared to have longer periods. After further study, she confirmed in 1912 that the variable stars of greater intrinsic luminosity—actually Cepheid variables—did indeed have longer periods, and the relationship was quite close and predictable. This relationship provided an important yardstick for measuring distances in the Universe, if it could be calibrated. One year after Leavitt reported her results, Ejnar Hertzsprung determined the distance of several Cepheids in the Milky Way, and with this calibration the distance to any Cepheid could be determined. When Cepheids were detected in other galaxies such as the Andromeda Galaxy, the distance to those galaxies could also be determined. These distances settled the debate on whether the galaxies were external to the Milky Way or part of it.
1927 – Robert Noyce born, American inventor
1940 – Frances Willard born, American magician
1942 – A fire in a hostel in St. John's, Newfoundland kills 100 people.
1943 – Dickey Betts born
1946 – A fire at a New York City ice plant spreads to a nearby tenement killing 37 people.
1951 - Steven Hawley born; American astronaut; has logged a total of 770 hours and 27 minutes in five space flights.
1956 – Beginning of the Irish Republican Army's "Border Campaign"
1958 – Albert Walsh died, Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland
Milutin Milankovic died; Yugoslav geophysicist, astrophysicist and astronomer. He is best known for his theory of ice ages, relating variations of the Earth's orbit and long-term climate change, now known as Milankovitch cycles
1977 – Nicole, Erica and Jaclyn Dahm born, American triplet models Playboy
1979 – mag. 7.7 quake, Ecuador/Colombia border; at least 600 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1982 – Women's peace protest at Greenham Common – 30,000 women hold hands and form a human chain around the 14.5 kilometres (9.0 mi) perimeter fence.
1985 – Arrow Air Flight 1285 crashes after takeoff in Gander, Newfoundland killing 256, including 236 members of the United States Army's 101st Airborne Division.
1992 - mag. 7.8 quake, Flores, Indonesia; 2,500 dead. Strongest, deadliest quake of 1992. *See 1531 below for "flowers"
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1994 - Stuart Roosa died; command module pilot for the Apollo 14 mission
1998 – Lawton Chiles died, U.S. Senator from Florida and Governor of Florida
2000 – The United States Supreme Court releases its decision in Bush v. Gore
2001 – Ardito Desio died, Italian explorer, geologist and leader of the 1954 K2 expedition
2003 – Keiko died, orca, star of Free Willy
2007 – Ike Turner died
2008 - The Moon moves into its nearest point to Earth, called perigee, at the same time as its fullest phase of the Lunar Cycle. The Moon appears to be 14% bigger and 30% brighter than the year's other full moons. The next time these two events coincide will be in 2016
www.idialstars.com/clfumo.htm www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/new...7206.ece
sites.google.com/site/larrygerstman/moon (bout 4/5 down pg)
2012 - The asteroid 4179 Toutatis passes Earth.



12/13 ast ire usgs
quakes - nothing interesting earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1642 - Abel Janszoon Tasman reaches New Zealand. *Tasmania resembles a heart.
1783 - Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin died, Swedish astronomer; studied the moons of Jupiter. B. 9/11/1717
1784 - Samuel Johnson died, English lexicographer
1805 - Johann von Lamont born; Scottish-born German astronomer and physicist. His most important work was on the magnetism of the Earth. He discovered a magnetic decennial period (ten-year cycle) and the electric current in the Earth closing the electric "circuit" creating the magnetic field in 1850. This roughly matched the eleven-year sunspot cycle discovered by Heinrich Schwabe. He calculated the orbits of the moons of Uranus and Saturn, obtaining the first value for Uranus' mass. By chance he observed Neptune in 1845 and twice in 1846, but did not recognize the object as being a new planet.
1818 – Mary Todd Lincoln born, First Lady of the United States
1835 - John Storm died; American Revolutionary soldier
1867 – An explosion at Clerkenwell gaol in London, intended to aid in the escape of two Fenians, causes several deaths and injuries.
Kristian Birkeland born; Norwegian scientist. He is best remembered as the person who first elucidated the nature of the Aurora borealis.
1871 - Russell Williams Porter born; He is sometimes referred to as the "founder of amateur telescope making." After designing modest-sized amateur telescopes, he was hired to help with the design of a 200 inch Hale telescope for the Mount Palomar Observatory. His drawings for this project were exceptional, and were as good as blueprints. He also made conceptual designs for the Griffith Observatory and served as a consultant to the architects. He was born in Springfield, Vermont, which is host of the world's largest amateur telescope society, Stellafane, first formed by Porter himself. www.nps.gov/history/hist...5/astro4e.htm
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/194....57..235M (p. 238) docs.google.com/viewer
1887 - George Polya born; He created the phrase: “How I need a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy chapters involving quantum mechanics” (This is a mnemonic for the first fifteen digits of π; the lengths of the words are the digits.) *Last night, looking at suspected carcinoma on my back for a moment I saw the pi symbol.
1905 - Críostóir Mac Aonghusa, writer and promoter of the Irish language is born in Blackwater, Co. Offaly
1913 or 1916 - Archie Moore born; World Light Heavyweight Champion 17 Dec 1952–12 May 1962
1920 - The angular diameter of Betelgeuse was first measured by Michelson and Pease using an astronomical interferometer on the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope. Pease measured the angular diameter as 0.047 arcseconds. More recent visible-light observations of Betelgeuse have found the diameter to vary between 0.0568 and 0.0592 arcseconds. It is the second brightest star in the constellation Orion, and the ninth brightest star in the night sky. Betelgeuse is a red supergiant, one of the largest stars known. If it were placed at the center of our solar system, its outer surface would extend between the orbit of Mars and Jupiter.
1934 - Thomas A. Watson died, American assistant to Alexander Graham Bell
1955 - Grace Gifford Plunkett, Irish patriot, dies
1961 – Irene Saez born, Miss Universe 1981 and Venezuelan politician
1970 - Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner born, Austrian mountaineer; Together with Edurne Pasaban and Oh Eun-Sun, she is one of only three women who have climbed at least thirteen of the fourteen eight-thousanders.
1972 – Apollo program: Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt begin the third and final Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) or "Moonwalk" ofApollo 17. This is the last manned mission to the moon of the 20th century.
1978 - BJ Penn born; American mixed martial artist; In 2000, he became the first non-Brazilian winner of the World Jiu-Jitsu Championship in the black-belt category
1989 – Attack on Derryard checkpoint: The Provisional Irish Republican Army launch an attack on a British Army permanent vehicle checkpoint near Rosslea, Northern Ireland. Two British soldiers are killed and one badly wounded.



12/14 ast
1503 – Nostradamus born
1542 – Princess Mary Stuart becomes Mary, Queen of Scots.
1546 – Tycho Brahe born, Danish astronomer; discovered SN 1572 on 11/11/1572
www.nytimes.com/learning/g...091214.html
www.google.com/search
1591 – Saint John of the Cross died, Spanish friar and poet
1791 – Charles Wolfe born, Irish poet; possibly related to Wolfe Tone
1799 - George Washington died
1807 - The first meteorite recorded in the US fell near Weston (now called Easton), Connecticut. Benjamin Silliman, one of the first American professors of science (at Yale University), made a chemical analysis of the meteorite, publishing the first scientific account of any American meteorite.
www.peabody.yale.edu/collect...ton.html
www.stamfordadvocate.com/defau...12.php
easthaddam.patch.com/article...r-strike
Thomas Webb born; English astronomer; In 1859 he wrote his classic astronomical observing guide Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes for which he is best known today. This work became the standard observing guide of amateur astronomers worldwide, and remained so until well into the 20th Century, gradually supplanted by more modern guides such as Robert Burnham's Celestial Handbook. The Moon crater Webb is named in his honor.
1900 – Quantum Mechanics: Max Planck presents a theoretical derivation of his black-body radiation law.
1903 – The Wright brothers make their first attempt to fly with the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1911 – Roald Amundsen's team, comprising himself, Olav Bjaaland, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, and Oscar Wisting, becomes the first to reach the South Pole.
1946 – The United Nations General Assembly votes to establish its headquarters in New York City.
1948 – Lester Bangs born, American music journalist (d. 1982)
1951 - Carl Otto Lampland died; American astronomer. He went to Lowell Observatory in 1902. He designed cameras used for astronomy and also designed and maintained telescopes, including resilvering the mirror of the 40-inch telescope. He also constructed thermocouples and used them to measure temperatures of planets. Together with William Coblentz, he measured large differences between the day and night temperatures on Mars. He discovered the asteroid 1604 Tombaugh. The Moon crater Lampland and a crater on Mars are named in his honor.
1954 – Steven MacLean born; Canadian astronaut. He is the current President of the Canadian Space Agency,
1955 - Ireland and 11 more countries join U.N.
1959 – Jorge Vaca born, Mexican boxer; welterweight champ
1962 – NASA's Mariner 2 becomes the first spacecraft to fly by Venus.
1971 – The first ever photo of a CME was made by R. Tousey of the Naval Research Laboratory using the Seventh Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-7)
docs.google.com/viewer very 1st paragraph and on 3rd pg.
docs.google.com/viewer 1st para.
docs.google.com/viewer
Dick Tiger died, Nigerian-born boxer; light-heavyweight champ
1972 – Apollo program: Eugene Cernan is the last person to walk on the moon, after he and Harrison Schmitt complete the third and final Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) of the Apollo 17 mission. This is the last manned mission to the moon of the 20th century.
1975 – Justin Furstenfeld born, American rock singer
1976 - Donald Menzel died; His work with Lawrence Aller and James Gilbert Baker defined many of the fundamental principles of the study of planetary nebulae. UFO debunker.
1985 - Catherine Doherty died; social justice activist; husband Eddie Doherty's screenplay for the World War II film The Sullivans was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Story.
2006 - Ahmet Ertegun died; founder of Atlantic Records, writer of classic blues songs, and chairman of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and museum, described as "one of the most significant figures in the modern recording industry."



12/16 ast usgs
1497 – Vasco da Gama rounds the Cape of Good Hope
1575 – The 1575 Valdivia earthquake takes place. *Same place as 5/22/60 quake
1707 – Last recorded eruption of Mount Fuji in Japan. www.volcanolive.com/fuji.html
1773 – American Revolution: Boston Tea Party – Members of the Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawks dump crates of tea into Boston harbor as a protest against the Tea Act.
1776 - Johann Ritter born; German chemist and physicist. Ritter made very important discoveries regarding electrochemistry and ultraviolet light. He is credited with discovering the ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum
1811 - The New Madrid earthquake in Mississippi Valley near New Madrid reverses the course of the river for a while. Other earthquakes along the fault occur on January 23, 1812 and February 7, 1812.
1826 - Giovanni Battista Donati born; Italian astronomer. Between 1854 and 1864 he discovered six new comets, including the spectacular Comet Donati (C/1858 L1), found in 1858. He also pioneered spectroscopy of comets to determine their physical composition, discovering that the spectrum changed when a comet approached the Sun and heating caused it to emit its own light rather than reflected sunlight. Discovered Comet Donati on 6/2/1858. Perihelion 9/30/1858. After the Great Comet of 1811, it was the most brilliant comet that appeared in the 19th century. It was also the first comet to be photographed. It was nearest the Earth on October 10, 1858.
1827 - Jean A. Oudemans born. In 1874 he observed the Venus transit from the island of Réunion, although in bad weather.
1857 - Edward Emerson Barnard born; American astronomer. He was commonly known as E. E. Barnard, and was recognized as a gifted observational astronomer. He is best known for his discovery of Barnard's star in 1916, which is named in his honor. In 1892 he made observations of a nova and was the first to notice the gaseous emissions, thus deducing that it was a stellar explosion. The same year he also discovered Amalthea, the fifth moon of Jupiter. He was the first to discover a new moon of Jupiter since Galileo Galilei in 1609. This was the last satellite discovered by visual observation (rather than by examining photographic plates or other recorded images). The faint Barnard's Star is named for Edward Barnard after he discovered in 1916 that it had a very large proper motion, relative to other stars. This is the second nearest star system to the Sun, second only to the Alpha Centauri system. He was also a pioneering astrophotographer. He cataloged a series of dark nebula giving them numerical designation akin to the Messier catalog
1909 - Hans Eduard Suess born, Austrian physical chemist and nuclear physicist. he collaborated on the shell model of the atomic nucleus with Hans Jensen. In 1950 Suess emigrated to the United States. He did research in the field of cosmochemistry, investigating the abundance of certain elements in meteorites with Harold Urey at the University of Chicago. Suess' most recent research was focused on the distribution of carbon-14 and tritium in the oceans and atmosphere.
1920 - The Haiyuan earthquake, magnitude 8.5, rocks the Gansu province in China, killing an estimated 200,000.
1960 – 1960 New York air disaster: While approaching New York's Idlewild Airport, a United Airlines Douglas DC-8 collides with a TWALockheed Super Constellation in a blinding snowstorm over Staten Island, killing 134.
1962 - Explorer 16 was launched.



12/17 ast ire usgs
1650 - Christoph Arnold born; German amateur astronomer. Interested in astronomy, he spotted the great comet of 1683, eight days before Hevelius did. He also observed the great comet of 1686. In 1686, Kirch went to Leipzig. There, he observed the great comet of 1686, together with Gottfried Kirch. Arnold observed the transit of Mercury in front of the sun on October 13, 1690. He was the author of Göttliche Gnadenzeichen, in einem Sonnenwunder vor Augen gestellt (Leipzig, 1692) which contains an account of the transit of Mercury in 1690.
1787 - Jan Evangelista Purkyne born; Czech anatomist, patriot, and physiologist. He is best known for his 1837 discovery of Purkinje cells, large neurons with many branching dendrites found in the cerebellum. He is also known for his discovery, in 1839 of Purkinje fibres, the fibrous tissue that conducts electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node to all parts of the ventricles of the heart. Other discoveries include Purkinje images, reflections of objects from structures of the eye, and the Purkinje shift, the change in the brightness of red and blue colours as light intensity decreases gradually at dusk. Purkyně also introduced the scientific terms plasma (for the component of blood left when the suspended cells have been removed) and protoplasm (the substance found inside cells).
1790 - The Aztec Sun Stone was discovered in Mexico City.
1797 - Joseph Henry born; While building electromagnets, Henry discovered the electromagnetic phenomenon of self-inductance. He also discovered mutual inductance independently of Faraday, though Faraday was the first to publish his results. the SI unit of inductance, the henry, are named in his honor.
1868 - Jose Comas Sola born; Spanish astronomer. He discovered the periodic comet 32P/Comas Solá, and co-discovered the non-periodic C/1925 F1 (Shajn-Comas Solà); he also discovered 11 asteroids. In 1907 he claimed to observe limb darkening of Saturn's moon Titan, the first evidence that the body had an atmosphere.
1903 – The Wright Brothers make their first powered and heavier-than-air flight in the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1907 - William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin died; Belfast-born mathematical physicist and engineer. Kelvin is widely known for developing the basis of absolute zero, and for this reason a unit of temperature measure is named after him.
1908 - Willard Libby born; American physical chemist, famous for his role in the 1949 development of radiocarbon dating, a process which revolutionized archaeology
1931 - mag. 4.6 earthquake, MS. largest historical earthquake in Mississippi
1933 – Thubten Gyatso died, 13th Dalai Lama (b. 1876)
1946 - Grigory Nikolaevich Neujmin died; Soviet astronomer. He is credited with the discovery of 74 asteroids, and notably 951 Gaspra and 762 Pulcova. He also discovered or co-discovered a number of periodic comets, including 25D/Neujmin, 28P/Neujmin, 42P/Neujmin, 57P/du Toit-Neujmin-Delporte and 58P/Jackson-Neujmin. He discovered asteroid 824 Anastasia, which on 4/6/10 occulted the naked-eye star ζ Ophiuchi over a path stretching from the Los Angeles area to Edmonton, Alberta
1952 - Archie Moore beat Joey Maxim for world light heavyweight championship
www.theboxinghistorian.com/Ring....html www.boxing-memorabilia.com/Arch...m.htm
1964 - Victor Franz Hess died; Austrian-American physicist. discovered cosmic rays
1969 – Chuck Liddell born
1973 - Charles Greeley Abbot died; astrophysicist, astronomer and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Responsible for the observatory's solar observations, he designed and built devices for measuring solar radiation, including a greatly improved bolometer which measured the Sun's inner corona at the 1900 solar eclipse in Wadesboro, North Carolina. Abbot, recognising that the solar constant was badly approximated, proposed a more accurate value of 1.93 cal/cm²/min for the solar constant (the modern value is measured in watts per square meter).
1978 - Manny Pacquiao born; Filipino boxer and politician. He is a seven-division world champion, the first boxer in history to win nine world titles in seven different weight divisions. He is also the first boxer in history to win the lineal championship in four different weight classes. He was named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s by the Boxing Writers Association of America
1983 – The IRA bombs Harrods Department Store in London, killing six people.



12/18
1839 - John William Draper took the first U.S. photograph of the Moon.
www.fotoart.gr/photograph...themoon.htm




12/19
1741 – Vitus Bering died, Danish-born explorer
1907 - Jimmy McLarin born; Irish Canadian professional boxer who became two time welterweight world champion
1915 – Alois Alzheimer died, German neuroscientist
1944 – Richard Leakey born, Kenyan paleontologist, conservationist and politician
1951 - Alan Rouse born, British mountaineer; first British climber to reach the summit of the second highest mountain in the world, K2, but died on the descent.
1959 - Ivan Vallejo born; mountaineer from Ecuador. On May 1, 2008, he finished his "Desafio 14" – a personal quest for reaching the summit of all 14 mountains above 8,000 m (eight-thousanders), without the use of supplemental oxygen.
1967 - Criss Angel born
2009 – Kim Peek died, American prodigious savant and inspiration for the 1988 film Rain Man



12/20 ast ire usgs
1638 - Birth of Narcissus Marsh, provost of Trinity College Dublin and founder of Marsh's Library - the oldest public library in Ireland
1803 – The Louisiana Purchase is completed at a ceremony in New Orleans.
1833 – Samuel Mudd born, American physician
1859 - Birth of Kuno Meyer, Irish Celtic scholar
1865 - Birth in Dublin of Maud Gonne McBride, revolutionary and patriot, who dedicates her life to the attainment of an independent Irish nation
1876 - Walter Adams born; At Mount Wilson Observatory in California, in collaboration with Walter Adams, Arnold Kohlschutter discovered "a spectroscopic method for determining stellar distances: they showed that the relative intensities of spectral lines could be used to determine absolute magnitudes of both giant and main sequence stars." (Astronomical Society of the Pacific) This allowed astronomers to determine the distances of stars using the spectroscope. Walter Adams, in addition to his work with Kohlschutter, studied the companion of the brightest star in our night sky and found it to be Earth's size and yet nearly as bright and as massive as our Sun.
1891 - George Bassett Clark died ( b. February 14, 1827) American instrument maker & astronomer. He was the son of Alvan Clark, part of a family of refracting telescope makers in the 19th century. The family telescope works in Cambridge MA made many of the record-breaking refracting instruments, including the still-largest refracting telescope at the Yerkes Observatory
1900 - Comet Giacobini-Zinner was discovered by Michel Giacobini. It is a periodic comet in our solar system.
1922 – George Roy Hill born, American film director; Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
1940 - mag. 5.5 earthquake, NH. largest quake in NH.
1942 - earthquake, Turkey; 1,100 dead
1945 – Peter Criss born
1946 – Dick Wolf born
earthquake, Japan; 1,400 dead.
1955 – David Breashears born, American mountaineer; In 1985, he became the first American to reach the summit of Mount Everest twice.
1966 – Chris Robinson born, American singer (Black Crowes)
1996 – Carl Sagan died
2000 - The Guinness Book of World Records confirms that an eight-inch egg laid by "Queen Maeve", a Belclare duck owned by the Costello family of Galway, is the world’s largest
2002 - Grote Reber died; one of the pioneers of radio astronomy
2005 – Maniam Moorthy died, Malaysian climber; member of the first group of Malaysians to successfully climb Mount Everest
2007 – The painting Portrait of Suzanne Bloch (1904), by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso, is stolen from the São Paulo Museum of Art, along with O Lavrador de Café, by the major Brazilian modernist painter Candido Portinari.



12/23 ast usgs 2010
1672 - Rhea was discovered by Giovanni Domenico Cassini. Rhea is the second largest moon of Saturn. Rhea is heavily cratered and has bright wispy markings on its surface.
1783 – George Washington resigns as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army at the Maryland State House in Annapolis, Maryland.
1805 – Joseph Smith, Jr. born, creator of the Mormon cult.
1846 - Georg Karl Friedrich Kunowsky died. Kunowsky made observations of Mars with an 11 cm achromatic refractor telescope made by Joseph von Fraunhofer, which was one of the first times that achromatic refractors were used for planetary observation; these were a notable improvement over the reflectors available to earlier observers. Like William Herschel before him, he came to the correct conclusion that the visible patches on Mars were surface features rather than clouds or other transient features. one of a number of astronomers to independently discover the return of Comet Halley in 1835.
1895 - John Russell Hind died; Hind is notable for being one of the early discoverers of asteroids. He also discovered and observed the variable stars R Leporis, U Geminorum, and T Tauri (also called Hind's Variable Nebula), and discovered the variability of μ Cephei. Hind discovered Nova Ophiuchi 1848 (V841 Ophiuchi), the first nova of modern times (since the supernova SN 1604).
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/192....81..167B - discovery of Nova Ophiuchi 1848 (second page) *see 4/6/10: Asteroid 824 Anastasia occultation of Zeta Ophiuchi
1907 - Pierre Janssen died; French astronomer who, along with the English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gas helium. While observing the eclipse, he noticed a bright yellow line with a wavelength of 587.49 nm in the spectrum of the chromosphere of the Sun. This was the first observation of this particular spectral line, and one possible source for it was an element not yet discovered on the earth. Janssen was at first ridiculed since no element had ever been detected in space before being found on Earth. The element was helium. One main purpose of his spectroscopic inquiries was to answer the question whether the Sun contains oxygen or not. An indispensable preliminary was the virtual elimination of oxygen-absorption in the Earth's atmosphere, and his bold project of establishing an observatory on the top of Mont Blanc was prompted by a perception of the advantages to be gained by reducing the thickness of air through which observations have to be made.
1922 - Harold Masursky born; started his career working for the US Geological Survey and later joined NASA as a senior science member. He was responsible for investigation of planetary and lunar surfaces, being interested in finding scientifically valuable landing places. This included the Apollo and Viking missions.
1926 - Robert Bly born; Iron John: A Book About Men (1990)
1928 - Michael Philip Candy born; British astronomer who discovered Comet Candy 1960N on 12/26/1960. This was the first time an astronomer had discovered and calculated the orbit of a comet. During the 1960’s he expanded his astronomical expertise by work at the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO). Here he observed double stars and calculated proper motions and parallaxes. He also assisted development of this type of work at various observatories, notably with visits to Egypt during 1965 and Spain in 1968. Michael Philip Candy joined the Perth Observatory in 1969 and was Director 1984-93. Much of his work has been on comets and minor planets. One of his career highlights was calculating positions for Halley's comet in 1986, with 10% of all Earth-based positions of the comet being made from Perth under his supervision.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/199...105...56.
www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~jds/history.htm
books.google.com/books
www.eoas.info/biogs/P001984b.htm
1943 - Johannes Wilsing died; His early career was spent on solar studies, including observations of sunspots and derivations of the rotation period. In 1897 he measured the parallax of 61 Cygni, a relatively nearby star. He performed extensive work on the luminosity, colors, and diameters of stars.
1946 – John Sullivan born, British screenwriter
1948 – Leslie Moonves born
1964 - Eddie Vedder born
1971 – Corey Haim born, Canadian actor (d. 3/10/2010)
1972 - A 6.25 Richter scale earthquake in Nicaragua killed 6,000 people in the capital, Managua
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...12_23.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/...2540045.stm
www.iris.edu/seismo/quakes/1972managua/
1973 - Gerard Kuiper died. Kuiper Belt. He was blessed with an extraordinarily sharp eyesight, allowing him to see magnitude 7.5 stars with the naked eyes, about four times fainter than visible to normal eyes. Kuiper discovered two moons of planets in the solar system, namely Uranus's moon Miranda and Neptune's moon Nereid. In addition, he discovered carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Mars and the existence of amethane-laced atmosphere above Saturn's moon Titan in 1944. Kuiper spent most of his career at the University of Chicago, but moved to Tucson, Arizona in 1960 to found the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona. In the 1960s, Kuiper helped identify landing sites on the Moon for the Apollo program.
1975 - Corrie Floris, aka Sky Lopez born. porn star
1985 - mag. 6.8 earthquake, Canada. Some people fled from buildings in Edmonton, Alberta about 1100 km from the epicenter. *Alberta, where the path of Anastasia's occultation of Zeta Ophiuchi finished
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1986 – Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, lands at Edwards Air Force Base in California becoming the first aircraft to fly non-stop around the world without aerial or ground refueling.



12/24
1524 - Vasco da Gama died
1579 - Michael Maestlin catalogued the Pleiades cluster. Eleven stars in the cluster were recorded by Maestlin, and possibly as many as fourteen were observed.
1973 - Gerard Kuiper died
1974 - Ryan Seacrest born; Jamie Oliver's Food Revolution: executive producer



12/25 ast ire usgs
1066 – William the Conqueror is crowned king of England, at Westminster Abbey, London. Also known as William I of England, he was the King of England from Christmas, 1066 until his death. He was also Duke of Normandy from 3 July 1035 until his death. To press his claim to the English crown, William invaded England in 1066, leading an army ofNormans, Bretons, Flemish people, and Frenchmen (from Paris and Île-de-France) to victory over the English forces of King Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings, and suppressed subsequent English revolts in what has become known as the Norman Conquest. His reign, which brought Norman-French culture to England…
1351 - William Ó Ceallaigh (O'Kelly), chief of Uí Mhaine, holds a great Christmas feast for the bards of Ireland
1635 – Samuel de Champlain died, French explorer
1642 (OS) – Isaac Newton born
1643 – Christmas Island found and named by Captain William Mynors of the East India Ship Company vessel, the Royal Mary.
1757 - Benjamin Pierce born, Chelmsford, MA; Governor of New Hampshire from 1827 to 1828 and from 1829 to 1830. Sons were President Franklin Pierce and John Sullivan Pierce (November 5, 1796–1824).
webcache.googleusercontent.com/search
1758 - Comet Halley discovered by Johann Georg Palitzsch
1776 – George Washington and his army cross the Delaware River to attack the Kingdom of Great Britain's Hessian mercenaries in Trenton, New Jersey.
1821 – Clara Barton born, Oxford, MA; founder of the American Red Cross
1824 - William Lawless, United Irishmen and officer in Napoleon's Irish Legion, dies in Paris
1876 – Muhammad Ali Jinnah born, founder of Pakistan
1890 – Noel Odell born, British mountaineer; on Everest expedition with Mallory and Irvine (who died)
1908 - Percy Molesworth died
1911 - Louise Bourgeois born; artist. "Art is a guarantee of sanity. That is the most important thing I have said."
1925 – Carlos Castaneda born, Peruvian-born author
1945 – Noel Redding born, English musician
1950 - Peter Boardman born, British mountaineer; summitted Everest and died on Everest
1957 – Shane MacGowan born, Irish musician
1961 – Otto Loewi died; discovered neurotransmitter acetylcholine
1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 8 performs the very first successful Trans Earth Injection (TEI) maneouver, sending the crew and spacecraft on a trajectory back to Earth from Lunar orbit.
1971 – Noel Hogan born, Irish musician; The Cranberries
1973 – Gabriel Voisin died; creator of Europe's first engine powered, heavier-than-air flying machine capable of a sustained circular ( 1 km) controlled flight, including take-off and landing.
1976 – Armin van Buuren born, Dutch DJ & Producer
1977 – Israel Vasquez Castañeda born, WBC Super bantamweight champion
1997 – Anatoli Boukreev died, Kazakh mountaineer; died in avalanche on Annapurna; ascended Everest
2004 – Cassini orbiter releases Huygens probe which successfully landed on Saturn's moon Titan on January 14, 2005.
2008 – Eartha Kitt died



12/26 ast ire usgs
1620 - Main Pilgrim party went ashore at Plymouth, following the initial landing party on 12/21
www.mayflowerfamilies.com/colon...ms.htm
1624 – Simon Marius died, German astronomer; Marius gave Jupiter's "Galilean" moons their names. He and Galileo both claimed to have discovered them in 1610 and likely did so independently. They became involved in a dispute over priority. Marius observed the Andromeda Nebula with a telescope (Arabs had found it) and one of the first to observe sunspots.
1776 - Battle of Trenton.
1861 - Emil Wiechert born; Wiechert seismometer (1900)
1871 – Gilbert and Sullivan collaborate for the first time, on their lost opera, Thespis. It does modestly well, but the two would not collaborate again for four years.
1908 - Jack Johnson became world champ with win over Tommy Burns?
1939 - earthquake, Turkey; 33,000 dead (early morning 12/27 Turkey time)
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...12_26.php
1954 - Peter Hillary born, New Zealand mountaineer; When Peter Hillary summited Everest in 1990, he and his father were the first father/son duo to achieve the feat. Hillary has achieved two summits of Everest, an 84-day trek across Antarctica to the South Pole, and an expedition guiding astronaut Neil Armstrong to land a small aircraft at the North Pole. He has climbed many of the world’s major peaks, and on June 19, 2008 fulfilled his ambition of climbing the highest mountains on all seven continents when he summited Mount McKinley in Alaska.
1960 - Michael Candy discovered Comet Candy
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/199...105...56. bio/obit
www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~jds/history.htm
books.google.com/books
books.google.com/books
www.eoas.info/biogs/P001984b.htm
1961 - John Lynch born; Northern Irish actor
Andrew Lock born, Australian mountaineer; Australia’s most accomplished high altitude mountaineer. He completed his personal mountaineering project to be the first Australian to climb all fourteen "eight-thousanders" (peaks over 8,000 metres above sea level) in October 2009.
1972 - President Harry Truman died
1997 – The south side of the Soufriere Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat collapsed, and an explosive blast completely destroyed the two towns on that side of the island. The communities had been evacuated and no lives were lost. www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/...crep06.html
www.sciencedaily.com/release...1247.htm
1998 - Thousands of homes and businesses in the northern half of the country are without electricity as hurricane-force gales and gusts of over 100 miles per hour send poles crashing to the ground and entangle wires in fallen trees. Galway, Mayo, Sligo and Donegal are the worst affected counties
Former IRA Chief of Staff, Cathal Goulding, dies in a Dublin hospital
2003 - Bam
2004 - Sumatra
Jonathan Drummond-Webb suicide, South African heart surgeon
2006 - President Gerald Ford died
The 2006 Hengchun earthquake with 7.1 magnitude hit Taiwan.



12/27
1571 - Johannes Kepler born
2004 - NASA and European satellites detected a gamma-ray flare likely from a magnetar, the neutron star SGR 1806-20, about 50,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. It was the brightest explosion detected up to that date. The apparent magnitude was brighter than a full moon and all historical star explosions. The light was brightest in the gamma-ray energy range, far more energetic than visible light or X-rays and invisible to our eyes.
www.nasa.gov/vision/univ...su_0205.html



12/28 ast ire usgs 2010
1612 – Galileo Galilei becomes the first astronomer to observe the planet Neptune, although he mistakenly catalogued it as a fixed star.
1763 – John Molson born, English-born Canadian brewer
1782 - Joseph Arnold born; Rafflesia arnoldii
1798 - Thomas Henderson born; Scottish astronomer noted for being the first person to measure the distance to Alpha Centauri, the major component of the nearest stellar system to Earth, and for being the first Astronomer Royal for Scotland. www.astronomyedinburgh.org/publ....html
1856 - Woodrow Wilson born
1882 - Arthur Eddington born
1904 - Alphonse Borrelly discovered Comet Borrelly
Clay Walter Allen born; Australian solar physicist and a Professor of Astronomy at the University of London (1951-1972). He was the author of an influential photometric atlas of the solar spectrum, theoretical analyses of the Sun's atmosphere, and Astrophysical Quantities, a compendium of astronomical data.
1908 – An earthquake rocks Messina, Sicily killing over 75,000.
www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/re...deAMEX99.html
1918 – Constance Markiewicz while detained in Holloway prison, became the first woman to be elected MP to the British House of Commons.
1919 – Johannes Rydberg died; Swedish physicist mainly known for devising the Rydberg formula, in 1888, which is used to predict the wavelengths of photons (of light and other electromagnetic radiation) emitted by changes in the energy level of an electron in an hydrogen atom.
1929 - Maarten Schmidt born; Dutch astronomer who measured the distances of astronomical objects called quasars. In 1959 he emigrated to the United States and went to work at the California Institute of Technology. In the beginning he worked at theories about the mass distribution and dynamics of galaxies. After a while he studied light spectra of radio sources. In 1963, using the famous 200-inch reflector telescope at Mt Palomar Schmidt identified the visible object corresponding to one of these radio sources, known as 3C 273 and also studied its spectrum. While its star-like appearance suggested it was relatively nearby, the spectrum of 3C 273 proved to have a very high redshift of 0.158, showing that it lay far beyond the galaxy, and thus possessed an extraordinarily high luminosity. Schmidt termed 3C 273 a "quasi-stellar" object or quasar; thousands have since been identified.
1960 – Raymond Bourque born
1973 - Comet Kohoutek reached perihelion
1974 - earthquake, Pakistan; 5,300 dead. most destructive earthquake of 1974
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...12_28.php
1989 – A magnitude 5.6 earthquake hits Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia, killing 13 people.
2004 - Mike Brown discovered Haumea
2005 - Asteroid 2005 YU55 was discovered by Spacewatch at the University of Arizona, Tucson’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. Close approach 11/8/11.
www.space.com/11310-huge-...ovember.html
2009 – James Owen "The Rev" Sullivan died, American musician drummer of Avenged Sevenfold
43 people die in a suicide bombing in Karachi, Pakistan, where Shia Muslims were observing the Day of Ashura.




12/29
2000 - Cassini spacecraft made its closest approach to Jupiter on its way to orbiting Saturn
www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm




12/30 ast ire usgs
1850 - John Milne born, Liverpool, England; pioneer seismologist
www.britannica.com/EBchecke...ohn-Milne web.mit.edu/invent/iow/milne.html
1879 - Sri Ramana Maharshi born, Indian philosopher
1924 - Edwin Hubble Announces Andromeda is a Separate Galaxy.
astronomy.fm/on-this-day...y/12-30.html
1930 - The first photograph to show the Earth's curvature was taken by Capt. A.W. Stevens of the U.S. Army. It was captured from an airplane flying over South America and it showed the distant horizon over 300 miles ahead as bent slightly downward toward one end.
1934 - John Bahcall born; American astrophysicist. He is best known for his contributions to the solar neutrino problem and the development of the Hubble Space Telescope, and for his leadership and development of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He also worked in many other areas: the standard model of a galaxy, with a massive black hole surrounded by stars, is known as the Bahcall-Wolf model; the Bahcall-Soneira model was for many years the standard model for the structure of the Milky Way; and he contributed to accurate models of stellar interiors.
1984 - Massa the gorilla died
1985 - Stephen Synnott discovered Uranus's moon, Puck
1992 – Ling-Ling died, panda given to the USA by China
1994 - John Salvi of Hampton, NH, shot Shannon Lowney, 25, and Lee Ann Nichols, 38, to death and wounded five other people during his attack on the clinics where abortions occurred in the Boston suburb of Brookline. Witnesses testified during the trial that he had shouted, "This is what you get! You should pray the rosary!" as he fired 10 bullets into Nichols. Salvi was arrested the next day in Norfolk, Va., after he began shooting at an abortion clinic there.
www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv...996.htm
2002 - To mark the 400th anniversary of the exodus of the O’Sullivan Beare clan from West Cork to Leitrim, a group of 40 people begins walking the entire 260-mile route which will take them through 11 counties and about two weeks to complete.
2005 - Candy Barr died; porn star




12/31
1602 - The O’Sullivan Beara’s are driven out of West Cork by the English who had defeated the combined Spanish and Irish forces at the Battle of Kinsale. Dónal Cam O’Sullivan, chieftain of the clan, begins the long march to Leitrim on this date, where he hopes to gain sanctuary with the O’Rourke’s of Breffni. Accompanying him are 1,000 men, women and children representing the first large-scale exodus of people from the Castletownbere region
1719 - John Flamsteed died; He catalogued a new star in the location of supernova remnant, Cassiopeia A. Modern astronomers found that the supernova which occurred there in the constellation Cassiopeia at the same time and place as Flamsteed's new stellar discovery. The star, which Flamsteed named 3 Cassiopeiae, does not exist today. Thus, he may very well have unwittingly observed the supernova, the last supernova to occur within our Milky Way. The remnant of the supernova, Cassiopeia A, is the brightest extrasolar radio source in our sky. *Same year as the first confirmed tornado in U.S., at Cambridge, MA.
chandra.harvard.edu/edu/form...aper.html






1862 1818 1822 1847 1807 1848 1834 1867 1872 1849

1862
1/18 - President John Tyler died
1/31 - Alvan Graham Clark discovered Sirius B
June 5 – Allvar Gullstrand born, Swedish ophthalmologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
July 24 – President Martin Van Buren died
10/21 - Heinrich d'Arrest discovered 76 Freia



1818
1/3 - Venus transited/occulted Jupiter. It is the last occultation of a planet by another planet before November 22, 2065.
www.bogan.ca/astro/occul.../1818occ.htm
www.iiap.res.in/events/moon_eclipse
climate.gi.alaska.edu/Curtis/astro4.html
1/28 - George S. Boutwell born, 20th Governor of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Treasury under President Ulysses S. Grant, Senator and Representative from Massachusetts and the first Commissioner of Internal Revenue under President Abraham Lincoln. In 1868, as a congressman, he served as one of the special prosecutors in the impeachment trials of President Andrew Johnson. He opposed the acquisition by the United States of the Philippines, became president of the American Anti-Imperialist League.
8/1 - Maria Mitchell born, American astronomer. Discovered Miss Mitchell's Comet on 10/1/1847.
10/5 - Nancy Hanks Lincoln died
11/5 - Benjamin Franklin Butler born, 33rd Governor of Massachusetts
12/13 - Mary Todd Lincoln born
12/24 - James Prescott Joule born



1822
4/26 - Frederick Law Olmstead born; landscape architect of Fall River's North and Ruggles parks
4/27 - President Ulysses Grant born
7/20 – Gregor Mendel born, Czech geneticist
8/25 – William Herschel died, German-born astronomer
10/4 – President Rutherford B. Hayes born
11/5 - transit of Mercury
12/27 – Louis Pasteur born, French microbiologist and chemist



1847
2/11 - Thomas Edison born
3/3 - Alexander Graham Bell born
8/13 - John Russell Hind discovered asteroid 7 Iris



1807 (this’s everythin)
3/29 – H. W. Olbers discovers the asteroid Vesta.
5/29 - James Sullivan became MA governor. He was the brother of John Sullivan. www.nga.org/portal/site/...beeb501010a0/
12/14 - The first meteorite recorded in the US fell near Weston (now called Easton), Connecticut. Benjamin Silliman, one of the first American professors of science (at Yale University), made a chemical analysis of the meteorite, publishing the first scientific account of any American meteorite.
www.peabody.yale.edu/collect...ton.html
easthaddam.patch.com/article...r-strike



1848
Irish Potato Famine (1845–1849)
Johann Wolf devised a way of quantifying sunspot activity. The Wolf sunspot number, as it is now called, remains in use.
1/9 - Caroline Herschel died; discovered several comets, inc. the periodic comet 35P/Herschel-Rigollet. She discovered M110, a dwarf elliptical galaxy that is a satellite of the Andromeda Galaxy, independently of Messier on 8/27/1783. M110 contains some dust and hints of recent star formation, which is unusual for dwarf elliptical galaxies in general. astronomycompendium.wikispaces.com/Herschel,+Caroline+Lucretia
1/31 – The Washington Monument is established.
2/2 – Mexican–American War formally ends, making the unincorporated, unorganized California Territory a provisional official possession: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, ending the war and ceding to the United States virtually all of what is today the southwest United States.
2/5 - Belle Starr born, American outlaw
2/14 - Benjamin Baillaud born, French astronomer. He worked in celestial mechanics, especially on the motions of the satellites of Saturn. He directed measurements of positions of stars and the moon as well as planets and satellites.
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
2/23 – John Quincy Adams died
4/27 - John Hind discovered Nova Ophiuchi 1848 (V841 Ophiuchi), the first nova of modern times (since the supernova SN 1604). - discovery of Nova Ophiuchi 1848 (second page) *see 4/6/10: Asteroid 824 Anastasia occultation of Zeta Ophiuchi
www.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/nova_list.html
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/192....81..167B
books.google.com/books
cbat.eps.harvard.edu/nova_list.html
www.google.com/search
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/193....27..337P (p. 340 states "On the night of April 28, 1848, Hind observed…")
5/29 – Wisconsin is admitted as the 30th U.S. state.
6/7 - Paul Gauguin born
8/7 – Jöns Jakob Berzelius died
9/19 - Hyperion, Saturn's moon, discovered by William Lassell and William and George Bond.
books.google.com/books
11/7 – Zachary Taylor elected pres.
12/6 – Johann Palisa born, Austrian astronomer. He was a prolific discoverer of asteroids, discovering 122 in all, from 136 Austria in 1874 to 1073 Gellivara in 1923. Some of his notable discoveries include 153 Hilda, 216 Kleopatra, 243 Ida, 253 Mathilde, 324 Bamberga, and the Amor asteroid 719 Albert.
12/18 – Punta Arenas (Sandy Point), the first major settlement in the Strait of Magellan, is founded.



1834
Hercules Florence coined the term photography, independently of John Herschel
2/8 - Dmitri Mendeleev born; Russian chemist and inventor. He is credited as being the creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements. Using the table, he predicted the properties of elements yet to be discovered.
3/14 – John Herschel discovered the open cluster of stars now known as NGC 3603. Most massive star so far weighed is in the cluster.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/196....59...67S herschel's discovery
www.universetoday.com/54002/p...gc-3603/
adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008...389L..38S (most massive star so far weighed (last sentence))
www.universetoday.com/54002/p...gc-3603/ most massive star
3/24 - John Wesley Powell born; U.S. soldier,geologist, explorer of the American West, and director of major scientific and cultural institutions. He is famous for the 1869 Powell Geographic Expedition, a three-month river trip down the Green and Colorado rivers that included the first passage of European Americans through the Grand Canyon. Powell served as second director of the US Geological Survey (1881–1894). He was director of the Bureau of Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution, where he supported linguistic and sociological research and publications.
7/11 - James McNeill Whistler born, Lowell, MA, American painter and etcher
www.britannica.com/EBchecke...-Whistler
0322b53.netsolhost.com/000/index.php
July 12 – David Douglas died, Scottish botanist; Douglas-fir "christmas tree"
July 19 – Edgar Degas born, French painter. *Edgar Lazaro's birthday today!
August 4 – John Venn born, British mathematician
8/22 - Samuel Pierpont Langley born, Roxbury, MA. American astronomer, physicist, and aeronautics pioneer.
9/13 - Isaac Ward born, Belfast; discovered SN 1885 in Andromeda Galaxy (M31). first supernova discovered beyond our Milky Way galaxy
homepage.eircom.net/~irishas...ish.htm#8
www.irishastrosoc.123bemyhost.com/a...#8
www.mccarthyobservatory.org/astr...u.htm (SN 1885)
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/198....17...98B (pg. 100)



1867
The Fenian rising occurs in Ireland.
Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet, using the 40 cm Foucault telescope at the Paris Observatory, discovered three stars in the constellation Cygnus (now designated HD191765, HD192103 and HD192641), that displayed broad emission bands on an otherwise continuous spectrum. This category of stars became named Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars.
March 1 – Nebraska is admitted as the 37th U.S. state.
March 30 – Alaska is purchased for $7.2 million from Alexander II of Russia, about 2 cent/acre ($4.19/km²), by United States Secretary of State William H. Seward.
April 1 – The Strait Settlement of Singapore, formerly ruled from Calcutta, becomes a Crown Colony under the jurisdiction of the Colonial Office in London. *10/12/2010 - Small NEO, 2010 TD54, passed within 60,000 km of Earth. At closest approach will be over SE Asia, vicinity of Singapore. *It was discovered on 10/9/2010 (Belva Plain's birthday. Plain died the day the NEO passed.)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_TD54
4/3 - Wilhelm Tempel discovered Comet Tempel 1, which reached perihelion in 2011 on the anniversaries of Comet McNaught's perihelion and the Haitian earthquake.
April 10 – George William Russell born, Irish nationalist, poet and artist
4/16 - Wilbur Wright born
May 11 – First public performance of Cox and Box by Francis Burnand and Arthur Sullivan at the Adelphi Theatre, London
July 28 – Charles Dillon Perrine born
8/25 - Michael Faraday died; contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
9/26 - James Ferguson died; American astronomer born in Scotland who made the first discovery of an asteroid from North America (31 Euphrosyne). Starting in 1847, he worked at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, DC.
10/31 - William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse died, Irish-English astronomer who built several telescopes including the world's largest telescope in 1845 and it remained the world's largest for the rest of the century. Using this telescope he saw and cataloged a large number of galaxies. His 72-inch (6 feet/1.8 m) Leviathan was the first to see the spiral structure of what was later known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, then called M51



1872
Henry Draper took the first stellar spectrum that showed absorption lines.
March 1 – In the United States, Yellowstone National Park (once laughingly dubbed "Colter's Hell" after John Colter, of the Lewis & Clark Expedition) is established as the world's first national park.
3/26 - mag. 7.2 quake, Lone Pine, CA; 30 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
April 2 – Samuel Morse died
5/6 - Willem de Sitter born, Dutch astronomer; work extensively on the motions of the satellites of Jupiter, determining their masses and orbits from decades of observations. He redetermined the fundamental constants of astronomy and determined the variation of the rotation of the earth. He also performed statistical studies of the distribution and motions of stars, but today he is best known for his contributions to cosmology. Since Holland remained neutral in World War I, de Sitter was able to be the liaison between scientists in warring countries, notably A.S Eddington in Britain and Albe’'s field equations showed that a near-empty universe would expand. Later, he and Einstein found an expanding universe solution without space curvature. "De Sitter universe"
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
7/4 - Calvin Coolidge born, Plymouth, VT
July 16 – Roald Amundsen born
11/5 - U.S. presidential election, 1872: Ulysses S. Grant defeats Horace Greeley.
Women's suffrage in the United States: In defiance of the law, suffragist Susan B. Anthony votes for the first time, and is later fined $100.
11/9 - The Great Boston Fire of 1872.
11/27 – A meteor shower display is seen over France.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/187....33...73H
meteorshowersonline.com/shower...ds.html
iopscience.iop.org/1538-388..._1037.pdf
11/29 - Horace Greeley died before votes in presidential election were counted
December 26 – Norman Angell born, British politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
nobelprize.org/nobel_priz...ll-bio.html



1863
American Civil War
January 28 – Ernest William Christmas born, Australian painter. Painting of volcano on his wikipedia page
February 24 – Arizona is organized as a United States territory.
3/3 - Idaho Territory is organized by the U.S. Congress.
4/17 - Augustus Love born; Love waves - earthquake waves that move horizontally with respect to the direction of travel, with no vertical motion.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
April 21 – Bahá'u'lláh declares His station as "He whom God shall make manifest". This date is celebrated in the Bahá'í Faith as The Festival of Ridván.
June 20 – West Virginia is admitted as the 35th U.S. state.
July 13 – American Civil War – (New York Draft Riots): In New York City, opponents of conscription begin 3 days of violent rioting, which would later be regarded as the worst in the history of the United States.
July 26 – Sam Houston died
July 30 – Henry Ford born
December 11 – Annie Jump Cannon born, American astronomer. With Edward C. Pickering, she is credited with the creation of the Harvard Classification Scheme, which was the first serious attempt to organize and classify stars based on their temperatures. Cannon divided stars into the spectral classes O, B, A, F, G, K, M. Her scheme was based on the strength of the Balmer absorption lines. After absorption lines were understood in terms of stellar temperatures her initial classification system was rearranged to avoid having to update star catalogues. The mnemonic of "Oh Be a Fine Girl and Kiss Me" has developed as a way to remember stellar classification.



1849
Irish Holocaust
1/1 - France issues Ceres, France's first postage stamp.
2/14 - In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first serving President of the United States to have his photograph taken.
February 28 – Regular steamboat service from the west to the east coast of the United Statesbegins with the arrival of the SS California in San Francisco Bay. The California leaves New York Harbor on October 6, 1848, rounds Cape Horn at the tip of South America, and arrives at San Francisco, California after the 4 month 21 day journey.
3/3 - Minnesota becomes a United States territory.
March 4 – Zachary Taylor refuses to be sworn in office on a Sabbath (Sunday). Urban legend holds that David Rice Atchison, President pro tempore of the United States Senate was President de jure for a single day.
March 5 – Zachary Taylor, the 12th President of the United States of America, takes his oath of office.
March 7 – Luther Burbank born, Lancaster, MA (birthplace of Henrietta Swan Leavitt); American biologist and botanist
April 21 – Irish Potato Famine: 96 inmates of the overcrowded Ballinrobe Union Workhouse die over the course of the preceding week from illness and other famine-related conditions, a record high.
May 17 – The St. Louis Fire starts when a steamboat catches fire and nearly burns down the entire city.
June 6 – Fort Worth, Texas is founded.
6/15 - President James Polk died
July 12 – Dolley Madison died, First Lady of the United States
September 14 – Ivan Pavlov born
October 7 – Edgar Allan Poe died
December 4 – Crazy Horse born, Chief of the Oglala Sioux






Lowell, Massachusetts / Seventeen Days / Eight Days

7/11/1834 - James McNeill Whistler born, Lowell, MA, American painter and etcher
www.britannica.com/EBchecke...-Whistler
0322b53.netsolhost.com/000/index.php

Irish Micky Ward - 10/4/65, Lowell

Paul Tsongas - 2/14/1941, Lowell

George Bassett Clark - 2/14/1827, Lowell

Percival Lowell



17

Fifth on the USGS list, a magnitude 9.0 quake, happened in Kamchatka, Russia on the day Dwight Eisenhower became president-elect of the United States. This Russian quake was a magnitude equal to the quake which spawned the cataclysmic tsunami in Japan on March 11, 2011 -- 17 days before GRB 110328A.

Seventeen days -- the interval between the Sichuan earthquake and Cerro Azul eruption in 2008 -- is also the interval between Neptune's discovery and William Lassell's discovery of Triton, Neptune's largest moon.

An earthquake of equal magnitude to the Ecuadoran quake struck off Chile's coast, very close to the 1960 quake, on February 27, 2010. This quake occurred seventeen days after the aforementioned magnitude 3.8 earthquake in Clyde Tombaugh's birthplace, Illinois.



8

John L. Sullivan became world champ eight days after FDR's birth.

The asteroid exploded in Earth's atmosphere near the city of Bone. Eight days before the explosion, also in Indonesia, a magnitude 7.6 earthquake left 1,100 people dead in Sumatra. It happened on the anniversary of seismologist Charles Richter's death. Richter, while at the California Institute of Technology, created the widely used Richter scale for earthquake measurement. This 2009 quake, like the 2004 and 2005 Indonesian earthquakes, occurred on Sumatra's West Coast. On September 29, 2009 -- the day before the earthquake -- the most powerful earthquake that year caused a tsunami which killed 200 people in the Samoa Islands. Two months earlier, the longest total solar eclipse of this century harmonized with the anniversary of Giuseppe Piazzi's death. There won't be a longer total solar eclipse until 2132, NASA says.

The most recent supermoon occurred on March 19, 2011, eight days after the cataclysmic earthquake and tsunami in Japan, #5 on the USGS list of most powerful quakes since 1900. The next time perigee harmonizes with the fullest lunar phase as it did in 1993, 2008, and 2011 will be on November 14, 2016 - the anniversary of Sedna's discovery.






Most powerful quakes each year 2003 - 2011

most powerful quakes
2003 - 9/25 Japan
2004 - 12/26 Sumatra
2005 - 3/28 Sumatra
2006 - 11/15 Kuril Islands
2007 - 9/12 Sumatra
2008 - 5/12 China
2009 - 9/29 Samoa
2010 - 2/27 Chile
2011 - 3/11 Japan


deadliest
2003 - 12/26 Bam
2004 - 12/26 Sumatra
2005 - 10/8 Pakistan
2006 - 5/26 Java
2007 - 8/15 Peru
2008 - 5/12 China
2009 - 9/30 Sumatra
2010 - 1/12 Haiti







1971 1973 1923 1976 1997 1901 1929 1948

1971
2/26 - Eryka Badu born
2/27 - Chilli born
5/27 - Lisa "Left Eye" Lopes born
3/8 - Frazier beat Ali
4/15 - Lynn Werbicki Bears born
6/5 - Mark Wahlberg
7/3 - jim morrison
7/21 - Yrjö Väisälä died; discovered asteroid 1541 Estonia. *Closest approach to Earth on 9/21/10 (same day as Jupiter and Uranus same-day opposition
ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/#1009
8/14 - Fitzgerald "Gerald" Heard died; LSD enthusiast
9/8 - Brooke Burke born *shown her in my dream minutes before she was shown attending emmy awards…Burke-Bourque-Bourke
9/16 - Amy Poehler born, Newton, MA.
9/25 - Carlos Monzon becomes world middleweight boxing champ; defeated Emile Griffith
10/3 - Seán Ó Riada died; perhaps the single most influential figure in the renaissance of traditional Irish music from the 1960s, through his participation in Ceoltóirí Chualann, his compositions, his writings and his broadcasts on the topic.
12/7 - Jamie Grissim vanished, Vancouver, WA. Warren Forrest, possible serial killer, likely killed her
www.aolnews.com/crime/arti...in/19496283
12/14 - The first ever image of a CME was made by R. Tousey of the Naval Research Laboratory using the Seventh Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-7)
docs.google.com/viewer very 1st paragraph and on 3rd pg.
docs.google.com/viewer 1st para.
docs.google.com/viewer
12/26 - jared leto



1973
1/20 – U.S. President Richard Nixon is inaugurated for his second term.
1/22 – Roe v. Wade: The U.S. Supreme Court overturns state bans on abortion.
George Foreman defeats Joe Frazier for the heavyweight world boxing championship.
Former U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson dies at his Stonewall, Texas ranch, leaving no former U.S. President living until the resignation of Richard M. Nixon in 1974.
1/23 – Eldfell on the Icelandic island of Heimaey erupts.
1/27 – U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War ends with the signing of the Paris Peace Accords.
2/4 – Oscar de la Hoya born, American boxer
3/7 – Comet Kohoutek is discovered.
3/8 – Provisional Irish Republican Army bombs explode in Whitehall and the Old Bailey in England.
Ron Pigpen McKernan died
3/17 – Caroline Corr born, Irish musician (The Corrs)
Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon, one of rock's landmark albums, is released.
3/26 – Larry Page born; co-founder of Google
3/30 – Adam Goldstein born, DJ AM (d. 2009)
4/4 - David Blaine born
4/5 – Pioneer 11 is launched on a mission to study the solar system.
4/28 – Six Irishmen, including Joe Cahill, are arrested by the Irish Naval Service off County Waterford, on board a coaster carrying 5 tons of weapons destined for the Provisional Irish Republican Army.
5/14 – Skylab, the United States' first space station, is launched.
6/25 – Erskine Hamilton Childers is elected the 4th President of Ireland.
6/28 – Elections are held for the Northern Ireland Assembly, which will lead to power-sharing between unionists and nationalists inNorthern Ireland for the first time.
6/30 – A very long total solar eclipse occurs. During the entire 2nd millennium, only 7 total solar eclipses exceeded 7 minutes of totality.
7/17 – Liam Kyle Sullivan born, Norfolk, MA; comedian/actor
7/25 – The Soviet Mars 5 space probe is launched.
7/28 – The Summer Jam at Watkins Glen, a massive rock festival featuring The Grateful Dead, The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, attracts over 600,000 music fans.
Skylab 3 (Owen Garriott, Jack Lousma, Alan Bean) is launched, to conduct various medical and scientific experiments aboard Skylab.
7/31 – A Delta Air Lines Flight 173 DC9-31 aircraft lands short of Boston's Logan Airport runway in poor visibility, striking a sea wall about 165 feet (50 m) to the right of the runway centerline and about 3,000 feet (914 m) short. All 6 crew members and 83 passengers are killed, 1 of the passengers dying several months after the accident.
8/21 – Nikolai Valuev born, Russian heavyweight boxing champion
Sergey Brin born, Soviet-born American entrepreneur, co-founder of Google
9/18 – James Marsden born, Actor
10/13 – Matt Hughes born, American mixed martial arts fighter
10/25 – Maxi Mounds born, American female stripper, largest breasts in the world
10/26 – Seth MacFarlane born, American animator and voice actor
10/27 - The Cañon City meteorite, a 1.4 kg chondrite type meteorite, strikes in Fremont County, Colorado.
10/31 – Mountjoy Prison helicopter escape: Three Provisional Irish Republican Army members escape from Mountjoy Prison, Dublin, Republic of Ireland after a hijacked helicopter lands in the exercise yard.
11/3 – Mariner program: NASA launches Mariner 10 toward Mercury (on March 29, 1974 it becomes the first space probe to reach that planet).
Pan Am cargo flight 160, a Boeing 707-321C, crashes at Logan International Airport, Boston, killing 3.
11/22 - Chad Trujillo born; astronomer
11/27 – The United States Senate votes 92–3 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States.
12/3 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter.
12/5 – Robert Watson-Watt died, Scottish engineer, inventor of radar
12/6 – The United States House of Representatives votes 387–35 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States; he is sworn in the same day.
12/24 - annular solar eclipse
Gerard Kuiper died
12/25 – Gabriel Voisin died, French aviation pioneer
12/28 - Comet Kohoutek perihelion articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/full....136R (2nd page)



1923
1/25 - Arvid Carlsson born; Swedish scientist who is best known for his work with the neurotransmitter dopamine and its effects in Parkinson's disease. For his work on dopamine, Carlsson won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000, along with co-recipients Eric Kandel and Paul Greengard.
2/3 - mag. 8.5 earthquake, Kamchatka, Russia. 11th most powerful
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...world.php
tsun.sscc.ru/TTT_rep.htm
www.guardian.co.uk/environm...isasters1
books.google.com/books
2/9 - Brendan Behan born, Irish author
2/10 - Wilhelm Röntgen died, German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901
2/13 - Chuck Yeager born, American test pilot and NASA official
5/2 - Patrick Hillery born; Pres. of Ireland (d. 2008)
5/3 - Ernst Hartwig died; discovered SN 1885 in Andromeda Galaxy (M31), one day after Isaac Ward discovered it in Belfast. first supernova discovered beyond our Milky Way galaxy
adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
www.google.com/#hl=en&saf...8bcb6a5307c
5/24 - The Irish Civil War ends.
5/27 - Henry Kissinger born; US Sec of State; Nobel Peace Prize
6/18 - Mount Etna erupts in Italy, making 60,000 homeless.
7/10 - Large hailstones kill 23 in Rostow, Soviet Union.
7/18 - Jerome Lemelson born; American inventor; Inventions in the fields in which he patented make possible, wholly or in part, innovations like automated cordless telephones, fax machines, videocassette recorders, camcorders, and magnetic tape drive used in Sony's Walkman tape players. Lemelson's 605 patents make him the sixteenth most prolific inventor in American history.
7/31 - Ahmet Ertegun born; founder of Atlantic Records, writer of classic blues songs, and chairman of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and museum, described as "one of the most significant figures in the modern recording industry."
8/2 - President Warren Harding died. Coolidge became presi.
9/1 - Rocky Marciano born
The Great Kantō earthquake devastates Tokyo and Yokohama, killing an estimated 142,807 people, but according to a Japanese construction research center report in 2005, 105,000 are confirmed dead.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
9/14 - Jack Dempsey vs. Luis Angel Firpo (died 8/7/60) *Dempsey became champ on 7/4/1919.
10/5 - Edwin Hubble discovered the Cepheid variable star which set him on the path to his paramount discovery of galaxies outside our Milky Way galaxy.
10/13 – Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey.
The third hurricane of the season, the first recorded example of a storm crossing from the Eastern Pacific basin into the Atlantic basin, occurred in Oaxaca.
10/29 - Turkey becomes a republic following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Kemal Atatürk is elected as the president.
11/8 – Jack Kilby born, American electrical engineer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics. Co-inventor of the microchip. Died 6/20/05
11/18 – Alan Shepard born, Derry, NH; second person and the first American in space. He later commanded the Apollo 14 mission, and was the fifth person to walk on the moon.
12/12 – In Italy, the Po River dam bursts, killing 600.



1976
1/29 – Twelve Provisional Irish Republican Army bombs explode in the West End of London.
2/4 – In Guatemala, a magnitude 7.5 earthquake kills more than 22,000. 19th deadliest quake since 1900.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...eaths.php
2/25 - Comet West perihelion
www.cfa.harvard.edu/icq/brightest.html
3/6 - Max 'Slapsie Maxie' Rosenbloom died, American boxer; world light heavyweight champ
3/7 - Comet West broke into two pieces near the Sun
3/8 - The Jilin Meteorite
www2.ville.montreal.qc.ca/plane...a.html
www.meteoritecollector.org/gall...n.php
www.daviddarling.info/encyclo...lin.html
astronomy.fm/on-this-day...y/03-08.html
3/11 - mag. 3.5 quake, RI. The largest historical earthquake in Rhode Island. Plaster cracked at Rogers, Connecticut; a lamp fell from a table at Newport, Rhode Island; and snow was knocked off a roof at Westport, Massachusetts. Felt from Oakland, Rhode Island, south to Newport and from Somerset, Massachusetts, south to New Bedford and Westport.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
4/1 -- Apple Computer Company is formed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
5/6 – An earthquake hits the Friuli area in Italy, killing more than 900 people.
5/25 - Cillian Murphy born
5/31 - Colin Farrell born
6/13 – Savage thunderstorms roll through the state of Iowa spawning several tornadoes, including an F-5 tornado that destroys the town of Jordan, Iowa.
6/25 - mag. 7.1 quake, East Indonesia, 5,000 - 9,000 dead
7/4 - United States Bicentennial
7/20 – Viking program: The Viking 1 lander successfully lands on Mars.
7/21 – A bomb kills Christopher Ewart-Biggs, British ambassador to the Irish Republic.
7/27 - Delegates attending an American Legion convention at The Bellevue Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, begin falling ill with a form of pneumonia: this will eventually be recognised as the first outbreak of Legionellosis.
7/28 - Tangshan earthquake left 255,000 dead in China. Ranked #2 on USGS list of deadliest quakes in all history
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...07_27.php
7/29 – In New York City, the "Son of Sam" pulls a gun from a paper bag, killing 1 and seriously wounding another, in the first of a series of attacks that terrorize the city for the next year.
7/31 - NASA releases the famous Face on Mars photo, taken by Viking 1.
8/4 – The first recognized outbreak of Legionnaires' disease kills 29 at the American Legion convention in Philadelphia.
8/6 - Soleil Moon Frye born
8/7 - Viking 2 enters orbit around Mars
8/10 - Robert L. May (Rudolph) died, Creator of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer
8/14 - Ten thousand Protestant and Catholic women demonstrate for peace in Northern Ireland.
8/16 - mag 7.9 earthquake and tsunami, Philippines, 5,000 - 8,000 dead
The Ramones, made their first "professional" performance at CBGB's.
8/26 - The first known outbreak of Ebola virus occurs in Yambuku, Zaire.
9/3 - Viking program: The Viking 2 spacecraft lands at Utopia Planitia on Mars, taking the first close-up color photos of the planet's surface.
9/10 - A British Airways Trident and a Yugoslav DC-9 collide near Zagreb, Yugoslavia (now Croatia), killing all 176 aboard.
9/25 - The Irish rock band U2 is formed after drummer Larry Mullen Jr. posts a note seeking members for a band on the notice board of his Dublin school.
9/28 - Fedor Emelianenko born, Russian mixed martial arts fighter; heavyweight champ
10/1 - Dora Venter (Melinda Gal) born, Hungarian pornographic actress
10/28 – Máire Drumm slain, Irish nationalist politician (assassinated) (b. 1919)
11/2 – U.S. presidential election, 1976: Jimmy Carter defeats incumbent Gerald Ford
11/24 – At least 3,840 are killed in a Richter scale magnitude 7.3 earthquake of Van and Muradiye in Turkey.
12/3 - Patrick Hillery is elected unopposed as the 6th President of Ireland.
Bob Marley and his manager Don Taylor are shot in an assassination attempt in Kingston, Jamaica.
12/23 – A new volcano, Murara, erupts in eastern Zaire.
12/25 - Armin van Buuren born, Dutch music producer and DJ



1997
1/12 - Charles Brenton Huggins died; Canadian-born American physician and physiologist and cancer researcher at the University of Chicago specializing in prostate cancer. He and Peyton Rous were awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering that hormones could be used to control the spread of some cancers. This was the first discovery that showed that cancer could be controlled by chemicals.
1/17 - Clyde Tombaugh died
1/18 – Paul Tsongas died, cancer; U.S. Senator from (Massachusetts) and one-time candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination (b. 2/14/1941)
1/20 – U.S. President Bill Clinton is inaugurated for his second term.
1/25 - Jeane Dixon died, American psychic
2/2 – Chico Science died, Brazilian musician
2/13 – STS-82: Tune-up and repair work on the Hubble Space Telescope is started by astronauts from Space Shuttle Discovery.
2/9 - Matthew Spellman Eappen of Newton Massachusetts died
www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi
2/28 - GRB 970228, a highly luminous flash of gamma rays, strikes the Earth for 80 seconds, providing early evidence that gamma-ray bursts occur well beyond the Milky Way. First GRB discovered with an optical afterglow. www.ing.iac.es/PR/newslet.../gamma.html
earthquake, northern iran, 1,000 dead. 2nd deadliest of year.
3/13 – The Phoenix Lights are seen over Phoenix, AZ.
3/20 – Tony Zale died, American boxer
3/22 –Comet Hale-Bopp makes its closest approach to Earth.
4/1 - Comet Hale-Bopp perihelion
4/21 – A Pegasus rocket carries the remains of 24 people into earth orbit, in the first space burial. Timothy Leary and Gene Roddenberry among them.
5/2 - John Eccles died; Australian neurophysiologist who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse.
5/10 – An earthquake near Ardekul, in northeastern Iran, killed 1,600. Deadliest of year.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/1997/
5/14 – Harry Blackstone Jr. died, American magician
5/22 - Alfred Hershey died, American biochemist; Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969, shared with Luria and Delbrück for their discovery on the replication of viruses and their genetic structure.
5/27 – The second-deadliest tornado of the 1990s hits in Jarrell, Texas, killing 27 people.
5/29 – Jeff Buckley drowned
6/22 – Swedish musician Ted Gärdestad commits suicide by jumping in front of a train. Apparently, wrongfully rumored to have killed Olaf Palme.
6/25 - The Soufrière Hills volcano in Montserrat erupts resulting in the death of 19 people.
www.google.com/search
7/4 – NASA's Pathfinder space probe lands on the surface of Mars.
7/10 – In London, scientists report their DNA analysis findings from a Neanderthal skeleton, which support the out of Africa theory of human evolution, placing an "African Eve" at 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.
7/18 – Eugene Merle Shoemaker died, American astronomer
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/news82.html www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/news81.html
10/15 – NASA launches the Cassini-Huygens probe to Saturn.
10/29 – Andreas Gerasimos Michalitsianos died, Greek-American NASA astrophysicist (b. 5/22/1947)
11/11 – Mary McAleese is elected the 8th President of Ireland.
11/19 – In Des Moines, Iowa, Bobbi McCaughey gives birth to septuplets in the second known case where all 7 babies are born alive, and the first in which all survive infancy.
12/19 - David Schramm died in crash of plane he piloted; American astrophysicis; He earned a Ph.D in physics at Caltech in 1971, and went on to become one of the world's foremost experts on the Big Bang theory and an early proponent of the theory of dark matter.
12/26 - The south side of the Soufriere Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat collapsed, and an explosive blast completely destroyed the two towns on that side of the island. The communities had been evacuated and no lives were lost. www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/...crep06.html
www.sciencedaily.com/release...1247.htm
12/27 – Ulster loyalist paramilitary leader Billy Wright is murdered in Northern Ireland, inside Long Kesh prison.




1901
Wilhelm Rontgen won the first Nobel Prize
2/28 - Percy Molesworth discovered Jupiter's South Tropical Disturbance
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/199...107..239M
March 4 – United States President William McKinley begins his 2nd term. Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as Vice President of the United States.
3/13 - President Benjamin Harrison died
May 3 – The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, FL.
7/4 - Johannes Schmidt died, German linguist. He developed the Wellentheorie ('wave theory') of language development.
7/11 - Luigi Carnera discovered asteroid 472 Roma. Occultation of delta Ophiuchi by (472) Roma on July 8, 2010. This was the only asteroid occultation event visible to the naked eye during the 21st century. ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi#top
esa-mm.esa.int/SPECIALS/S...ZVAG_2.html www.youtube.com/watch
August 1 – Pancho Villa born, Filipino boxer; world flyweight champ
September 2 – U.S. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt utters the famous phrase, "Speak softly and carry a big stick" at the Minnesota State Fair.
September 6 – American anarchist Leon Czolgosz shoots U.S. President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.
September 14 – McKinley died and Theodore Roosevelt succeeded him as President of the United States.
September 26 – The body of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln is exhumed and reinterred in concrete several feet thick.
9/28 - Ed Sullivan born
9/29 - Enrico Fermi born, Italian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
October 29 - In Amherst, New Hampshire, nurse Jane Toppan is arrested for murdering the Davis family of Boston with an overdose of morphine.
Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of William McKinley, is executed by electrocution.
December 12 – Guglielmo Marconi receives the first trans-Atlantic radio signal in Newfoundland, Canada;[citation needed] it is Morse code for the letter "S."





1929
Edwin Hubble discovered Universe expansion. "Edwin Hubble, working at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, measured the redshifts of a number of distant galaxies. He also measured their relative distances by measuring the apparent brightness of a class of variable stars called Cepheids in each galaxy. When he plotted redshift against relative distance, he found that the redshift of distant galaxies increased as a linear function of their distance. The only explanation for this observation is that the universe was expanding."
skyserver.sdss.org/dr1/en/a...verse.asp
hubblesite.org/the_telesc..._hubble.php
1/9 - Brian Friel born, Co. Tyrone, N. Ireland; wrote Dancing at Lughnasa about the Mundy family
1/15 - MLK born
2/14 – St. Valentine's Day Massacre: Seven gangsters, rivals of Al Capone, are murdered in Chicago.
3/4 – Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as the 31st President of the United States, succeeding Calvin Coolidge.
11/1 - annular solar eclipse
11/7 - Eric R. Kandel born, Austrian-born neuroscientist; 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons. *He was with Charlie Rose tonight.
11/18 - 1929 Grand Banks earthquake, a magnitude 7.2 earthquake occurred in the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Newfoundland triggering tsunami. 28 dead.
11/29 – Floyd Bennett, U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd, Captain Ashley McKinley, and Harold June, become the first to fly over the South Pole.
12/28 - Maarten Schmidt born
"Black Saturday" in Samoa: New Zealand colonial police kill 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which leads the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa.



1948
1/5 – Mary Dimmick Harrison died, wife of President Benjamin Harrison
1/30 - Orville Wright died
Paul Magee born, Provisional Irish Republican Army member
Mahatma Gandhi assassinated
2/16 – Miranda, the innermost moon of Uranus, is discovered by Gerard Kuiper at McDonald Observatory in Texas.
Eckhart Tolle born, German writer and motivational speaker
2/18 – Eamon de Valera, Irish head of government since 1932, loses power to an opposition coalition. John A. Costello is appointed Taoiseach of Éire (formerly called the Irish Free State) by President O'Kelly.
2/23 – John Robert Gregg died, Irish-born inventor of shorthand
3/2 - Rory Gallagher born, Irish musician
3/31 - Al Gore born
4/12 - Don Fernando born, director and actor of pornographic films
5/5 - Richard Pacheco born, American pornographic actor
6/3 – The Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory is dedicated and named in honor of George Hale
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/194....60..215R www.astro.caltech.edu/palomar...ory.html
6/10 - Tony Zale knocked out Rocky Graziano to become world middleweight boxing champ
6/21 - Lionel Rose born; Australian world bantamweight boxing champ
6/26 – William Shockley files the original patent for the grown junction transistor, the first bipolar junction transistor.
6/28 - 1948 Fukui earthquake strikes Fukui, Japan. 3,769 dead, 22,203 injured.
8/3 – Tommy Ryan died; world welterweight and middleweight boxing champ
8/20 – Robert Plant born
9/11 - Muhammad Ali Jinnah died; founder of Pakistan
9/17 – John Ritter born
9/21 - Marcel Cerdan knocked out Tony Zale to become world middleweight boxing champion.
9/24 – Phil Hartman born
9/26 – Olivia Newton-John born
9/30 – Edith Roosevelt died, First Lady of the United States
10/5 – The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake kills 110,000.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
10/6 – Gerry Adams born
10/10 – R-1 missile on test becomes the first Soviet launch to enter space.
11/2 – United States presidential election, 1948: Democratic incumbent Harry S. Truman defeats Republican Thomas E. Dewey
11/28 – D.D. Sheehan died, Irish nationalist politician







SHUDDER

as in, 'shudder to think about it' and 'shudder at the thought'……quake

You've strung your breasts
with a rattling rope of pearls,
tied a jangling belt
around those deadly hips
and clinking jewelled anklets
on both your feet.
So, stupid,
if you run off to your lover like this,
banging all these drums,
then why
do you shudder with all this fear
and look up, down;
in every direction





1846 1857 1879 1889 1876 1882 1868 1851 1885 1826

1846
Irish Holocaust
2/20 - Francesco De Vico discovered Comet 122P/de Vico
3/17 - Friedrich Bessel died, cancer; German mathematician and astronomer; he is credited with being the first to use parallax in calculating the distance to a star. Astronomers had believed for some time that parallax would provide the first accurate measurement of interstellar distances—in fact, in the 1830s there was a fierce competition between astronomers to be the first to measure a stellar parallax accurately. In 1838 Bessel won the race, announcing that 61 Cygni had a parallax of 0.314 arcseconds; which, given the diameter of the Earth's orbit, indicated that the star was about 3 parsecs (9.8 light years) away. He narrowly beat Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve and Thomas Henderson, who measured the parallaxes of Vega and Alpha Centauri in the same year. As well as helping determine the parallax of 61 Cygni, Bessel's precise measurements allowed him to notice deviations in the motions of Sirius and Procyon, which he deduced must be caused by the gravitational attraction of unseen companions. His announcement of Sirius's "dark companion" in 1844 was the first correct claim of a previously unobserved companion by positional measurement, and eventually led to the discovery of Sirius B. Bessel's work in 1840 contributed in some degree to the discovery of Neptune.
3/25 - Michael Davitt born, Ireland. Member of Parliament, Fenian author, Advocator of women's rights and reform within the prison system. Labour leader International humanitarian. Native Irish speaker. In 1865, he joined the IRB and two years later gave up his job to become organising secretary of the Fenians in Northern England and Scotland… By the time of his death at the age of 60, the land for the people had largely become a reality, prison reform had begun, and he himself had become and international champion of liberty.
6/27 – Charles Stewart Parnell born, Irish political leader
7/19 - Edward Pickering born
9/14 - George Selden born, Clarkson, NY; granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile on 11/5/1895.
9/19 - Marian apparition in La Salette, France en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_...La_Salette
9/23 - Johann Galle discovered Neptune
9/30 - Dr. William Morton used ether for the 1st time on one of his patients at Mass General Hospital for tooth extraction
10/10 - William Lassell discovered Neptune's largest moon, Triton.
10/26 - Lewis Boss died; American astronomer best known for his compilation of two catalogues of stars (1910, 1937). In 1882 he led an expedition to Chile to observe a transit of Venus
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/191....24..255T
books.google.com/books
11/5 - Edward Singleton Holden born; American astronomer. He was director of Washburn Observatory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison from 1881 to 1885. He discovered a total of 22 NGC objects during his work at Washburn Observatory. adsabs.harvard.edu/full/191....26...77C



1857
1/23 - Andrija Mohorovičić born; seismologist; An earthquake in the Zagreb area of Croatia on 10/8/1909 led Andrija Mohorovičić to identify the Mohorovičić discontinuity. The Mohorovičić discontinuity, usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle.
9/15 - President William Taft born, Cincinnati, OH.



1879
1/8 - Emory Land born, Canon City, CO, where meteorite landed on 10/27/1973.
3/3 - USGS created
3/14 - Albert Einstein born
3/27 - Hercules Florence died; he coined the term photography in 1834, independently of John Herschel.
3/28 - Terence Mac Swiney born, Cork, Ireland. Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork during the Irish War of Independence in 1920. Died on hunger strike
www.askaboutireland.ie/learni...ground/
www.jstor.org/pss/30092903 www.irishcultureandcustoms.com/02...tml
forum.irishmilitaryonline.com/sho....php
www.pgil-eirdata.org/html/pg...life.htm
3/30 - Bernhard Schmidt born
8/21 - Claude Grahame White born; English pioneer of aviation, and the first to make a night flight, during the Daily Mail sponsored 1910 London to Manchester air race.
11/10 - Patrick Pearse born
12/30 - Sri Ramana Maharshi born, Indian philosopher



1889
3/16 - Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel died; German astronomer. He was a prolific discoverer of comets, discovering or co-discovering 21 in all, including Comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle, now known to be the parent body of the Leonid meteor shower, and 9P/Tempel, the target of the NASA probe Deep Impact in 2005. Other periodic comets that bear his name include 10P/Tempel and 11P/Tempel-Swift-LINEAR
6/4 - Beno Gutenberg born; colleague and mentor of Charles Francis Richter at the California Institute of Technology and Richter's collaborator in developing the Richter magnitude scale for measuring an earthquake's magnitude. Used an extensive data set of earthquake wave travel times to compute the average distance to the top of the core at about 2,900 km.
6/14 - Knut Lundmark born; one of the pioneers in the modern study of the galaxies and their distances. He was one of the first to suspect that the galaxies are remote stellar systems at vast distances and not nearby objects belonging to our own galaxy, the Milky Way. The Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte Galaxy is named after Lundmark, Max Wolf and Philibert Jacques Melotte.
6/28 - Maria Mitchell died, American astronomer. Discovered Miss Mitchell's Comet on 10/1/1847.
10/6 - Fitzgerald "Gerald" Heard born; LSD enthusiast
10/18 - Antonio Meucci died; inventor of telephone
11/20 - Edwin Hubble born



1876
1/20 – Józef Hofmann born, Polish pianist
1/31 - The United States orders all Native Americans to move into reservations.
2/12 – Thubten Gyatso born, 13th Dalai Lama
3/2 – Pope Pius XII born; became pope on his bday
3/4 - Theodore Hardeen born, magician and stunt performer, founder of the Magician's Guild; brother of Houdini
3/7 – Alexander Graham Bell is granted a patent for an invention he calls the telephone (patent #174,466).
3/10 – Alexander Graham Bell makes the first successful call by saying "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you."
Spring – Vast numbers of Indians move north to an encampment of the Sioux chief Sitting Bull in the region of the Little Bighorn River, creating the last great gathering of native peoples on the Great Plains.
4/22 - Robert Bárány born; Jewish-Hungarian bornAustrian physician. For his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus of the ear he received the 1914 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. *Died on Betty Ford's birthday
6/17 – Indian Wars – Battle of the Rosebud: 1,500 Sioux and Cheyenne led by Crazy Horse beat back General George Crook's forces at Rosebud Creek in Montana Territory.
6/25 – Indian Wars – Battle of the Little Bighorn: 300 men of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment under Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer are wiped out by 5,000 Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
7/4 – The United States celebrates its centennial.
8/1 – Colorado is admitted as the 38th U.S. state.
8/8 – Thomas Edison receives a patent for his mimeograph.
9/16 – Marvin Hart born, American boxer. Became world heavyweight champ on 7/3/1905.
10/31 – A catastrophic cyclone strikes the east coast of India, killing 200,000.
www.britannica.com/EBchecke...e-of-1876
11/7 – U.S. presidential election, 1876: After long and heated disputes, Rutherford Birchard Hayes is eventually declared the winner over Samuel Jones Tilden. A failed grave robbery of the Lincoln Tomb took place on the same night.
12/20 - Walter Adams born; At Mount Wilson Observatory in California, in collaboration with Walter Adams, Arnold Kohlschutter discovered "a spectroscopic method for determining stellar distances: they showed that the relative intensities of spectral lines could be used to determine absolute magnitudes of both giant and main sequence stars." (Astronomical Society of the Pacific) This allowed astronomers to determine the distances of stars using the spectroscope. Walter Adams, in addition to his work with Kohlschutter, studied the companion of the brightest star in our night sky and found it to be Earth's size and yet nearly as bright and as massive as our Sun.




1882
1/30 - President Franklin Roosevelt born
2/2 – James Joyce born
2/7 - John L. Sullivan became world heavyweight champ defeating Paddy Ryan
www.cyberboxingzone.com/boxing/sully.htm city.passchristian.net/great_fight.htm
The Erie Canal story is often told through the lives of those who found fame or fortune as a result of events in their lives which occurred along the canal. One such man was boxing great Paddy Ryan, “King of the Erie Canal and Champion of the World.” Ryan worked as a lock tender in his youth and received his athletic training in the canal town of Troy. He became his sport’s heavyweight champion from May 30, 1880, when he won the title from Joe Goss, until losing his title to John L. Sullivan on Feb. 7, 1882. (From the Lockport Union-Sun & Journal on 2/27/2010) www.lockportjournal.com/opinio...16.html
4/19 – Charles Darwin died
5/6 - The "Invincibles" (militant Irish republicans) kill Lord Frederick Cavendish, chief secretary for Ireland and permanent undersecretary T.H. Burke in Phoenix Park, Dublin
6/6 - The Great Bombay Cyclone made landfall at Bombay, India, leaving about 100,000 dead.
books.google.com/books
www.britannica.com/facts/10...e-Arabian
6/30 – U.S. presidential assassin Charles Guiteau is hanged.
7/16 – Mary Todd Lincoln died, First Lady of the United States
7/27 - Geoffrey de Havilland born, British aircraft designer
8/25 – Seán T. O'Kelly born, second President of Ireland
9/4 – Thomas Edison flips the switch to the first commercial electrical power plant in history, lighting one square mile of lower Manhattan. This is considered by many as the day that began the electrical age.
9/7 - WH Finlay discovered Great Comet of 1882
9/17 – Great Comet of 1882 perihelion
10/5 – Robert Goddard born, American rocket scientist
10/14 - Éamon de Valera born, Taoiseach and third President of Ireland
11/20 - Henry Draper died
12/6 – The last transit of the planet Venus until 2004 occurs.
12/28 - Arthur Eddington born




1868
2/11 – Léon Foucault died, French physicist best known for the invention of the Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earth's rotation. He also made an early measurement of the speed of light
5/23 – Kit Carson died
5/29 - Levi Lincoln, Jr. died, 13th Governor of Massachusetts; longest consecutive-serving governor in Massachusetts' history at 9 years from 1825-1834, although he was not the longest serving governor (Michael Dukakis was the longest serving at 12 years, from 1975-1979, and then 1983-1991). Lincoln was distantly related to President Abraham Lincoln, their common ancestor being Samuel Lincoln, who left Hingham, Norfolk County, England, and settled in Hingham, Massachusetts in the 17th Century.
6/1 – President James Buchanan died
6/5 – James Connolly born, Irish-Scots socialist
7/4 - Henrietta Swan Leavitt born, American astronomer
astronomycompendium.wikispaces.com/July+4
7/25 – Wyoming becomes a United States territory.
8/13 - mag 9.0 earthquake, Arica, Peru; 25,000 dead. Arica is site of observatory where discovery photos of Phoebe were shot.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...08_13.php
8/18 – Helium is discovered by French astronomer Pierre Janssen (and independently by Joseph Norman Lockyer on October 20).
11/3 – Ulysses S. Grant elected pres.
11/5 - transit of Mercury www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~ipswich/...ercury.htm



1851
1/14 - Ernst Hartwig born; discovered SN 1885, the first supernova seen outside the Milky Way
1/19 - Jacobus Kapteyn born; discovered star streaming -- the movement of stars in two opposite directions in our galaxy -- knowledge which led Bertil Lindblad to find galactic revolution.
11/11 - The first U.S. patent for a telescope design was issued to Alvan Clark. (No. 8,509). Clark was a portrait painter and engraver, but at the age of 40 become involved in telescope making. Using glass blanks his firm, Alvan Clark & Sons, ground lenses for refracting telescopes, including the largest in the world at the time: the 18.5-inch at Dearborn Observatory at the Old University of Chicago (the lens was originally intended for Ole Miss), the 26-inch at the United States Naval Observatory, the 30-inch at Pulkovo Observatory (destroyed in the Siege of Leningrad; only the lens survives), the 36-inch telescope at Lick Observatory (still third-largest) and later the 40-inch at Yerkes Observatory, which remains the largest successful refracting telescope in the world.
www.google.com/patents
www.google.com/patents
patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser




1885
3/4 – Grover Cleveland succeeds Chester A. Arthur as President of the United States.
7/23 – President Ulysses S. Grant died
7/28 – Monte Attell born, American boxer; world bantamweight champ
8/19 - Isaac Ward discovered SN 1885 in Andromeda Galaxy, first supernova observed outside Milky Way
10/7 – Niels Bohr born, Danish physicist
11/2 – Harlow Shapley born, American astronomer



1826
2/15 - George Johnstone Stoney born; coined electron
2/16 - Danish chemist Julius Thomsen, who tabulated the amount of heat released or absorbed in 3,500 chemical reactions, is born
2/27 - First recorded observation of Comet Biela, by Jacques Leibax Montaigne, on 3/8/1772. Wilhelm von Biela discovered it again on 2/27/1826 and calculated its orbit.
cometography.com/pcomets/003d.html
7/4 - John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died
7/5 - Stamford Raffles died; Rafflesia arnoldii
7/22 - Giuseppe Piazzi died
10/25 - Philippe Pinel died; French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral treatment. He also made notable contributions to the classification of mental disorders and has been described by some as "the father of modern psychiatry".
11/23 - Johann Elert Bode died; German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularization of the Titius-Bode law. Bode determined the orbit of Uranus and suggested the planet's name. The Titius–Bode law (sometimes termed just Bode's law) is a hypothesis that the bodies in some orbital systems, including the Sun's, orbit at semi-major axes in an exponential function of planetary sequence. The hypothesis correctly predicted the orbits of Ceres and Uranus, but failed as a predictor of Neptune's orbit. He published the Uranographia in 1801. He is credited with the discovery of Bode's Galaxy (M81).
12/16 - Giovanni Battista Donati born; Discovered 6 comets, pioneered spectroscopy.







1996 1965 1944 1959 1918 1906 1930 1969

1996
1/28 – Jerry Siegel died, American cartoonist; Superman
1/30 - Comet Hyakutake, the Great Comet of 1996, discovered
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/comet/hya...index.html
Gino Gallagher, the suspected leader of the Irish National Liberation Army, is killed while waiting in line for his unemployment benefit.
2/3 – An earthquake near Lijiang in southwest China, measuring 6.4 on the Richter scale, kills at least 240 people
2/8 – An IRA ceasefire ends with a half-tonne bomb in London's Canary Wharf District, killing 2 and causing over £85 million worth of damage.
2/14 – Eva Hart died, British survivor of RMS Titanic
2/17 – In Irian Jaya, an earthquake of magnitude 7.5 and associated tidal waves kills 102 people and causes widespread devastation.
2/18 – An IRA briefcase bomb in a bus kills the bomber and injures 9 in the West End of London.
3/22 - earthquake, Swansea www.bc.edu/research/wes...catalogs.html
3/25 - Comet Hyakutake closest to Earth
4/22 - earthquake, Westport www.bc.edu/research/wes...catalogs.html
5/1 - Comet Hyakutake, the Great Comet of 1996, reached perihelion
5/8 – The Keck II telescope is dedicated in Hawaii.
5/10 – 1996 Everest disaster: A sudden storm engulfs Mount Everest with several climbing teams high on the mountain, leaving 8 dead. By the end of the month, at least 4 other climbers die in the worst season of fatalities on the mountain to date.
5/11 – Rob Hall died on Everest, New Zealand mountaineer
5/13 – Tornadoes in Bangladesh kill 600.
www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.ns...COS-64BTYZ
www.nytimes.com/1996/05/15...st-443.html
5/21 – The MV Bukoba sinks in Tanzanian waters in Lake Victoria, killing nearly 1,000 in one of Africa's worst maritime disasters.
5/23 – Swede Göran Kropp reaches the Mount Everest summit alone without oxygen, after having bicycled there from Sweden.
5/31 – Timothy Leary died
6/15 – In Manchester, UK, a massive IRA bomb injures over 200 people and devastates a large part of the city centre.
6/19 – Hillevi Schine died, Miss Universe 1955
7/12 – Hurricane Bertha: made landfall in North Carolina as a Category 2 storm, causing $270 million in damage to the United States and its possessions and many indirect deaths.
7/13 – A Republican Sinn Féin bomb explodes outside of a hotel in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland, disrupting a wedding reception and injuring 17 people.
7/16 – An outbreak of E. coli food poisoning in Japan reaches 6,000 fatalities, after a group of school children who have eaten contaminated lunches die.
7/17 – Paris and Rome-bound TWA Flight 800 (Boeing 747) explodes off the coast of Long Island, New York, killing all 230 on board.
7/19 – An F3 tornado 5.5 miles (8.9 km) away from the Westminster, Maryland city center injures 3 people and causes $5 million in damages
8/6 – NASA announces that the ALH 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, contains evidence of primitive life-forms.
8/13 – Data sent back by the Galileo space probe indicates there may be water on one of Jupiter's moons.
10/1 – Pat McGeown died, Provisional Irish Republican Army member
11/5 – U.S. presidential election, 1996: Democratic incumbent Bill Clinton defeats Republican challenger Bob Dole to win his second term.
11/7 – NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.
A devastating category 4 Cyclone strikes Andhra Pradesh, India. The storm surge sweeps fishing villages out to sea, over 2,000 people die. 95 percent of the crops are completely destroyed.
12/9 – Mary Leakey died, British archaeologist
12/20 – Carl Sagan died



1965
1/12 – Wanda Beach Murders: The bodies of two 15-year-olds, Christine Sharrock and Marrine Schmidt, are found at Wanda Beach, Sydney.
1/15 – Bernard Hopkins born, American boxer; 10-year reign as world middleweight champ
1/20 - LBJ begins first full term
2/4 (UTC) - Rat Islands, AK earthquake, 8.7
2/7 – Nance O'Neil died, stage & film actress, friend of Lizzie Borden
2/20 - Ranger 8 crashes into the Moon, after a successful mission of photographing possible landing sites for the Apollo program astronauts.
3/4 - WestBam (Maximillian Lenz) born, German rave techno DJ
3/23 – Gemini 3: NASA launches the United States' first 2-person crew (Gus Grissom, John Young) into Earth orbit.
4/4 - Robert Downey Jr. born. *Police found body of Lesley Ann Downey on Saddleworth Moor near Oldham in Lancashire on 10/16/65. The 10-year-old disappeared on 12/26 the previous year from a fairground in the Ancoats area of Manchester. Ian Brady and his 23-year-old girlfriend Myra Hindley killed her.
4/11 – The Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1965: An estimated 51 tornadoes (47 confirmed) hit in 6 Midwestern states, killing between 256 to 271 people and injuring some 1,500 more.
4/18 – Guillermo González Camarena died, Mexican inventor
4/23 – Jamling Tenzing Norgay born, Indian mountain climber; son of Tenzing Norgay
George Adamski died, Polish-born alleged UFO traveler
5/13 – José Antonio Delgado born, Venezuelan mountain climber (d. 2006)
5/21 - Geoffrey de Havilland died, British aircraft designer
6/3 – Gemini 4: Astronaut Edward Higgins White makes the first U.S. space walk.
6/5 - Michael Brown born
6/25 - Bertil Lindblad died; discovered the rotation of our Milky Way.
7/11 – Ernesto Hoost born, Dutch kickboxer
7/14 – U.S. spacecraft Mariner 4 flies by Mars, becoming the first spacecraft to return images from the Red Planet.
7/25 - Freddie Mills suicide; world light heavyweight boxing champ
8/21 – Gemini 5 (Gordon Cooper, Pete Conrad) is launched on the first 1-week flight, as well as the first test of fuel cells for electrical power.
9/2 - Lennox Lewis born
9/3 - Charlie Sheen born
9/9 - Hurricane Betsy roars ashore near New Orleans, Louisiana with winds of 145 MPH, causing 76 deaths and $1.42 billion in damage. The storm is the first hurricane to cause $1 billion in unadjusted damages, giving it the nickname "Billion Dollar Betsy". It is the last major hurricane to strike New Orleans until Hurricane Katrina 40 years later.
Constance Marie born; "George Lopez Show"
9/18 - Comet Ikeya-Seki discovered by Kaoru Ikeya and Tsutomu Seki
9/28 – Taal Volcano in Luzon, Philippines, erupts, killing hundreds.
10/4 - Micky Ward born, Irish boxer
www.officialmickyward.com/biography
10/21 - Comet Ikeya-Seki, aka Great Comet of 1965, perihelion
10/28 - In St. Louis, Missouri, the 630-foot-tall parabolic steel Gateway Arch is completed.
10/29 - An 80-kiloton nuclear device is detonated at Amchitka Island, Alaska as part of the Vela Uniform program, code-named Project Long Shot.
11/2 - Quaker Norman Morrison, 32, sets himself on fire in front of Defense Sec. Robert McNamara's office at The Pentagon.
11/9 - Northeast Blackout of 1965: Several U.S. states (VT, NH, MA, CT, RI, NY and portions of NJ) and parts of Canada are hit by a series ofblackouts lasting up to 13½ hours.
Vietnam War: In New York City, 22-year-old Catholic Worker Movement member Roger Allen LaPorte sets himself on fire in front of theUnited Nations building in protest of the war.
11/16 – W. T. Cosgrave died, Irish politician
Venera program: The Soviet Union launches the Venera 3 space probe from Baikonur, Kazakhstan toward Venus (on March 1, 1966 it became the first spacecraft to reach the surface of another planet).
Harry Blackstone, Sr. died, American magician
11/18 – Henry A. Wallace died, Vice President of the United States
11/30 - Tashi Tenzing born, Indian mountaineer; stepdaughter of Tenzing Norgay
12/9 - Kecksburg ufo
12/15 - Gemini 6 and Gemini 7 perform the first controlled rendezvous in Earth orbit.
12/30 - Heidi Fleiss born, American madam



1944
1/12 - Joe Frazier born, Beaufort, SC
12/19 - Richard Leakey born, Kenyan paleontologist, conservationist and politician



1959
On 1/26/2011 Mount Shinmoe-dake in Japan began erupting; first there since 1959.
1/2 - Soviet Union successfully launches Luna 1 spacecraft from Baikonur Cosmodrome.
1/3 - Alaska is admitted as the 49th U.S. state.
1/12 - Caves of Nerja are discovered in Spain.
1/16 - Sade born, Nigerian-born singer
2/12 - George Antheil died. Actress Hedy Lamarr (11/9/13 - 1/19/00) and composer George Antheil receive a patent for a frequency hopping, spread spectrum communication system that later became the basis for modern technologies in wireless telephones and Wi-Fi. This early version of frequency hopping used a piano roll to change between 88 frequencies and was intended to make radio-guided torpedoes harder for enemies to detect or jam. The idea was not implemented in the USA until 1962, when it was used by U.S. military ships during a blockade of Cuba after the patent had expired. Perhaps owing to this lag in development, the patent was little-known until 1997, when the Electronic Frontier Foundation (JP BARLOW) gave Lamarr an award for this contribution. www.google.com/patents
March 2 – Recording sessions for the album Kind of Blue by Miles Davis took place at Columbia's 30th Street Studio in New York City.
March 10 – A Tibetan uprising against 10 years of Chinese rule erupts in Lhasa.
3/11 - Nina Hartley born, American porn star
March 17 – Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, starts to flee Tibet and travels to India.
March 18 – American President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs a bill allowing for Hawaiian statehood.
March 31 – The Dalai Lama flees from Tibet and is granted asylum in India.
4/7 - The 1st atomic generated electricity was produced at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
April 22 – Recording sessions for the album Kind of Blue by Miles Davis take place at Columbia's 30th Street Studio in New York City.
May 24 – John Foster Dulles died, United States Secretary of State
May 28 – Two monkeys, Able and Miss Baker are the first living beings to successfully return to Earth from space aboard the flight Jupiter AM-18.
6/22 - Ed Viesturs born, American mountaineer; He is one of only 21 people and the only one from the United States to have climbed all eight-thousander peaks.
6/23 - Sean Lemass becomes the third Taoiseach of Ireland.
July 4 – With the admission of Alaska as the 49th U.S. state earlier in the year, the 49-star flag of the United States debuts in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
July 7 – At 14:28 UT Venus occults the star Regulus. The rare event (which will next occur on October 1, 2044) is used for determining the diameter of Venus and the structure of Venus' atmosphere.
July 17 – The first skull of Australopithecus is discovered by Louis Leakey and his wife Mary Leakey in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania.
July 24 – At the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and USSR Premier Nikita Khrushchev have a "kitchen debate".
8/7 - Explorer program: The United States launches Explorer 6 from the Atlantic Missile Range in Cape Canaveral, Florida. "transmitted the first pictures of Earth from orbit"
August 14 – Explorer 6 sends the first picture of Earth from space.
August 15 – Cyprus gains independence. Joined UN on 8/24/59.
August 17 – The Hebgen Lake Earthquake in southwest Montana kills 28.
Columbia Records releases Miles Davis' groundbreaking album, Kind of Blue.
8/19 - Claude Grahame White died; English pioneer of aviation, and the first to make a night flight, during the Daily Mail sponsored 1910 London to Manchester air race.
August 21 – Hawaii is admitted as the 50th U.S. state.
September 14 – Luna 2 becomes the first man-made object to crash on the Moon.
9/26 - Typhoon Vera hits central Honshū, Japan, killing an estimated 5,098
10/5 - Maya Lin born; architect; Vietnam Memorial
October 7 – The U.S.S.R. probe Luna 3 sends back the first ever photos of the far side of the Moon.
Simon Cowell born
October 13 – The United States launches Explorer 7.
10/15 - Emeril Lagasse born
October 16 – George C. Marshall died, United States Secretary of State, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
November 21 – Max Baer died, American world heavyweight champion boxer
12/11 - Joseph Kittinger stepped off balloon at about 74,700 feet (22,800 m).
December 13 – Three years after its first telecast, MGM's The Wizard of Oz is shown on television for only the second time, but it gains an even larger viewing audience than its first television outing, spurring CBS to make it an annual tradition.



1918
2/2 - John L. Sullivan died
2/22 - Robert Pershing Wadlow born, Alton, IL; American tallest man record-holder
March 14 – Lucretia Garfield died; US First Lady
4/6 - John Quincy Adams Brackett died, 36th Governor of Massachusetts
www.nga.org/portal/site/...aca9501010a0/
politicalgraveyard.com/bio/bo...rn.html
4/8 - Betty Bloomer Ford born
May 20 – The small town of Codell, Kansas is hit for the third year in a row by a tornado. Coincidentally, all three tornadoes hit on May 20, 1916, 1917, and 1918 respectively.
June 4 – Charles W. Fairbanks died, Vice President of the U.S.
6/8 - Nova Aquilae discovered. Brightest nova since SN 1604 in Ophiuchus. It grew brighter than Canopus, the second brightest star. Only Sirius was brighter.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/192....81..113C
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/192....40..101J (p. 105)
www.vtastro.org/Articles/V...istory.html
www.eso.org/sci/publicat...nger/toc.html click on info below "H. Drechsel et al."
http://74.6.238.254/search/srpcache?ei=UTF-8&p=Nova+Aquilae+june+8,+1918&fr=yfp-t-701&u=cc.bingj.com/cache.aspx
(p. 151)
mwoa.org/100years.html (4/5ths down the pg)
www.eastbayastro.org/2000/08...00-2.htm
Total Solar Eclipse
eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEsearc...hmap.php
7/4 - Charles Wolf died; discovered Wolf-Rayet stars
www.nasa.gov/centers/god...5wrstar.html
7/11 - Venetia Burney born; named Pluto
July 14 – Quentin Roosevelt died, Youngest son of President Theodore Roosevelt, killed in action in World War I
July 18 – Nelson Mandela born, President of South Africa, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
July 29 – Ernest William Christmas died, Australian painter. *That volcano painting on his wikipedia page
August – The Spanish Flu (influenza) becomes pandemic; over 30 million people die in the following 6 months (almost twice as many as died during the war).
9/27 - Martin Ryle born, English radio astronomer. Ryle and Antony Hewish shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1974, the first Nobel prize awarded in recognition of astronomical research.
10/5 - Roland Garros died
October 11 – Puerto Rico earthquake: The city of Mayagüez and adjacent towns are nearly destroyed by a 7.5 earthquake and a tsunami. 116 dead.
October 12 – Katla erupts in Iceland. Eruption ends a month later on 11/4.
books.google.com/books
docs.google.com/viewer
Cloquet Fire: The city of Cloquet, Minnesota and nearby areas are destroyed in a fire, killing 453.
10/29 - Max Wolf discovered asteroid 904 Rockefellia. Rockefellia occulted a 3.9 mag star in the constellation Aquila on 7/7/10.
October 31 – Ian Stevenson born, American parapsychologist
11/11 - World War I ends
11/20 - Corita Kent born; painter of the Rainbow Swash on Boston's gas tank
12/21 - Donald Regan born, American Treasury Secretary and White House Chief of Staff
Kurt Waldheim born, President of Austria and Secretary-General of the United Nations
December 28 – Constance Markiewicz, while detained in Holloway prison, becomes the first woman to be elected MP to the British House of Commons. She did not take her seat, along with the other Sinn Féin TDs members.




1906
Richard Oldham argues that the Earth has a molten interior.
1/11 - Albert Hofmann born
1/31 - magnitude 8.8 earthquake, Ecuador, 1,000 dead. An equal magnitude quake happened at Chile's coast on 2/27/2010.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...01_31.php
2/4 - Clyde Tombaugh born; Streator, IL
2/18 - Hans Asperger born; Asperger syndrome -- Daniel Tammet
books.google.com/books (pg. 12)
www.autism-world.com/index.p...sperger/
2/21 - discovery of asteroid Sheila by A. Kopff at Heidelberg
www.universetoday.com/81576/a...nd-coma/
2/27 – Samuel Pierpont Langley died, American astronomer, physicist, and aeronautics pioneer. Born in Roxbury, MA.
3/25 - Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle born. He ordered an anti-polygamy law enforcement crackdown on residents of Short Creek, Arizona, on 7/26/53, which becomes known as the Short Creek Raid.
4/7 – Mount Vesuvius erupted with lava fountains, earthquakes & an eruptive column of ash & gas and devastates Naples.
4/18 - San Francisco earthquake, 3,000 dead
5/30-31 at midnight - Michael Davitt died, Ireland. Member of Parliament, Fenian author, Advocator of women's rights and reform within the prison system. Labour leader International humanitarian. Native Irish speaker. In 1865, he joined the IRB and two years later gave up his job to become organising secretary of the Fenians in Northern England and Scotland… By the time of his death at the age of 60, the land for the people had largely become a reality, prison reform had begun, and he himself had become and international champion of liberty.
page 265 - books.google.com/books
6/14 - Georges Rayet died; discovered Wolf-Rayet stars
7/2 - Hans Bethe born
8/16 – A magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Valparaíso, Chile leaves approximately 20,000 dead. *Not a lot of data
ssn.dgf.uchile.cl/home/terrem.html www.britannica.com/facts/10...hquake-in
8/19 - Philo Farnsworth born
8/27 - Ed Gein born; killer; He lived in Plainfield, Wisconsin, where he dug up graves and made stuff from the parts, and killed people. D. 7/26/84.
9/18 - A typhoon with tsunami kills an estimated 10,000 people in Hong Kong.
11/5 – Fred Lawrence Whipple born, American astronomer
12/24 – Reginald Fessenden makes the first radio broadcast: a poetry reading, a violin solo, and a speech.
12/26 – The world's first feature film, The Story of the Kelly Gang, is released.




1930
2/18 - Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto
3/8 - President William Howard Taft died
6/12 - Max Schmeling defeated Jack Sharkey for the world heavyweight championship vacated by Gene Tunney




1969
1/10 - The Soviet Union launches Venera 5 toward Venus.
1/20 - Nixon became president
The Soviet Union launches Venera 6 toward Venus.
1/28 - A blow-out on Union Oil's Platform spills 80,000 to 100,000 barrels of crude oil into a channel and onto the beaches of Santa Barbara County in Southern California inspiring Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson to organize the first Earth Day in 1970
1/30 - The Beatles give their last public performance, on the roof of Apple Records.
The Soviet Union launches Soyuz 5, which will dock with Soyuz 4 for a transfer of crew.
2/2 - Two cosmonauts transfer from Soyuz 5 to Soyuz 4 via a spacewalk while the two craft are docked together, the first time such a transfer takes place. The two spacecraft undock. Soyuz 4 will reenter Earth's atmosphere and land February 17 while Soyuz 5 will have a hard landing February 18.
Student Jan Palach sets himself on fire in Prague's Wenceslas Square to protest the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia; 3 days later he dies.
2/8 - The Allende Meteorite falls in Chihuahua, Mexico. Largest carbonaceous chondrite ever found on Earth. Study of meteorite by NASA yielded info. re: solar system
2/24 - The Mariner 6 Mars probe is launched.
3/3 - Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 9 (James McDivitt, David Scott, Rusty Schweickart) to test the lunar module.
3/4 - Chaz Bono born *bday today
3/10 - In Memphis, Tennessee, James Earl Ray pleads guilty to assassinating Martin Luther King Jr. (he later retracts his guilty plea).
Paget Brewster born, Concord, MA
March 13 – Apollo program: Apollo 9 returns safely to Earth after testing the Lunar Module.
3/28 - Dwight Eisenhower died
April 4 – Dr. Denton Cooley implants the first temporary artificial heart.|
April 22 – Robin Knox-Johnston becomes the first person to sail around the world solo without stopping.
May 15 – An American teenager known as 'Robert R.' dies in St. Louis, Missouri, of a baffling medical condition. In 1984 it will be identified as the first confirmed case of HIV/AIDS in North America.
May 16 – Venera program: Venera 5, a Soviet spaceprobe, lands on Venus.
May 17 – Venera program: Soviet probe Venera 6 begins to descend into Venus' atmosphere, sending back atmospheric data before being crushed by pressure.
May 18 – Apollo program: Apollo 10 (Tom Stafford, Gene Cernan, John Young) is launched, on the full dress-rehearsal for the Moon landing.
May 22 – Apollo program: Apollo 10's lunar module flies to within 15,400 m of the Moon's surface.
5/26 - Apollo program: Apollo 10 returns to Earth, after a successful 8-day test of all the components needed for the upcoming first manned Moon landing.
May 26–June 2 – John Lennon and Yoko Ono conduct their Bed-In at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal, Quebec.
June 28 – The Stonewall riots in New York City mark the start of the modern gay rights movement in the U.S.
July 16 – Apollo program: Apollo 11 (Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Michael Collins) lifts off toward the first landing on the Moon.
July 20 – Apollo program: The lunar module Eagle lands on the lunar surface. An estimated 500 million people worldwide watch in awe as Neil Armstrong takes his historic first steps on the Moon at 02:56 UTC, the largest television audience for a live broadcast at that time
8/2 - "Welcome back Uranus to the north celestial hemisphere - first time this has happened since 1969 August 2, almost 42 years ago!" Richard Miles on Twitter 4/11/11.
August 5 – Mariner program: Mariner 7 makes its closest fly-by of Mars (3,524 kilometers).
8/17 - Category 5 Hurricane Camille hits the Mississippi coast, killing 248 people. The second of three catastrophic Category 5 hurricanes to make landfall in the United States during the 20th century (the others being 1935's Labor Day hurricane and 1992's Hurricane Andrew), which it did near the mouth of the Mississippi River on the night of August 17, Camille was the only Atlantic hurricane to exhibit officially recorded sustained wind speeds of at least 200 miles per hour (320 km/h) until Allen equaled that number in 1980, and remains the only Atlantic hurricane in recorded history to make landfall with wind speeds at or above such level. By central pressure, in turn, Camille was the second strongest U.S. landfalling hurricane in recorded history, second only to the Labor Day Hurricane in 1935.
August 31 – Rocky Marciano died
September 1 – A coup in Libya ousts King Idris, and brings Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi to power.
September 23 – Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid directed by George Roy Hill and starring Paul Newman and Robert Redford opens to limited release in the U.S.
9/26 - The Beatles release their Abbey Road album, receiving critical praise and enormous commercial success.
The Brady Bunch premieres on ABC.
9/28 - Murchison Meteorite impacted the outskirts of the village of Murchison in Victoria, Australia. Tests showed it was laced with amino acids and some of the chemicals found in our genetic material.
www.newscientist.com/article...als.html
October 2 – A 1.2 megaton thermonuclear device is tested at Amchitka Island, Alaska. This test is code-named Project Milrow, the 11th test of the Operation Mandrel 1969–1970 underground nuclear test series. This test is known as a "calibration shot" to test if the island is fit for larger underground nuclear detonations.
10/21 - Jack Kerouac died
11/8 - Vesto Melvin Slipher died; American astronomer. He spent his entire career at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, where he was director from 1916 to 1952. He used spectroscopy to investigate the rotation periods of planets, the composition of planetary atmospheres. In 1912, he was the first to observe the shift of spectral lines of galaxies, so he was the discoverer of galactic redshifts. He was responsible for hiring Clyde Tombaugh and supervised the work that led to the discovery of Pluto. His brother Earl C. Slipher was also an astronomer. The Moon crater Slipher and a crater on Mars are named in his honor. . "Slipher first detected the expanding nature of the universe." ~Official Lowell Observatory Fb page
*See Henry Lee Giclas, astronomer born in Flagstaff and worked at Lowell where he discovered asteroids and comets.
November 14 – Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 12 (Pete Conrad, Richard Gordon, Alan Bean), the second manned mission to the Moon.
11/19 - Apollo program: Apollo 12 astronauts Charles Conrad and Alan Bean land at Oceanus Procellarum ("Ocean of Storms"), becoming the third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon.






HASH OIL

500 milliliters of 99% isopropyl alcohol, which you can find in your local drug stores, should be more than enough to strip the THC from one ounce of hemp starting material. 3 - Crush the plant material using a stick of clean untreated (chemical free) wood or some such device. Even though the starting material has been dampened with the solvent, you will find that the material can be readily crushed. 4 - Add solvent until the starting material is completely covered. Use the stick to work the plant material. As you are doing this, the THC dissolves off the plant material into the solvent. 5 - Continue this process for about 3 minutes. 6 - Pour the solvent-oil mix off the plant material into another bucket. You have just stripped the plant material of about 80% of its THC. 7 - Second wash - again add solvent to the plant material and work it for another 3 minutes to get the other 20%. 8 - Pour this solvent-oil mix into the bucket containing the first mix that was poured off previously. 9 - Discard the twice-washed plant material. 10- Pour the solvent-oil mix through a coffee filter into a clean container.
www.thctalk.com/cannabis-f...t-6090.html
www.marijuana.com/cooking-m...ecipe.html
www.phoenixtears.ca/article/...cine.html

www.druglibrary.org/MedicalM...thod1.htm

www.marijuanapassion.com/forum...1.html

www.weedguru.com/forum/viewtopic.php







1912 1961 2012 1978 1919 1910 1937 1903 1962

1912
Gramps
Henrietta Swan Leavitt made one of the great astronomical discoveries when she learned an important trait of Cepheid variable stars, namely what their pulsation periods say about their luminosity.
3/23 – Wernher von Braun born
4/17 – A solar eclipse is seen across Europe.
4/19 – Glenn T. Seaborg born
5/30 - Julius Axelrod born; American biochemist. He won a share of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970 along with Bernard Katz and Ulf von Euler. The Nobel Committee honored him for his work on the release and reuptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters, a class of chemicals in the brain that include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and, as was later discovered, dopamine. Axelrod also made major contributions to the understanding of the pineal gland and how it is regulated during the sleep-wake cycle.
Wilbur Wright died
6/6 - Novarupta
7/19 – A meteorite with an estimated mass of 190 kg explodes over the town of Holbrook in Navajo County, Arizona causing thousands of pieces of debris to rain down on the town. *See meteorite explosion in NM on 7/31/10.
www.meteorite.com/blog/holb...2001-2006/ www.turnstone.ca/holbrook.htm
10/5 - Lewis Boss died; American astronomer best known for his compilation of two catalogues of stars (1910, 1937). In 1882 he led an expedition to Chile to observe a transit of Venus
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/191....24..255T
books.google.com/books
10/14 – While campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, former President Theodore Roosevelt is shot by saloonkeeper John Schrank.
11/5 – U.S. presidential election, 1912: Democratic challenger Woodrow Wilson wins a landslide victory over Republican incumbent William Howard Taft.



1961
1/4 – Erwin Schrödinger died, Austrian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
1/17 - President Dwight Eisenhower gives his final State of the Union Address to Congress. In a Farewell Address the same day, he warns of the increasing power of a "military-industrial complex".
1/20 – John F. Kennedy becomes the 35th President of the United States.
February 8 – Vince Neil born
2/10 - George Stephanopoulos born, Fall River.
February 12 – The U.S.S.R. launches Venera 1 towards Venus.
February 14 – Discovery of the chemical elements: Element 103, Lawrencium, is first synthesized in Berkeley, California.
2/15 - A Sabena Boeing 707 crashes near Brussels, Belgium, killing 73, including the entire United States figure skating team and several coaches.
3/4 - Ray Mancini born, American boxer
3/8 - Max Conrad circumnavigates the earth in 8 days, 18 hours and 49 minutes, setting a new world record.
3/10 - Laurel Clark born, American astronaut (d. 2003)
3/29 - Amy Sedaris born
April 1 – Susan Boyle born, Scottish singer
4/12 - Vostok 1: Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human in space.
April 23 – George Lopez born, American actor and comedian
5/5 – Mercury program: Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space aboard Mercury-Redstone 3.
May 15 – Heinrich Matthaei alone performs the Poly-U-Experiment and is the first human to recognize and understand the genetic code. This is the birthdate of modern genetics
May 19 – Venera program: Venera 1 becomes the first man-made object to fly-by another planet by passing Venus (however, the probe had lost contact with Earth a month earlier and does not send back any data).
May 25 – Apollo program: President Kennedy announces before a special joint session of Congress his goal to put a man on the Moon before the end of the decade.
June 1 – Ethiopia experiences her most devastating earthquake of the 20th century, with a magnitude of 6.7. The town of Majete is destroyed, 45% of the houses in Karakore collapse, 17 kilometers (11 miles) of the main road north of Karakore are damaged by landslides and fissures, and 5,000 inhabitants in the area are left homeless. *No specific data
6/6 - Carl Jung died
6/15 - Dave McAuley born, Irish boxer; IBF world flyweight champ
6/30 - Lee DeForest died
July 21 – Mercury program: Gus Grissom, piloting the Mercury-Redstone 4 capsule Liberty Bell 7, becomes the second American to go into space (sub-orbital). Upon splashdown, the hatch prematurely opens, and the capsule sinks (it is recovered in 1999).
8/4 - Barack Obama born
8/6 – Vostok 2: Soviet cosmonaut Gherman Titov becomes the second human in space for more than one day.
8/8 - The Edge (David Howell Evans) born
8/14 – Susan Olsen born; "Cindy"
9/18 - Dag Hammarskjöld died in plane crash, Swedish United Nations Secretary-General and distinguished economist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
9/22 - Bonnie Hunt born
9/23 – William C. McCool born, U.S. Army Commander and astronaut (d. 2003)
10/10 – After two months of localized earth tremors, a dome of lava was extruded, about 300 yards east of the island settlement, on the northern coast of Tristan da Cunha. The dome grew rapidly to about 300 feet above its surroundings, and its seaward margin slowly moved outwards. Between 20th and 27th October the seaward side of the dome collapsed or was carried away, and mobile lava was emitted. This formed two series of lobes, extending into the sea along a front of about 1300 yards. This activity had ceased by the end of January 1962. The whole population was evacuated.
www.tristandc.com/history1961-1963.php www.springerlink.com/content...l4t1m01/
October 30 – Nuclear testing: The Soviet Union detonates a 58-megaton yield hydrogen bomb known as Tsar Bomba over Novaya Zemlya. It remains the largest ever man-made explosion.
10/31 - Larry Mullen, Jr. born, Irish rock drummer (U2)
Hurricane Hattie devastates Belize City, Belize killing over 270. After the hurricane, the capital moves to the inland city of Belmopan.
Joseph Stalin's body is removed from the Lenin Mausoleum.
November 9 – Neil Armstrong records a world record speed in a rocket plane of 6,587 km/h flying a X-15.
12/10 - Nobel Prize: Melvin Calvin is awarded the Nobel Prize for the process of photosynthesis.
12/11 - The Vietnam War officially begins, as the first American helicopters arrive in Saigon along with 400 U.S. personnel.
12/15 - A circus tent fire in Niteroi, Brazil kills 323.
December 16 – Bill Hicks born, American comedian
12/25 – Otto Loewi died; father of neuroscience
12/26 – John Lynch born, Northern Irish actor.
12/28 – Edith Bolling Galt Wilson died, second wife of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States from 1915 to 1921.
12/31 – Ireland's first national television station, Telefís Éireann (later RTÉ), begins broadcasting.



2012
1/31 - Asteroid 433 Eros will pass by Earth at @ 70x lunar distance
2/11 - Comet Giacobini-Zinner perihelion
3/5 - Earth-Mars closest for the 26-month cycle
cseligman.com/text/planet...ositions.htm
5/31 - transit of asteroid (141079) 2001 XS30 over the Sun
tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/m...ge/24994
6/6 - transit of Venus
9/25 - transit of asteroid (85953) 1999 FK21 over the Sun
tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/m...ge/24994 software "Solex" of Dr. Aldo Vitagliano
12/3 - Jupiter at opposition
www.seasky.org/astronomy/...r_2012.html
12/9 - Vesta at opposition dawn-aop.astro.umd.edu/calendar.shtml
books.google.com/books
12/12 - The asteroid 4179 Toutatis passes Earth.



1978
2/6 - Blizzard of '78
2/11 - James B. Conant died, American chemist and headmaster of Harvard University. As the President of Harvard University he reformed it as a research institution.
3/21 – Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh (Carroll Daly) died, 5th President of Ireland (B. 2/12/1911 six days after Reagan)
4/7 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter decides to postpone production of the neutron bomb – a weapon which kills people with radiation but leaves buildings relatively intact.
6/20 – A magnitude 6.5 earthquake hits Thessaloniki, Greece's second largest city, killing 45 people, injuring hundreds and damaging some of the city's Byzantine landmarks.
6/22 - James Christy discovered of Pluto's largest moon, Charon
7/10 - grampa
8/6 – Pope Paul VI dies in Rome.
8/26 – Pope John Paul I succeeds Pope Paul VI as the 263rd Pope.
9/7 – Keith Moon died, English drummer
9/16 - An earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale hits the city of Tabas, Iran killing about 20,000 people. news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/...4613135.stm
docs.google.com/viewer
www.agu.org/pubs/crossre...9p00689.shtml
9/25 – PSA Flight 182, a Boeing 727, collides with a small private airplane and crashes in San Diego, California; 144 are killed.
9/28 – Pope John Paul I dies after only 33 days of papacy.
10/16 – Pope John Paul II succeeds Pope John Paul I as the 264th pope. He is the first Polish pope in history.
11/7 – Gene Tunney died; heavyweight boxing champ from 1926-1928 who defeated Jack Dempsey
11/18 – Jonestown incident: In Guyana, Jim Jones leads his Peoples Temple cult in a mass murder-suicide that claims 918 lives in all, 909 of them at Jonestown itself, including over 270 children. Congressman Leo J. Ryan is assassinated by members of Peoples Temple shortly beforehand.




1919
Nan
Charles Steen born; American geologist; The Uranium King
1/1 - Rocky Graziano born
1/2 - Calvin Coolidge became MA governor
www.nga.org/portal/site/...beeb501010a0/
1/6 - Theodore Roosevelt died
2/3 - Edward Pickering died
Harry Boland and Michael Collins engineer Eamon de Valera's escape from Lincoln Jail in England. He is dressed as a woman
5/19 – Volcano Kelud erupts in Java, killing 5,000. (Not much data for exact date.)
5/29 - Einstein-Eddington total solar eclipse
6/14 – John Alcock and Arthur Brown depart St. John's, Newfoundland, on the first nonstop transatlantic flight (they land at Clifden,County Galway, Ireland the next day).
6/26 - Freddie Mills born; world light heavyweight boxing champ
7/4 - Jack Dempsey became world champ, defeated Jess Willard
7/20 - Edmund Hillary born
8/20 - The Irish Republican Army is established by the Dail Eireann
10/15 - Malcolm Ross born; Captain in the United States Naval Reserve (USNR), an atmospheric scientist, and a balloonist who set several records for altitude and scientific inquiry, with more than 100 hours flight time in gas balloons by 1961. Along with Lieutenant Commander Victor A. Prather (USN), he set the current altitude record for a manned balloon flight, which has not been broken since 1961.
11/19 - The confirmation is announced of Einstein's general relativity theory, tested by Arthur Eddington and Andrew Crommelin during a total solar eclipse on May 29, 1919
12/19 - Martin Savage died, IRA



1910
1/12 or 13 - Great January Comet, aka Daylight Comet, discovered ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/
1/17 - Great January Comet, aka Daylight Comet, perihelion ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/
1/18 - Great January Comet, aka Daylight Comet, perigee ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/
1/25 - The Poás Volcano erupted in Costa Rica for the first time since 1885, sending ash 26,000 feet into the air
2/3 - Louis Henyey born. The Henyey track is a path taken by pre–main sequence stars.
2/12 - A force of 2,000 Chinese troops, under the command of General Chao Er-Feng and led by General Chung Ying, marched into Lhasa, the capital of Tibet. The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso, was forced to flee to India. A brave squadron of Tibetan soldiers, commanded by 24-year old Chensal Namgang and equipped with only 34 rifles, was able to hold off a pursuing force of 200 Chinese troops at the Tsang-po River, giving the Lama enough time to reach British officials
2/22 - Ad Wolgast won the world lightweight boxing championship in a "distance fight" against defending champ Battling Nelson, when the bout in Richmond, California, was stopped in the 40th round
Frankie Conley won the world bantamweight boxing championship when he knocked out Monte Attell in the 42nd round of a fight at Vernon, California
2/28 - The last legal bare-knuckle boxing bout in the United States took place in Passaic, New Jersey, as Leo Baker and Dave Smith fought 32 rounds without gloves, with the match ending in a draw.
3/6 - Johnny Coulon won the world bantamweight boxing championship by knocking out Jim Kendrick in the 19th round in a bout at New Orleans. He held the title until 1914
3/12 - Film actress Florence Lawrence became "the first movie star", after movie mogul Carl Laemmle of Independent Moving Pictures (I.M.P.) announced in advertisements that he had signed the leading lady who had only been billed as "The Biograph Girl" by Biograph Studios.
4/1 - The Italian village of Cavahero, with fifty houses, was destroyed by lava from Mount Etna, but the inhabitants were all able to leave beforehand
4/2 - Chico Xavier born, popular medium in Brazil´s spiritism movement
4/16 - Boston Arena, now Matthews Arena, was opened. It served as the first home for the NHL Boston Bruins, the NBA Boston Celtics, and the WHA New England Whalers, and still serves Northeastern University
4/19 - Paul Ehrlich announced his discovery of "606" (also nicknamed the "magic bullet", the first medicine that could cure syphilis, in an address at the 1910 gathering of the Congress for Internal Medicine at Wiesbaden
4/20 - Comet Halley perihelion
5/7 - A total eclipse of the Sun was visible in New Zealand and in parts of Antarctica
5/20 - Comet Halley perigee cometography.com/pcomets/001p.html
neo.jpl.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/neo_ca
6/7 - An earthquake struck Southern Italy at 3:00 a.m. killed scores of people.
6/22 - John Hunt born
6/27 - Robert Taft, the 20 year old son of the President of the United States (as well as a future U.S. Senator from Ohio), accidentally ran over a pedestrian with his automobile while driving near Beverly, Massachusetts. Michael Thisthwolla received prompt medical attention, and President Taft paid the man's hospital bills, as well as a trip to Italy and more than a year's pay.
7/4 - Jack Johnson defeats American boxer James J. Jeffries in a heavyweightboxing match, sparking race riots across the United States.
Giovanni Schiaparelli died, Italian astronomer who first discovered canal-like markings on the planet Mars
7/9 - Walter Brookins became the first person to fly an airplane to an altitude of more than one mile.
7/10 - Johann Galle died adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html (p. 384)
7/15 - Alzheimer's disease was first given that name with the publication, in Leipzig, of the treatise Einführung in die psychiatrische Klinik(Guide to Clinical Psychiatry), by Dr. Emil Kraepelin. On page 624, Dr. Kraepelin summarized the studies of presenile and senile dementia made by Dr. Alois Alzheimer, and used the phrase "Alzheimers Krankheit"
7/24 - Author James MacGillivray brought the legend of Paul Bunyan into national prominence, adapting various lumber camp tales into stories for children as part of a series in the Detroit News-Tribune.
8/7 - Residents of Council Bluffs, Iowa, were shaken by the sight and impact of a large meteor that impacted near the town during the afternoon
8/13 - Florence Nightingale died, English founder of professional nursing
9/12 - Physicist William David Coolidge discovered a method of creating ductile tungsten after four years of research at General Electric, making the fragile substance useful for light bulb filaments.
9/15 - Woodrow Wilson, the President of Princeton University, was nominated for his first political office, as the convention of the Democratic Party of New Jersey selected him as its candidate for Governor of New Jersey. In 1912, Governor Wilson would be elected President of the United States.
10/2 - Asteroid Interamnia, seventh largest in the Solar System (300 kilometers in diameter) was discovered by Italian astronomer Vincenzo Cerulli from an observatory in Teramo.
10/3 - "Johann F.", 59, a patient of Dr. Alois Alzheimer at the University of Munich. The case of dementia in Johann F. was described by Dr. Alzheimer in 1911, and the name given to the illness was popularized. gind-db.ucsf.edu:8000/anniver...tory.htm
10/9 - Edgar Cayce first attained national fame when he became the cover subject of the New York Times Magazine
10/15 - Stanley Ketchel murdered; world middleweight boxing champ
10/17 - Julia Ward Howe died, author of The Battle Hymn of the Republic
10/19 - Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar born, American astrophysicist, Nobel laureate, in Lahore, British India (now Pakistan)
10/31 - Ralph Johnstone broke the world record for highest altitude achieved in an airplane (9,714 feet)



1937
1/18 – John Hume born, Northern Irish politician, Nobel Peace Prize laureate
1/20 – Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes swears in Franklin D. Roosevelt for a second term. This is the first time Inauguration Day in the United States occurs on that date
2/3 - Billy Meier born, Swiss claims to be a UFO contactee and prophet. He is also the source of many controversial UFO photographs, which he states are evidence of his encounters. Meier reports regular contact with extraterrestrials who impart spiritual and philosophical wisdom.
3/6 - Valentina Tereshkova born, Russian cosmonaut, first woman in space
3/15 – H. P. Lovecraft died
3/18 – In the worst school disaster in American history in terms of lives lost, the New London School in New London, Texas suffers a catastrophic natural gas explosion, killing in excess of 295 students and teachers.
3/19 – Mother Frances Hospital opens in Tyler, Texas in response to the New London School explosion. *Tyler is named for Pres. John Tyler.
5/12 – George Carlin born
5/15 – Madeleine Albright born, U.S. Secretary of State
5/17 – Hazel R. O'Leary born, U.S. Secretary of Energy
June – Picasso completes his painting Guernica.
6/8 - total solar eclipse over the Pacific and Peru; first in over 800 years to exceed 7 minutes of totality
eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEplot/...n08T.GIF eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEgoogl...gle.html
7/18 – Hunter S. Thompson born
7/21 – Eamon de Valera is elected president of the Irish Free State.
7/28 – The IRA attempts the assassination by bomb of King George VI in Belfast.
8/2 – The Marihuana Tax Act Pub. 238, 75th Congress, 50 Stat. 551 (Aug. 2, 1937), is a significant bill on the path that will lead to the criminalization of cannabis. It was introduced to U.S. Congress by Commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, Harry Anslinger.
8/5 – The Soviet Union commences one of the largest campaigns of the Great Purge, to "eliminate anti-Soviet elements". Within the following year, at least 724,000 people are killed on order of the troikas, many of them chosen for shooting by their ethnicity.
Herb Brooks born; "Miracle on Ice" coach. Died 8/11/03
9/2 – The Great Hong Kong Typhoon kills an estimated 11,000 persons.
9/6 – Kirtanananda Swami born, Bhaktipada (Keith Gordon Ham), Hare Krishna guru
9/17 – Abraham Lincoln's head is dedicated at Mount Rushmore.
10/1 - The Marihuana Tax Act becomes law in the United States.
12/8 - Arne Næss Jr. born, Norwegian mountaineer; led the first successful Norwegian expedition to ascend Mount Everest; married Diana Ross
12/13 – Sino-Japanese War: The Battle of Nanjing ends and the Nanjing Massacre begins. Japanese troops slaughter over 300,000 civilians and prisoners over three months.
12/21 – Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first feature-length animated cartoon with sound, opens in Los Angeles.
12/29 – The new Irish constitution, Bunreacht na hÉireann, comes into force. The Irish Free State becomes Éire and Eamon de Valera becomes the first Taoiseach (prime minister) of the new state.



1903
Philippine-American War (1899–1913)
1/27 - John Carew Eccles born; Australian neurophysiologist who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse. He shared the prize with Andrew Fielding Huxley and Alan Lloyd Hodgkin.
2/15 – Morris and Rose Mitchom introduce the first teddy bear in America.
3/4 - John Scarne born, American magician and card expert. Born in Steubenville, Ohio, where Charles Dillon Perrine and Woodrow Wilson's father, Joseph Wilson, were born (Dean Martin, too)
5/8 – Paul Gauguin died, French painter.
5/29 - Bob Hope born
7/20 – Pope Leo XIII died, Italian Roman Catholic Pope
8/1 – Calamity Jane died, American frontierswoman
8/4 – Pope Pius X succeeds Pope Leo XIII as the 257th pope.
9/21 - total solar eclipse
12/17 - Orville Wright flies an aircraft with a petrol engine at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in the first documented, successful, controlled, powered, heavier-than-air flight.



1962
10/3 - The 18.1kg Zagami Mars Meteorite impacted Nigeria
Project Mercury: Sigma 7 is launched from Cape Canaveral, with Astronaut Wally Schirra aboard, for a six-orbit, nine-hour flight.








Ophiuchus / Cepheid variables / red nova / MOON

Supernova 1604, also known as Kepler's Supernova, was a supernova that occurred in the Milky Way, in the constellation Ophiuchus. As of April 2010, it is the last supernova to have been unquestionably observed in our own galaxy

4/6/10 - Asteroid 824 Anastasia occultation of Zeta Ophiuchi, the third brightest star in the constellation of Ophiuchus. Viewable is Western North America. "The projected path of this stellar eclipse — just 25 miles wide — will run from Southern California (encompassing a part of the Los Angeles metro area)… where the Easter earthquake hit!!!!!!! www.asteroidoccultation.com/obse...asia/
astroguyz.com/2010/04/05/...bright-star/


Occultation of delta Ophiuchi by (472) Roma on July 8, 2010 www.youtube.com/watch


12/4/2015 - occultation of Theta Ophiuchi by Mercury
www.occultations.net/occulta...able.htm


Barnard's Star - 4th closest star to us - is in Ophiuchus






CEPHEID VARIABLES
www.eso.org/public/news/eso1104/ near bottom
www.armaghplanet.com/blog/ce...les.html John Goodricke

Cepheids are luminous stars whose brightness varies at regular intervals. The time taken for the star to brighten and fade can be plugged into a simple mathematical relation that gives its intrinsic brightness. When compared with the measured brightness, this gives the distance. However, this method isn't foolproof, as astronomers think this period-luminosity relationship depends on the composition of the Cepheid.
Another problem arises from the fact that some of the light from a Cepheid may be absorbed by dust en route to Earth, making it appear fainter, and therefore farther away than it really is. - astronomy.com



red nova

www.nature.com/news/2010/...10.654.html





MOON
sites.google.com/site/larrygerstman/moon
home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/As.../moonlinks/
www.moonsociety.org/
home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/moon/








1801 1858 1811 1877 1809 1804 1883 1880 1875 1843

1801
1/1 - Giuseppe Piazzi discovered Ceres
9/19 - Johann Koehler died; discovered Open Cluster M67, Elliptical Galaxy M59, and Elliptical Galaxy M60. The latter two were discovered on the same day, April 11, 1779.




1858
1/28 - Dutch anatomist & geologist Eugène Dubois, who discovered the remains of Java man, the 1st known Homo erectus fossil, is born
2/11 – The Virgin Mary is said to have first appeared to St Bernadette of Lourdes at the Rock of Massabielle. This was the first in a series of apparitions.
2/15 - WH Pickering born, Boston.
adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
3/11 - Irish revolutionary Thomas James Clarke is born of Irish parents on the Isle of Wight. Arguably the person most responsible for the 1916 Easter Rising.
3/30 – Hyman Lipman patents a pencil with an attached eraser.
5/11 – Minnesota is admitted as the 32nd U.S. state.
6/2 - Giovanni Battista Donati discovered Comet Donati
7/1 – Papers by Darwin and Wallace announcing a theory of evolution by natural selection are read at London's Linnean Society.
7/31 - Richard Dixon Oldham born, British geologist; Irish geologist and seismologist who discovered the evidence for the existence of the Earth's core. In 1897, Oldham noticed that seismograms from earthquakes consistently showed three different disturbances, the first and second "preliminary tremors" (now known as P waves and S waves, respectively) and the "large waves" that followed the preliminary tremors, and that the difference in arrival time between the "large waves" and the "preliminary tremors" increased in a predictable fashion with increasing distance from the earthquake. In 1900, he established that the "preliminary tremors" (P and S waves) have travel paths that take them through the body of the Earth (we now call them body waves), and that the "large waves" (now called surface waves) travel along the Earth's surface. In 1906, Oldham used evidence from eathquake waves to demonstrate the existence of a large central core at a depth of about 3,821 km beneath the Earth's surface.
nuclearplanet.com/Earth%20C...overy.html
8/11 - The first ascent of the Eiger, in the Alps, was made by Swiss guides Christian Almer and Peter Bohren and Irishman Charles Barrington
9/11 – First ascent of Dom, the third highest summit in the Alps.
10/7 - U.S. meteorologist Charles Marvin, who invented the clinometer that figures height of clouds over airports, is born
10/15 - John L. Sullivan born
10/27 - Theodore Roosevelt born
10/28 – Macy's department store, founded by R.H. Macy, opens for business.




1811
3/11 - Urbain Le Verrier born
3/25 – The Great Comet of 1811 is discovered by Honoré Flaugergues. Visible to the naked eye for around 260 days, a record it held until the appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp in 1997.
cometography.com/lcomets/1811f1.html
books.google.com/books
www.sciencedaily.com/article...bopp.htm (re: visibility compared to hale-bopp)
3/31 - Chemist Robert Bunsen, who discovered the elements cesium & rubidium, and developed the Bunsen Burner, is born
5/5 - John William Draper born. He was the first person to take an astrophotograph; he took the first photo of the Moon which showed any lunar features in 1840. Then in 1843 he made daguerreotypes which showed new features on the moon in the visible spectrum. He developed the proposition in 1842 that only light rays that are absorbed can produce chemical change. It came to be known as the Grotthuss–Draper law when his name was teamed with a prior but apparently unknown promulgator Theodor Grotthuss of the same idea in 1817. In 1847 he published the observation that all solids glow red at about the same temperature, about 977˚ F (798 K), which has come to be known as the Draper point.
July 11 – Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro publishes his memoire about the molecular content of gases.
9/12 - perihelion of the Great Comet of 1811 www.icq.eps.harvard.edu/bortle.html
12/16 – The New Madrid earthquake in Mississippi Valley near New Madrid reverses the course of the river for a while. Other earthquakes along the fault occur on January 23, 1812 and February 7, 1812.



1877
1/2 – Alexander Bain died, Scottish inventor He invented the electric clock.
3/2 – In the Compromise of 1877, the U.S. presidential election, 1876 is resolved with the selection of Rutherford B. Hayes as the winner, even though Samuel J. Tilden had won the popular vote on November 7, 1876.
3/4 - Rutherford B. Hayes becomes President of the United States, succeeding Ulysses S. Grant as a result of the Compromise of 1877
Emile Berliner invents the microphone.
3/18 – Edgar Cayce born
6/26 – The eruption of Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador causes severe mudflows that wipe out surrounding cities and valleys, killing 1,000. *I found no data on fatalities.
books.google.com/books
7/2 – Hermann Hesse born, German-born writer, Nobel Prize laureate
8 - Asaph Hall discovered Phobos and Deimos
September 5 – Crazy Horse died, Oglala Sioux chief
9/23 - Urbain Le Verrier died
11/21 – Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, a machine that can record sound, considered Edison's first great invention. Edison demonstrates the device for the first time on November 29.



1809
1/15 – Pierre-Joseph Proudhon born, French anarchist
1/19 - Edgar Allan Poe born, Boston
2/3 – Congress approved the division of the Indiana Territory which became the Indiana and the Illinois Territories.
www.in.gov/history/2455.htm
2/12 - Lincoln and Darwin
2/25 - John Murray died en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John...of_Dunmore
3/4 – James Madison succeeds Thomas Jefferson as the President of the United States.
6/8 – Thomas Paine died
8/11 - Severe earthquakes strike the Azores and the village of São Miguel sinks. (no evidence in google or usgs)
8/27 – Hannibal Hamlin born; US v.p.
12/24 – Kit Carson born



1804
February 6 – Joseph Priestley died
March 8 – Alvan Clark born
4/5 - High Possil Meteorite: The first recorded meteorite in Scotland falls in Possil.
www.hmag.gla.ac.uk/John/Hun...hposs.htm
September 1 – German astronomer K. L. Harding discovers the asteroid Juno.
9/20 - Pierre Mechain died; discovered several galaxies; see Comet Encke perihelion 8/6/2010
messier.obspm.fr/xtra/hist...chain.html list of discoveries by date
November 23 – Franklin Pierce born



1883
1/10 - Samuel Mudd died, American doctor to John Wilkes Booth
March 4 – Sam Langford born, Canadian boxer
March 14 – Karl Marx died
April 5 – Oxygen is liquefied for the very first time.
May 24 – Brooklyn Bridge is opened to traffic after 13 years of construction.
5/26 - Edward Sabine died, Irish astronomer
May 30 – In New York City, a rumor that the Brooklyn Bridge is going to collapse causes a stampede which crushes 12 people.
7/6 - Arnold Kohlschütter born; German astronomer and astrophysicist from Halle. In 1911 he began working at the Mount Wilson Observatory, studying the spectra of the Sun and stars. In collaboration with Walter Sidney Adams, and in 1914 they discovered that the absolute luminosity of a star was proportional to the relative intensity of the lines in the spectrum. This allowed astronomers to determine the distance of stars, including main sequence and giants, using the spectroscope. MINE: At Mount Wilson Observatory in California, in collaboration with Walter Adams, Mr. Kohlschutter learned information about stars which made for more precise measurements of stellar distances. Walter Adams, in addition to his work with Kohlschutter, studied the companion of the brightest star in our night sky and found it to be Earth's size and yet nearly as bright and as massive as our Sun. That star, Sirius B, a white dwarf star, was discovered in 1862 by Alvan Graham Clark, a telescope maker who was born in my and Emeril Lagasse's hometown, Fall River, Massachusetts - the state whose coast is the embodiment of the human head. Most stars in our Universe are or will become white dwarf stars like Sirius B. Our Sun will become a white dwarf.
articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/full....142S
August 9 – Chester Gillette born, American murderer (d. 1908 by execution)
8/27 - Krakatoa erupted
October 30- Two Clan na Gael dynamite bombs explode in the London underground, injuring several people.



1880
Cocaine is isolated.
4/10 - Johann Palisa discovered asteroid 216 Kleopatra
4/18 - Marshfield tornado
June 6 – W. T. Cosgrave born, Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. He served as the first President of the Executive Council (prime minister) of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932
June 27 – Helen Keller born
7/21 - Milan Rastislav Štefánik born, Slovak General, politician, and astronomer. Štefánik dealt with astrophysics, solar physics and became well-known for his spectral analysis of the sun's corona. He was involved in perfecting spectrography and has been considered a predecessor of Bernard Lyot.
9/30 - Henry Draper took the first photo of the Great Orion Nebula (M42) with an 11-inch Clark Brothers photographic refractor
10/5 - William Lassell died. In 1846 Lassell discovered Triton, the largest moon of Neptune, just 17 days after the discovery of Neptune itself by Johann Gottfried Galle. In 1848 he independently co-discovered Hyperion, a moon of Saturn. In 1851 he discovered Ariel and Umbriel, two new moons of Uranus. The crater Lassell on the Moon, a crater on Mars and a ring of Neptune are named in his honour.
11/1 - Alfred Wegener born; conceived Pangaea
November 2 – U.S. presidential election, 1880: James Garfield defeats Winfield S. Hancock.
11/22 - James Craig Watson died; Canadian-American astronomer. He discovered 22 asteroids, beginning with 79 Eurynome in 1863. One of his asteroid discoveries, 139 Juewa was made in Beijing when Watson was there to observe the 1874 transit of Venus



1875
2/12 - Homestead Meteorite: L5 Chondrite, Amana, Co., Iowa.
www.meteorite-times.com/meteor...eorite/
4/14 - Luigi Carnera born; In his early career he worked as Max Wolf's assistant at Heidelberg, Germany and discovered a number of asteroids, including 472 Roma which occulted delta Ophiuchi on July 8, 2010.
6/14 - Heinrich Louis d'Arrest died
7/26 - Carl Jung born
11/11 - Vesto Melvin Slipher born (d. November 8, 1969) was an American astronomer. He spent his entire career at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, where he was director from 1916 to 1952. He used spectroscopy to investigate the rotation periods of planets, the composition of planetary atmospheres. In 1912, he was the first to observe the shift of spectral lines of galaxies, so he was the discoverer of galactic redshifts. He was responsible for hiring Clyde Tombaugh and supervised the work that led to the discovery of Pluto. His brother Earl C. Slipher was also an astronomer. The Moon crater Slipher and a crater on Mars are named in his honor. "Slipher first detected the expanding nature of the universe." ~Official Lowell Observatory Fb page
*See Henry Lee Giclas, astronomer born in Flagstaff and worked at Lowell where he discovered asteroids and comets.




1843
1/29 - President William McKinley born
2/27 - Great Comet of 1843 perihelion; this comet inspired Alvan Clark's interest in astronomy
ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/
www.nga.gov/cgi-bin/tbio cometography.com/lcomets/1843d1.html
4/21 - Anatomist Walther Flemming, who was the 1st to observe & systematically describe mitosis, is born
7/29 - Johannes Schmidt born, German linguist. He developed the Wellentheorie ('wave theory') of language development. *Died on 7/4/1901 - year McKinley was killed.
9/25 - Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin born. American geologist and educator. In 1893 he founded the Journal of Geology, of which he was editor for many years. He developed the planetesimal theory, which states that Earth was made from smaller objects that gradually built the planets by accretion. From this theory and other geological evidence he concluded that Earth was much older than assumed by Lord Kelvin (ca 100 million years) at the time.






Planetary conjunctions mid-2011

Here is a run-down of these upcoming conjunctions:
April 19: Mercury and Mars
April 22: Venus and Uranus
May 1: Mars and Jupiter
May 8: Mercury and Venus
May 10: Mercury and Jupiter
May 11: Venus and Jupiter
May 18: Mercury and Venus (again)
May 20: Mercury and Mars (again)
May 22: Venus and Mars

space.com







2002 1940 1946 1972 1991 1994 2016 1920 1979

2002 usgs
January 17 – The eruption of Mount Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of the Congodisplaces an estimated 400,000 people.
January 31 – A large section of the Antarctic Larsen Ice Shelf begins disintegrating, consuming about 3,250 km (1,254 miles) over 35 days.
February 19 – NASA's Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system.
2/20 - lunar occultation of Saturn
science.nasa.gov/science-n...onesaturn/
February 27 – A series of riots leaves hundreds dead, after 59 Hindu pilgrims die aboard a train burned by a Muslim mob in Godhra, India.
March 6 – France agrees to return the remains of Saartjie Baartman (Hottentot Venus) to South Africa.
3/25 - earthquake, Hindu Kush, Afghanistan, 1,000 dead. Deadliest quake of '02.
April 18 – The discovery of a new insect order, Mantophasmatodea, is announced.
April 22 – Linda Lovelace died
April 25 – Lisa Lopes died in Honduras
May 26 – The Mars Odyssey finds signs of large water ice deposits on the planet Mars.
June 4 – The planetoid Quaoar is discovered (in constellation Ophiuchus when discovered) orbiting the Sun in the Kuiper belt. ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi
science.nasa.gov/science-n..._newworld/ mentions ophiuchus
6/6 - Near-Earth asteroid detonation over the Mediterranean Sea. The asteroid detonated between Libya and Greece with the energy of an atomic bomb.
June 10 – An annular solar eclipse occurs.
The first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of 2 humans, is carried out by Kevin Warwick in the United Kingdom.
June 11 – Antonio Meucci is recognized as the first inventor of the telephone by the United States Congress.
6/14 – Near Earth Asteroid 2002 MN misses the planet by 75,000 miles (120,000 km), about 1/3 the distance to the moon. *Some reports give date of pass as June 15th. impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm
6/22 - earthquake, Iran, 261 dead
July 15 – In Washington, D.C., "American Taliban" John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to aiding the enemy and possession of explosives during the commission of a felony; Lindh agrees to serve 10 years in prison for each charge.
9/25 – The Vitim event, a possible bolide impact, occurs in Siberia, Russia, destroyed 40 square miles of forest and caused earth tremors felt 60 miles away.
abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/cc060703.html www.meteorites.com.au/odds&en...sia.html
October 2 – The Beltway sniper attacks begin with 5 shootings in Montgomery County, Maryland.
October 7 – The discovery of Quaoar is announced.
October 24 – The Beltway snipers, John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo, are arrested.
11/6 - Comet C/2002 V1 (NEAT) was discovered. As of April 2011, NEAT's the 7th brightest comet of the last 75 years. docs.google.com/viewer
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/200....32...25S
cometography.com/lcomets/2002v1.html
December 3 – Glenn Quinn died, Irish actor (b. 1970)
December 30 – An eruption on the volcanic island Stromboli off the coast of Sicily causes a flank failure and tsunami. The island is later evacuated.




1940
WW2
January 22 – John Hurt born, English actor
February 22 – In Tibet, province of Ando, 4-year-old Tenzin Gyatso is proclaimed the tulku (rebirth) of the thirteenth Dalai Lama.
February 27 – Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discover carbon-14.
March 5 – Katyn massacre: Members of the Soviet Politburo (Joseph Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Mikhail Kalinin, Kliment Voroshilov and Lavrenty Beria) sign an order, prepared by Beria, for the execution of 25,700 Polish intelligentsia, including 14,700 Polish POWs.
March 15 – Phil Lesh born
6/5 - Augustus Love died; Love waves
www.britannica.com/EBchecke...ough-Love
July 7 – Ringo Starr born
July 15 – Robert Pershing Wadlow died, tallest man ever
July 26 – Mary Jo Kopechne born, American aide to Ted Kennedy
August 10 – Bobby Hatfield born, American singer (Righteous Brothers)
8/29 - Johnny Paris born, American musician (Johnny and the Hurricanes)
September 5 – WWII: Commerce raiding hilfskreuzer Komet enters the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait after crossing the Arctic Ocean from the North Sea with the help of Soviet icebreakers Lenin, Stalin, and Kaganovich
September 7 – WWII: The Blitz – Nazi Germany begins to rain bombs on London (the first of 57 consecutive nights of strategic bombing).
September 12 – In Lascaux, France, 17,000-year-old cave paintings are discovered by a group of young Frenchmen hiking through Southern France. The paintings depict animals and date to the Stone Age.
Linda Gray born, American actress (Dallas)
September 16 – WWII: The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 is signed into law by Franklin D. Roosevelt, creating the first peacetime draft in U.S. history.
September 27 – WWII: Germany, Italy and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact.
October 9 - John Lennon is born.
October 16 – The draft registration of approximately 16 million men begins in the United States.
11/5 - Franklin Roosevelt reelected
November 10 – An earthquake in Bucharest, Romania kills 1,000.
November 11 – Armistice Day Blizzard: An unexpected blizzard kills 144 in the Midwestern United States.
November 17 – Luke Kelly born, Irish ballad singer (The Dubliners)
November 27 – Bruce Lee born
December 14 – Plutonium is first isolated chemically in the laboratory.
December 29 – WWII: "Second Great Fire of London" – Luftwaffe carries out a massive incendiary bombing raid, starting 1,500 fires. Many famous buildings, including the Guildhall and Trinity House, are either damaged or destroyed.



1946
1/3 - Carl Gustav Witt died; discovered the first Near-Earth asteroid, 433 Eros
3/22 - 1st rocket built in the US left the Earth's atmosphere & attained an altitude of 50 miles
4/1 - Aleutian Island earthquake: A 8.1 magnitude earthquake near the Aleutian Islands creates a tsunami that strikes the Hawaiian Islands killing 159, mostly in Hilo. earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php



1972
Vietnam War
1/24 - Allison Dubois born
1/30 - Bloody Sunday: The British Army kills 14 unarmed nationalist civil rights marchers in Derry, Northern Ireland.
2/2 - Anti-British riots take place throughout Ireland. The British Embassy in Dublin is burned to the ground, as are several British-owned businesses.
2/4 - Mariner 9 sends pictures from Mars.
2/14 - Rob Thomas born, American singer-songwriter
February 21 – The Soviet unmanned spaceship Luna 20 lands on the Moon.
February 21–February 28 – U.S. President Richard M. Nixon makes an unprecedented 8-day visit to the People's Republic of China and meets with Mao Zedong.
2/22 - Aldershot bombing: An Official IRA bomb kills 7 in Aldershot, England.
2/26 - Luna 20 comes back to Earth with 55 grams (1.94 oz) of lunar soil.
3/2 - The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is launched from Cape Kennedy, to be the first man-made satellite to leave the solar system.
March 18 – Dane Cook born
3/24 - The British government announces the prorogation of the Parliament of Northern Ireland and the introduction of 'Direct Rule' of Northern Ireland, after the Unionist government refuses to cede security powers.
4/9 - James F. Byrnes died, United States Secretary of State
4/10 - mag. 7.1 quake, Fars Province of southern Iran killing over 5,000
20 days after he is kidnapped in Buenos Aires, Oberdan Sallustro is executed by communist guerrillas.
Ed Byrne born, Irish stand up comedian and actor
The 44th Annual Academy Awards are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles.
4/13 - Dorothy Dalton died, American actress. Beginning in 1910, Dalton was a player in stock companies in Chicago and Holyoke, Massachusetts. She joined the Keith-Albee-Orpheum Corporation vaudeville circuits. By 1914 she was in Hollywood.
4/16 - Apollo 16 (John Young, Ken Mattingly, Charlie Duke) is launched. During the mission, the astronauts achieve a lunar rover speed record of 18 km/h.
April 22 – Sylvia Cook and John Fairfax finish rowing across the Pacific.
5 - The Burundian Genocide against the Hutu begins; more than 500,000 Hutus die.
The Magnavox Odyssey video game system is released, thus marking the dawn of the video game age.
May 21 – In Rome, Laszlo Toth attacks Michelangelo's "Pietà" statue with a sledgehammer, shouting that he is Jesus Christ.
5/22 - Cecil Day-Lewis died, British poet
June 9 – The Black Hills flood kills 238 in South Dakota.
June 14–June 23 – Hurricane Agnes kills 117 on the U.S. East Coast.
June 23 – Watergate Scandal: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon and White House chief of staff H. R. Haldeman are taped talking about using the C.I.A. to obstruct the F.B.I.'s investigation into the Watergate break-ins.
6/24 - Tara
July 4 – The first Rainbow Gathering is held in Colorado.
July 10 – India's news agency reports that at least 24 people have been killed in separate incidents, in the Chandka Forest in India, by elephants.
7/21 - Bloody Friday: 22 bombs planted by the Provisional IRA explode in Belfast, Northern Ireland; nine people are killed and 130 seriously injured
Comedian George Carlin is arrested by Milwaukee police for public obscenity, for reciting his "Seven Words You Can Never Say On Television" at Summerfest.
July 31 – The Troubles, Northern Ireland: Operation Motorman, 4:00 AM: British Army begins to regain control of the "no-go areas" established by Irish republican paramilitariesin Belfast, Derry ("Free Derry") and Newry
Claudy bombing (“Bloody Monday”), 10:00 AM: Three car bombs in Claudy, County Londonderry, kill nine. It becomes public knowledge only in 2010 that that a local Catholic priest was an IRA officer believed to be involved in the bombings but his rôle was covered up by the authorities.
8/4 - A huge solar flare (one of the largest ever recorded) knocks out cable lines in U.S. It begins with the appearance of sunspots on August 2; an August 4 flare kicks off high levels of activity until August 10.
August 10 – A brilliant, daytime meteor skips off the Earth's atmosphere due to an Apollo asteroid streaking over the western US, from Utah into Alberta, Canada. www.phys.ncku.edu.tw/~astrol...302.html
8/15 - Ben Affleck born
8/30 - Cameron Diaz born
9/21 - Liam Gallagher born, British singer (Oasis)
9/27 - Gwyneth Paltrow born, American actress
September 28 – Dita Von Teese born, American burlesque artist
10/1 - Louis Leakey died. British paleontologist
10/16 - Rioting Maze Prison inmates cause a fire that destroys most of the camp.
10/17 - Eminem born
October 20 – Harlow Shapley died, American astronomer
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
11/7 - Richard Nixon reelected
November 19 – Seán Mac Stíofáin, a leader of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, is arrested in Dublin after giving an interview to RTÉ.
12/7 - Apollo 17 (Gene Cernan, Ronald Evans, Harrison Schmitt), the last manned Moon mission to date, is launched.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army kidnaps Jean McConville in Belfast.
12/8 - International Human Rights Day is proclaimed by the United Nations.
December 11 – Apollo 17 lands on the Moon.
December 14 – Apollo program: Eugene Cernan is the last person to walk on the moon, after he and Harrison Schmitt complete the third and final Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) of Apollo 17. This is the last manned mission to the moon of the 20th Century.
12/16 - The Portuguese army kills 400 Africans in Tete, Mozambique.
December 19 – Apollo program: Apollo 17 returns to Earth, concluding the program of lunar exploration.
12/23 - A 6.25 Richter scale earthquake in Nicaragua killed 6,000 people in the capital, Managua
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/...2540045.stm
www.iris.edu/seismo/quakes/1972managua/
12/26 - Harry Truman died




1991 usgs
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
1/16 - Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm begins with air strikes against Iraq.
1/31 - mag. 6.9 quake, Hindu Kush, Afghanistan, 703 dead. 2nd deadliest quake of year.
2/7 - The Provisional Irish Republican Army launches a mortar attack on 10 Downing Street during a cabinet meeting.
February 18 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army explodes bombs in the early morning, at both Paddington station and Victoria station in London.
March 1 – Edwin H. Land died, inventor of the Polaroid instant camera
3/3 - An amateur video captures the beating of motorist Rodney King by Los Angeles, California police officers.
March 10 – Gulf War – Operation Phase Echo: 540,000 American troops begin to leave the Persian Gulf.
4/10 - A South Atlantic tropical cyclone develops in the Southern Hemisphere off the coast of Angola (the first of its kind to be documented by weather satellites).
4/22 - A 7.6 earthquake kills 82 in Costa Rica and Panama.
April 26 – 70 tornadoes break out in the central United States, killing 17. The most notable tornado of the day strikes Andover, Kansas.
April 29 – A tropical cyclone hits Bangladesh, killing an estimated 138,000 people.
June 3 – Mount Unzen erupts, killing 43 people as a result of pyroclastic flow.
June 5 – STS 40: Space Shuttle Columbia carries the Spacelab into orbit.
6/15 - Pinatubo erupted, island of Luzon, Philippines, the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century; the final death toll tops 800.
6/17 - U.S. President Zachary Taylor is exhumed to discover whether or not his death was caused by arsenic poisoning, instead of acute gastrointestinal illness; no trace of arsenic is found.
July 1 – Michael Landon died, American actor
July 11 – A solar Eclipse of record totality occurs, seen first in Hawaii then enters Mexico with the path directly crosses Cabo San Lucasand Mexico City seen by 20 million inhabitants, and finally ends in Colombia in South America.
8/8 - James Irwin died; he was the eighth person to walk on the Moon
9/3 - Frank Capra died, Italian-born film director
September 28 – Miles Davis died
10/19 - mag. 6.8 quake, India, 2,000 dead. Deadliest quake of '91.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/1991/
October 24 – Gene Roddenberry died
October 28–November 4 – The 1991 Perfect Storm strikes the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada, causing over $200 million of damage and resulting in 12 direct fatalities.
October 29 – The American Galileo spacecraft makes its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid.
11/24 - Freddie Mercury died
December 15 – The Egyptian ferry Salem Express sinks in the Red Sea, killing more than 450.



1994
3/14 + 15 - (+ 7/10) - Images of the most distant galaxy discovered to that point, dubbed 8C 1435+63, were shot by scientists using the Keck telescope in Hawaii (est. 13.1 billion light years away).
arxiv.org/PS_cache/astr.../9411007v1.pdf




2016
5/9 - transit of Mercury
11/14 - perigee harmonizes with the fullest lunar phase as it did in 1993 and 2008





1920
1/2 - George Herbig born, American astronomer at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. He is perhaps best known for the discovery of Herbig-Haro objects. A class of pre–main sequence stars are named Herbig Ae/Be stars after him
1/6 - Sun Myung Moon born, Korean evangelist, founder of the Unification Church
2/20 - Robert Peary died, American Arctic explorer
Jacinta Marto died, Beatified,witnessed apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1917 at Fátima, Portugal (b. 1910)
March 11 – Julio Garavito Armero died, Colombian astronomer
March 28 – The 1920 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak hits the Great Lakes region and Deep South states.
6/20 - John Grigg died, New Zealand astronomer He is best known for his co-discovery of the periodic comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup in 1902, which was his first discovery of a new comet
7/25 - Astrophysicist Chushiro Hayashi born. Created models for stars of mass between 0.01 & 100x the Sun. He found that pre-main-sequence stars follow what are now called “Hayashi tracks” downward on the Hertzprung-Russell diagram until they reach the main sequence…
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
www.inamori-f.or.jp/laureate...rf_e.html
August 3 – Irish War of Independence: Catholics riot in Belfast.
August 12 – Hermann Struve died, Russian-born astronomer. He was particular known for his work on satellites of planets of the Solar System and development of the intersatellite method of correcting their orbital position. The mathematical Struve function is named after him.
8/16 - Joseph Norman Lockyer died, English astronomer. Along with the French scientist Pierre Janssen he is credited with discovering the gas helium.
October 2 – Winthrop M. Crane died, Governor of Massachusetts and Senator
October 22 – Timothy Leary born
11/2 - President Warren Harding elected
11/4 - Ludwig Struve died, Russian astronomer. Struve's research was first focused on celestial mechanics, in particular precession and other motion within the Solar System. It then expanded on the study of the positions and motion of stars, in particular single and double stars lying within the angular range of the Tartu Observatory. He used occultation of stars by the Moon to refine the value of the lunar radius. He also determined the apex coordinates of the Sun's movement and was one of the first astronomers to estimate, in 1887, the rotation rate of the Milky Way.
November 21 – Bloody Sunday: British forces open fire on spectators and players during a football match in Dublin's Croke Park, killing 14 Irish civilians. This follows the assassinations of 12 British agents by the IRA in an earlier attack elsewhere.
November 28 – Kilmichael Ambush: The Third Cork Brigade Flying Column under Tom Barry successfully ambushes 2 lorries of British soldiers at Kilmichael, County Cork
12/3 - William de Wiveleslie Abney died, English astronomer and photographer. Abney investigated the blackening of a negative to incidental light. In 1874, Abney developed a dry photographic emulsion, which replaced "wet" emulsions. He used this emulsion in an Egyptian expedition to photograph the transit of Venus across the sun. In 1880, he introduced hydroquinone. Abney also introduced new and useful types of photographic paper, including in 1882 a formula for gelatin silver chloride paper. Abney conducted early research into the field of spectroscopy, developing a red-sensitive emulsion which was used for the infrared spectra of organic molecules. He was also a pioneer in photographing the infrared solar spectrum (1887), as well as researching sunlight in the medium of the atmosphere.
12/16 - An 8.6 Richter scale Haiyuan earthquake causes a landslide in Gansu Province, China, killing 180,000.



1979
The One Child Policy is implemented in China in this year. (between 1979 and 2010 it has prevented about 400 million births)
February 18 – The Sahara Desert experiences snow for 30 minutes.
February 26 – A total solar eclipse arcs over northern Canada, and a partial solar eclipse is visible over almost all of North America and Central America.
March 4 – The U.S. Voyager I spaceprobe photos reveal Jupiter's rings.
March 5 – Voyager I makes its closest approach to Jupiter at 172,000 miles.
The largest magnetar (Soft gamma repeater) event is recorded.
science.nasa.gov/science-n...20may98_1/
docs.google.com/viewer
solomon.as.utexas.edu/~duncan...tar.html
March 30 – Airey Neave, World War II veteran and Conservative Northern Ireland spokesman, is killed by an Irish National Liberation Army bomb in the British House of Commons car park.
April 10 – A tornado hits Wichita Falls, Texas, killing 42 people (the most notable of 26 tornadoes that day).
April 13 – The La Soufière volcano erupts in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. No deaths because people forewarned.
April 15 – 1979 Montenegro Earthquake: A major earthquake (7.0 on the Richter scale) strikes Montenegro (then part of Yugoslavia) and parts of Albania, causing extensive damage to coastal areas and taking 136 lives
4/19 - Supernova 1979c detected in M100 in Coma Berenices. On 11/15/2010, it was announced that astronomers may have discovered the youngest black hole ever found at the site of SN 1979c.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN1979C
www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/iauc/...8.html
www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/lists...#1979C
www.google.com/#sclient=p...d2276f2dcad
blogs.discovermagazine.com/bada...hole/
5/25 - American Airlines Flight 191: In Chicago, a DC-10 crashes during takeoff at O'Hare International Airport, killing 271 on board and 2 people on the ground.
6/12 - Robyn born
July 11 – NASA's first orbiting space station Skylab begins its return to Earth, after being in orbit for 6 years and 2 months.
August 27 – Lord Mountbatten of Burma and 3 others are assassinated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army. He was a British admiral, statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. On the same day, the Warrenpoint ambush occurs: Provisional Irish Republican Army members attack a British convoy at Narrow Water, County Down, killing 18 British soldiers.
September 1 – The U.S. Pioneer 11 becomes the first spacecraft to visit Saturn, when it passes the planet at a distance of 21,000 km.
September 12 – Hurricane Frederic makes landfall at 10:00 p.m. on Alabama's Gulf Coast.
September 22 – The South Atlantic Flash is observed near Bouvet Island, thought to be a meteor/asteroid explosion or nuclear weapons test.
October 16 – A tsunami in Nice, France killed 10
November 23 – In Dublin, Ireland, Provisional Irish Republican Army member Thomas McMahon is sentenced to life in prison for the assassination of Lord Mountbatten of Burma.
December 9 – The eradication of the smallpox virus is certified, making smallpox the first and to date only human disease driven to extinction.
12/12 - A major earthquake and tsunami kills 259 people in Colombia.







Precogntion Theory

How are best new ideas conceived? Generally to solve a problem. When Heaven was conceived and born, it created a problem: the division between living and dead. And in come the psychics to bridge the divide, they say. I don't doubt that some psychics are plugged into something more than we average joes and janets are, but I have a real problem with their 'talking to the dead' explanation.

I don't think you can talk to the dead, but maybe we can talk to the living in a manner only dreamed. I've had several premonitions which are so powerful I have no choice but to be curious. My best experiences have involved dreaming and then seeing the related event, like my Friedrich Bessel experience I mentioned this morning.

Maybe we can access others' thoughts and memories, which of course are generated and stored in brains. Who says we need 'visible' language on a page to get information? Intent may be the key.

How does premonition work? I can access my information and my memories because I've stored them. Who's to say we can't access another's 'storage facility' - the brain - by intent alone?






Constellation Coma Berenices / Pipe and Dark Horse Nebulae

The Catalina Sky Survey at the University of Arizona discovered 2011 EB74 on the anniversary of Pierre Mechain's discovery of three spiral galaxies in the constellation Coma Berenices.

4/19/1979 - Supernova 1979c detected in M100 in Coma Berenices.

On the day of the cataclysmic 2010 Chilean earthquake, asteroid 532 Herculina occulted HIP 60599 - a star in the constellation Coma Berenices.


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pipe_Nebula







Solar Eclipse / Asteroids / White dwarfs / Saturn

Total solar eclipses whose totality exceeded seven minutes
6/8/37 - first in over 800 years to exceed 7 min.
6/20/55
6/30/73
eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEcatma...axT.html

longest eclipses
eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEcatma...max.html

longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century - 7/22/09


total solar eclipses on 7/11
7/11/1991
7/11/2010

total solar eclipse seen in MA on 8/31/32
eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEplot/...g31T.GIF

eclipses 1900 - 2100
eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/solar.html

total solar eclipses 2010 - 2035
www.suite101.com/content/t...35-a241280
1945 - 2053
www.sonnenfinsternis.org/chronik.htm



ASTEROIDS

www.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/list...edMPs.txt list of asteroids/minor planets by date discovered

Asteroid 2008 TC3 discovered by Richard Kowalski on 10/6/08. Detonated over Sudan the next day.
neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news159.html articles.sfgate.com/2009-03-...fragments

Small asteroid detonated above Sulawesi (near Bone), Indonesia, on 10/8/09.
neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news165.html

Siberia, 6/30/1908

life on earth from an asteroid
www.nature.com/news/2010/...10.207.html

near-Earth asteroids www.space.com/common/foru...iewtopic.php

near-earth objects NEWS
neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/






White Dwarfs

www.space.com/scienceastr...-100412.html
More than 90 percent of stars in the Milky Way, including our own sun, end their lives as a white dwarfs. Traditionally, these dense stellar remains haven't been the first place that astronomers look for signs of planets outside our own solar system. Instead, exoplanet searches have focused on stars like our own sun. But tantalizing new results suggest that these elderly stars might also be a rich source of information on the potential for other planetary systems out there in the galaxy.

adsabs.harvard.edu/full/194....51...13R Williamina Fleming, Edward Pickering, Henry Russell
apod.nasa.gov/apod/white_dwarfs.html
Tenzing Norgay was born in Tibet on astronomer Williamina Fleming's birthday. Fleming discovered the classification of stars known as white dwarfs. The mass of the typical white dwarf is equivalent to the mass of our Sun and packaged in a sphere about the size of Earth. William Herschel, the discoverer of planet Uranus, discovered the first white dwarf star, 40 Eridani B, on January 31, 1783. The second white dwarf star was discovered on January 31st also, in 1862 by Alvan Graham Clark. Alvan Graham Clark, the son of a renowned telescope maker and a respected telescope maker himself, was born in my hometown, Fall River, Massachusetts.

President George W. Bush and Stamford Raffles (Rafflesia arnoldii) were born on astronomer Arnold Kohlschutter's birthday. At Mount Wilson Observatory in California, in collaboration with Walter Adams, Mr. Kohlschutter learned information about stars which made for more precise measurements of stellar distances. Walter Adams, in addition to his work with Kohlschutter, studied the companion of the brightest star in our night sky and found it to be Earth's size and yet nearly as bright and as massive as our Sun. That star, Sirius B, a white dwarf star, was discovered in 1862 by Alvan Graham Clark, a telescope maker who was born in my and Emeril Lagasse's hometown, Fall River, Massachusetts - the state whose coast is the embodiment of the human head. Most stars in our Universe are or will become white dwarf stars like Sirius B. Our Sun will become a white dwarf.

Earth's most powerful earthquake occurred on Chile's coast and so did the start of the Einstein total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919. The earthquake occurred on the anniversary of First Lady Martha Washington's death. The Chilean Coast is also the location of the catastrophic magnitude 8.8 earthquake which occurred on February 27, 2010. This earthquake ranks fifth on the USGS list of most powerful earthquakes. An earthquake equal in magnitude struck the nation of Ecuador, just north of Chile, on January 31, 1906. Four days later, Clyde Tombaugh was born in Streator, Illinois. Tombaugh discovered Pluto. On the anniversary of the 1906 earthquake, the first two white dwarf stars were discovered by William Herschel and Alvan Graham Clark. Herschel discovered 40 Eridani B on January 31, 1783, and Alvan Graham Clark discovered Sirius B, companion to the brightest star in our night sky, on January 31, 1862. Most stars in our Universe are or will become white dwarf stars and our Sun will become one at the end of its life. White dwarfs are approximately Earth's size yet about as bright and as massive as our Sun.

U.S. President Ronald Reagan died seven months before Michael Brown's discovery of Haumea and the Sumatran earthquake. The transit of Venus occurred three days after President Reagan's death in 2004. The transit of Venus occurs twice within an 8-year period and the pair of transits repeats every 120 years. The transit of Venus, three days after Ronald Reagan's death in 2004, happened on astronomer Giovanni Cassini's birthday. Cassini discovered Jupiter's Great Red Spot as well as four of Saturn's moons. The 2004 Venus transit occurred on the anniversary of U.S. President Andrew Jackson's death and on the anniversary of a total solar eclipse which exceeded seven minutes of totality. That totality, on June 8, 1937, was the first in over 800 years to exceed seven minutes. Another total solar eclipse longer than seven minutes occurred five months before Gerald Ford's rise to the vice presidency in 1973.

Earth's most powerful earthquake occurred on Chile's coast and so did the start of the Einstein total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919. The earthquake occurred on the anniversary of First Lady Martha Washington's death. The Chilean Coast is also the location of the catastrophic magnitude 8.8 earthquake which occurred on February 27, 2010. This earthquake ranks fifth on the USGS list of most powerful earthquakes. An earthquake equal in magnitude struck the nation of Ecuador, just north of Chile, on January 31, 1906. Four days later, Clyde Tombaugh was born in Streator, Illinois. Tombaugh discovered Pluto. On the anniversary of the 1906 earthquake, the first two white dwarf stars were discovered by William Herschel and Alvan Graham Clark. Herschel discovered 40 Eridani B on January 31, 1783, and Alvan Graham Clark discovered Sirius B, companion to the brightest star in our night sky, on January 31, 1862. Most stars in our Universe are or will become white dwarf stars and our Sun will become one at the end of its life. White dwarfs are approximately Earth's size yet about as bright and as massive as our Sun.




saturn
news.sciencemag.org/sciencen...eate.html







Comets / Oppositions 2010 / Lunar & other occultations


Comet Ikeya-Seki, aka Great Comet of 1965
perihelion on 10/21/65
discovered by Kaoru Ikeya and Tsutomu Seki on 9/18/65


Comet Hyakatuke, 1996
nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetar...take.html


brightest comets
www.icq.eps.harvard.edu/brightest.html
www.cfa.harvard.edu/icq/bortle.html
www.icq.eps.harvard.edu/bortle.html "bright comet chronicles"
most comets not from our solar system?
www.astrobiology.net/archive...not.html


oppositions 2010
www.telescopes.net/doc/3020
future oppositions
dawn-aop.astro.umd.edu/calendar.shtml
mars oppositions
cseligman.com/text/planet...ositions.htm
ceres oppositions
homepage.mac.com/andjames/...res000.htm
dawn-aop.astro.umd.edu/calendar.shtml



Lunar occultations
www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...x.htm
asa.usno.navy.mil/SecA/occns.html (2008 - 2011)
asa.usno.navy.mil/SecA/2011/olist11.html (2011)
transit.savage-garden.org/en/oc...t.html (2009 - 2014)

planetary/star occultations
popastro.com/occ/observa...ort-archive/
www.occultations.net/occulta...able.htm
transit.savage-garden.org/en/mutual.html
www.bookrags.com/wiki/Occultation
www.bogan.ca/astro/occul...occltlst.htm
www.projectpluto.com/mut_pln.htm
climate.gi.alaska.edu/Curtis/astro4.html






meteorites / Nucleosysthesis and Making Biogenic Elements


ancient meteorite impact, Santa Fe, NM
www.livescience.com/space/an...0809.html

meteorites for sale, some with impact dates
www.aerolite.org/new.htm






biogenic elements - first column pg. 372
docs.google.com/viewer

We Are Made of Stardust
books.google.com/books







Supernovae / general astronomy / quasars / black holes


imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/as...02b.html
www.nasa.gov/worldbook/s...rldbook.html
spider.ipac.caltech.edu/staff/...va.html
www.supernovae.net/
www.npr.org/blogs/13.7/2...ion-goes-down

seds.org/messier/more/mw_sn.html

snews.bnl.gov/popsci/tycho-kepler.html

adsabs.harvard.edu/full/198....95..388V [last supernova in Local Group. published in 1983; before SN 1987]

adsabs.harvard.edu/full/198....17...98B (SN 1885 - Isaac Ward)
science.nasa.gov/science-n...an_bubble/ "Near-Earth supernova"
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_supernovae
www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O8...iaA.html (Cassiopeia A)

Youngest Supernova in Milky Way Found
news.nationalgeographic.com/news....html




Possible missing link between young and old galaxies
www.astronomy.com/en/News-O...axies.aspx

Super-complex organic molecules found in interstellar space
www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx
www.newscientist.com/article...ula.html Crab Nebula

www.universetoday.com/81795/h...to-life/

www.universetoday.com/81782/c...planets/




Galaxy encounter fires up quasar
Scientists observe a giant nebula of ionized gas associated with the quasar as well as signs of interaction with a nearby galaxy.
www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx

www.astronomynow.com/news/n1...9quasar/




Black Holes
largest black hole in known universe, in the elliptical galaxy M87 in the Virgo Cluster
www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblo...erse.html

www.space.com/scienceastr...-101103.html

www.space.com/scienceastr...-110109.html

www.nasa.gov/mission_pag.../11-005.html Taking the Pulse of a Black Hole System

www.astronomy.com/en/News-O...holes.aspx






Most Powerful Earthquake in World & Each U.S. State

www.telegraph.co.uk/news/wor...tury.html


earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...rgest.php

Wed, June 22, 2011 - 3:19 PM — permalink - 2 comments - add a comment

November

11/1
1755 - Great Lisbon Earthquake
1880 - Alfred Wegener born; conceived Pangaea
1977 - asteroid/comet/planetoid Chiron is discovered.




11/2 ast usgs 2010
1570 – A tsunami in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1,000 people.
1675 – King Philip's War: A combined effort by the Plymouth, Rhode Island, Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut colonies attacks the Great Swamp Fort, owned by the Narragansetts.
1783 – In Rocky Hill, New Jersey, US General George Washington gives his "Farewell Address to the Army".
1795 - President James K. Polk born
1799 - John Light Atlee born; American physician and surgeon. He was one of the organizers of the American Medical Association, also serving as its president.
1815 - George Boole born, British mathematician. As the inventor of Boolean algebra, which is the basis of all modern computer arithmetic, Boole is regarded in hindsight as one of the founders of the field of computer science. *1815 - Tambora's eruption on April 10th.
1852 - Franklin Pierce elected
1865 – Warren G. Harding born
1875 - mag. 4.3 quake, Georgia. The earthquake was strong enough to move a mirror back and forth from the wall and to shake doors and windows. Felt from Spartanburg and Columbia, South Carolina, to Atlanta and Macon, Georgia…
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1880 - James Garfield elected
1882 – Oulu, Finland is decimated by the Great Oulu Fire of 1882
1885 - Astronomer Harlow Shapley, known as "The Modern Copernicus," who discovered the Sun's position in the galaxy, is born in Nashville, Missouri.
1887 – Jenny Lind died, Swedish soprano. often known as the "Swedish Nightingale".
1889 – North and South Dakota are admitted as the 39th and 40th U.S. states.
1913 - Ladislaus Weinek died; Austro-Hungarian astronomer. In 1874 he joined a German expedition to the Kerguelen Islands to observe a transit of Venus across the face of the Sun. His results from the expedition were published in Nova Acta Leopoldina. Using images taken at the Lick Observatory and the Meudon Observatory, he produced the first atlas of the Moon that was based on photographs.
1920 - Warren Harding elected
KDKA of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania starts broadcasting as the first commercial radio station. The first broadcast is the result of the U.S. presidential election, 1920.
1930 – Alfred Lothar Wegener died; German geophysicist and meteorologist who became famous for his theory of continental drift
Haile Selassie is crowned emperor of Ethiopia.
1936 – The British Broadcasting Corporation initiates the BBC Television Service, the world's first regular, "high-definition" (then defined as at least 200 lines) service. Renamed BBC1 in 1964, the channel still runs to this day.
1948 - Harry Truman elected
1950 – George Bernard Shaw died
1957 – The Levelland UFO Case in Levelland, Texas, generates national publicity.
1958 - Jean Couzy died, French mountaineer. At age 27, he was a member of Maurice Herzog's 1950 expedition to Annapurna. Prior to this, his usual climbing partner was Marcel Schatz, another member of the expedition. Couzy made the first ascent of Makalu with Lionel Terray on May 15, 1955.
1963 - Park Young Seok born, South Korean mountaineer. first person in the world to complete a true Adventure Grand Slam. That is to say, he has climbed the world's 14 Eight-thousanders, the Seven Summits, and visited both poles. He holds the world's second fastest time (behind Jerzy Kukuczka of Poland) for ascending the 14 Eight-thousanders, the Guinness World Record for climbing six of the 8,000-meter Himalayan peaks within one year, and another record for reaching the South Pole on foot in 44 days, self-sufficient and without any food re-supplies.
1965 – Norman Morrison, a 31-year-old Quaker, sets himself on fire in front of the river entrance to the Pentagon to protest the use ofnapalm in the Vietnam war.
1974 – 78 die when the Time Go-Go Club in Seoul, South Korea burns down. Six of the victims jumped to their deaths from the seventh floor after a club official barred the doors after the fire started.
1976 - Jimmy Carter elected
1983 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs a bill creating Martin Luther King, Jr. Day.
1994 - Michael Candy died. Discovered Comet Candy on 12/26/1960. It was the first time an astronomer discovered & calculated the orbit of a comet. He was a prolific discoverer of minor planets.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/199...105...56.
www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~jds/history.htm
books.google.com/books
www.eoas.info/biogs/P001984b.htm
2000 – The first resident crew to the ISS docked in November 2nd on the Soyuz TM-31. The ISS has been continuously inhabited since the first resident crew entered the station, thereby providing a permanent human presence in space.
2004 - George W. Bush reelected
2010 - Kaoru Ikeya discovered a new visitor from deep space: Comet C/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami). Shigeki Murakami found it the next night. Ikeya is most famous for co-discovering the 20th century’s brightest comet, C/1965 S1 (Ikeya-Seki).
www.astronomy.com/News-Obse...akami.aspx




11/3 ast usgs
1639 – Martin de Porres died, Peruvian Roman Catholic saint; Among the many miracles attributed to him were those of levitation, bilocation, miraculous knowledge, instantaneous cures..
1643 – John Bainbridge died, English astronomer noticed due to a publication concerning the comet of 1618.
1706 - earthquake, Italy, 15,000 dead
1815 – John Mitchel born, Irish nationalist
1868 - Ulysses S. Grant elected
1894 - Herman Zanstra born; Dutch astronomer. He wrote a famous paper, An Application of the Quantum Theory to the Luminosity of Diffuse Nebulae, which for the first time provided a quantitative method (the "Zanstra method") for understanding the luminosity of nebulas and comets
1896 - William McKinley elected
1908 - William H. Taft elected
1926 – Annie Oakley died, American sharp-shooter; born Phoebe Ann Mosey
1930 – Tsutomu Seki born, Japanese astronomer *His website only provides year of birth.
1933 – Michael Dukakis born, Brookline, MA. longest serving governor in Massachusetts history.
1936 - Franklin Roosevelt reelected
1949 – Larry Holmes born. Became world champ on 6/9/78 defeated Ken Norton.
1960 - Harold Spencer Jones died; British astronomer. He determined the solar parallax from observations of 433 Eros during its close approach in 1930–1931.
1964 - Lyndon Johnson elected
1973 – Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 10 toward Mercury. On March 29, 1974, it becomes the first space probe to reach that planet.
1992 - Bill Clinton elected
2002 - mag. 7.9 earthquake, Alaska. Largest earthquake in 2002. One person injured and extensive damage to roads.
2007 – Martin Meehan died, Irish republican
2010 - moon at perigee
largest blast yet of Mount Merapi volcano



11/4 ast usgs ire 2010
1856 - James Buchanan elected
1871 - William Hammond Wright born; American astronomer. He was director of the Lick Observatory from 1935 until 1942. He is most famous for his work on radial velocity of stars in our galaxy, and his work with a spectrograph he designed himself. He obtained spectra of novas and nebulae. In 1924 he made photographic observations of Mars in multiple wave lengths. From these pictures he concluded that its atmosphere was about 60 miles (100 km) deep. adsabs.harvard.edu/full/195....71..305M
1873 - Temple Chevallier died; British astronomer and mathematician. Between 1847 and 1849, he made important observations regarding sunspots. He also made important observations of Jupiter's moons
1884 - Grover Cleveland elected
Birth in Hillsborough, Co. Down of Harry Ferguson, engineer, inventor, and pioneer of the modern tractor
1909 - Sandor Szalay born; Father of nuclear physics in Hungary. He discovered the enrichment mechanism of uranium in nature which led to the discovery of several uranium depostis worldwide.
1924 - Calvin Coolidge elected
1932 – Tommy Makem born; Irish folk singer-songwriter
1945 - George Willis Ritchey died; American optician, telescope maker and astronomer. He co-invented the Ritchey-Chrétien reflector telescope along with Henri Chrétien. He played a major role in designing the mountings and making the mirrors of the 60-inch and 100-inch telescopes at Mount Wilson Observatory. He worked closely with George Ellery Hale. adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ritc..._telescope
1946 – Laura Bush born, First Lady of the United States
1952 - Dwight D. Eisenhower elected
magnitude 9.0 Richter scale earthquake hits the Kamchatka Peninsula. 4th most powerful since 1900.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...world.php earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...11_04.php
1960 – Kathy Griffin born
1962 – In a test of the Nike-Hercules air defense missile, Shot Dominic-Tightrope is successfully detonated 69,000 feet above Johnston Island. It would also be the last atmospheric nuclear test conducted by the United States.
1980 - Ronald Reagan elected
1985 - Cus D'Amato died; trained Mike Tyson; "discovered" Rocky Graziano who went on to become champ with different trainer
1990 - Richard Heaton Tunstall Bates died; electrical engineer; Together with his students P.T. Gough and F. M. Cady, respectively, he invented, in 1972 and 1980, the optical astronomical speckle imaging techniques called speckle holography and shift-and-add.
2002 - Sonia O'Sullivan finishes 12th in NYC marathon
2003 - The most powerful solar flare as observed by satellite instrumentation is recorded, a flare that saturated the detectors on the GOES-12 satellite. www.spaceweather.com/solarfl...res.html
www.nasa.gov/vision/univ..._xflare.html
2006 - occultation of the star TYC 0587-00209-1U by the asteroid 76 Freia
www.springerlink.com/content...5422063/ www.netstevepr.com/Asteroid...11_si.htm
www.euraster.net/results/2006/index.html
2008 - Barack Obama elected




11/5 ast usgs
1647 - Vincentio Reiner died; Italian astronomer and mathematician. He was a friend and disciple of Galileo. His astronomical work consisted of adding new observations of Jupiter's moons to Galileo's. To some degree, Reinieri improved the Galilean tables on the motions of these satellites. Before his death, Galileo decided to place all of the papers containing his observations and calculations in the hands of Reinieri. Reinieri was to finish and revise them. Reinieri's observations of Jupiter's moons remained unpublished at the time of his premature death.
1659 - quake in Italy, 2,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1743 – Coordinated scientific observations of the transit of Mercury are organized by Joseph-Nicolas Delisle.
1818 – Benjamin Franklin Butler born, 33rd Governor of Massachusetts
1822 - transit of Mercury
1846 - Edward Singleton Holden born; American astronomer. He was director of Washburn Observatory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison from 1881 to 1885. He discovered a total of 22 NGC objects during his work at Washburn Observatory.
1854 - Anders Severin Donner born; professor of astronomy at the University of Helsinki observatory. Under the leadership of Donner, the observatory participated in the international star directory and star map project "Carte du Ciel". The star directory photograph work began in 1890 in Helsinki and it was ready in 1937. The Helsinki directory contains about 285,000 stars, their luminance and precise positions.
1855 - French meteorologist Léon-Philippe Teisserenc de Bort, who discovered and named the stratosphere in 1902, is born
1859 - Walter Wislicenus born; German astronomer. He was known for his lectures given outside of academia that attracted many non-scientists, and for his publications for the interested public. He was the main observer for the catalogue of southern stars, created from 1884 to 1888
1868 - transit of Mercury
www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~ipswich/...ercury.htm
1870 - Sergei Nikolaevich Blazhko born; Soviet astronomer. He discovered a secondary variation of the amplitude and period of some RR Lyrae stars and related pulsating variables, now know as the Blazhko effect.
1872 - Ulysses S. Grant reelected
1881 - Robert Mallet died. Coined the words seismology and epicenter. Considered the "first" seismologist. He was an engineer of considerable skill and his contributions to seismology mark the birth of the science. He constructed the first comprehensive earthquake catalog and world seismicity map.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1857...earthquake
1906 - Fred Whipple, an American astronomer who proposed the "dirty snowball" model for comet nuclei, is born in Red Oak, Iowa.
1912 - Woodrow Wilson elected
1934 - Carl Wilhelm Ludwig Charlier died; Swedish astronomer. He made extensive statistical studies of the stars in our galaxy and their positions and motions, and tried to develop a model of the galaxy based on this. He translated Isaac Newton's Principia into Swedish.
1940 - Franklin Roosevelt reelected
1942 – George M. Cohan died, American musician, actor, writer, and composer. *Gramps died 2 days ago
1943 – Friedman Paul Erhardt (Chef Tell) born, German-born American TV chef (d. 2007)
1944 - Alexis Carrel died; French doctor, physiologist and Nobel laureate. Carrel co-authored a book with famed pilot Charles A. Lindbergh, The Culture of Organs, and worked with Lindbergh in the mid-1930s to create the "perfusion pump," which allowed living organs to exist outside of the body during surgery. The advance is said to have been a crucial step in the development of open-heart surgery and organ transplants, and to have laid the groundwork for the artificial heart, which became a reality decades later.
1957 – Jon-Erik Hexum born, American actor (d. 1984)
1963 - Archaeologists found Viking ruins in Newfoundland predating Columbus by 500 years
1968 - Richard Nixon elected
1977 – Brittney Skye born, American pornographic actress
1981 – Rangjung Rigpe Dorje died, 16th Karmapa Lama, Tibetan religious figure
1992 - Jan Oort died, Dutch astronomer
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce.../Oort/
1996 - Bill Clinton reelected
2003 – Bobby Hatfield died, American singer (Righteous Brothers)
2007 – China's first lunar satellite, Chang'e 1 goes into orbit around the Moon.
2009 – US Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan kills 13 and wounds 30 at Fort Hood, Texas in the largest mass shooting at a US military installation.
2010 - lunar occultation of Venus www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
Yet another eruption of Mount Merapi in Java; This explosion — said by volcanologists to be the biggest since the 1870s — hit hardest in Bronggang, a village nine miles (15 kilometers) from the crater. Soldiers joined the rescue operations, pulling at least 78 bodies from homes and streets blanketed by ash up to one foot (30 centimeters) deep.



11/6 ast ire usgs
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1572 - Tycho's Supernova may have first appeared. Tycho Brahe "discovered" it on 11/11.
1628 - Founding of the Irish College in Rome. Among its former students was St Oliver Plunkett, who attended in the late 17th century
1638 - James Gregory born; Scottish astronomer. In 1663 he published his Optica Promota, in which the compact reflecting telescope known by his name, the Gregorian telescope, is described. The telescope design attracted the attention of several people in the scientific establishment: Robert Hooke, the Oxford physicist who eventually built the telescope, Sir Robert Moray, polymath and founding member of the Royal Society and Isaac Newton, who was at work on a similar project of his own. The Gregorian telescope was the first practical reflecting telescope and remained the standard observing instrument for a century and a half.
1649 - Owen Roe O'Neill - Catholic military leader against Cromwell - dies
1771 - John Bevis died, English astronomer; best known for discovering the Crab Nebula in 1731. Bevis has also observed an occultation by Venus of Mercury on May 28, 1737, and observed and found a prediction rule for eclipses of Jupiter's moons. adsabs.harvard.edu/full/200....34..125K
www.sydneyobservatory.com.au/blog/
1860 - Abraham Lincoln elected president
1888 - Benjamin Harrison elected president
1892 - Edwin Holmes discovered Comet Holmes. Became bright and very large in '07
chandra.harvard.edu/blog/node
www.rasc.ca/news/The_Sky...er_2007.shtml
1900 - William McKinley elected president
1928 - Herbert Hoover elected president
1930 - Tom Hornbein born; reached Mount Everest's summit on 5/22/63. "The night was overwhelming empty. The black silhouette of the Lhotse Mountain was lurking there, half to see, half to assume, and below of us. In general there was nothing – simply nothing. We hung in a timeless gap, pained by an intensive cold air – and had the idea not to be able to do anything but to shiver and to wait for the sun arising."
1935 – Edwin Armstrong presents his paper "A Method of Reducing Disturbances in Radio Signaling by a System of Frequency Modulation" to the New York section of the Institute of Radio Engineers.
1944 – Plutonium is first produced at the Hanford Atomic Facility and subsequently used in the Fat Man atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.
1956 - Dwight Eisenhower reelected president
1968 – Jerry Yang born, Chinese American entrepreneur (Yahoo!, Inc.)
1971 – The United States Atomic Energy Commission tests the largest U.S. underground hydrogen bomb, code-named Cannikin, on Amchitka Island in the Aleutians.
1981 - Taoiseach Garret Fitzgerald and british Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher decide to set up an Anglo-Irish Inter-Governmental Council
1984 - Ronald Reagan reelected president
2002 - Comet C/2002 V1 (NEAT) was discovered. As of November 2010, NEAT's the 7th brightest comet of the last 75 years. docs.google.com/viewer
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/200....32...25S
cometography.com/lcomets/2002v1.html
2005 – The Evansville Tornado of November 2005 kills 25 in Northwestern Kentucky and Southwestern Indiana.




11/7 ast ire usgs
1492 – The Ensisheim Meteorite, the oldest meteorite with a known date of impact, strikes the earth around noon in a wheat field outside the village of Ensisheim, Alsace, France.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/191.....8..349C
1631 - The first observation of a transit of Mercury was by Pierre Gassendi. (Transit of Venus also happened on 12/7 that year) Johannes Kepler had however predicted the occurrence of transits of Mercury and Venus some time before that.
www.transitofmercury.com/
www.nasa.gov/vision/univ...planets.html
www.space.com/spacewatch/..._030502.html
1728 – Captain James Cook born, British naval officer, explorer, and cartographer
1786 – The oldest musical organization in the United States is founded as the Stoughton Musical Society.
1848 - Zachary Taylor elected
1876 - Rutherford Hayes elected
1881 - Birth near Dundalk of Peadar Ó Dubhda, teacher of Irish and translator
1916 - Woodrow Wilson reelected
1918 – The 1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.
1929 - Eric R. Kandel born; Austrian-born American neuroscientist who was a recipient of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons.
1939 - Ralph Allen Sampson died; Irish-born British astronomer. He did pioneering work in measuring the color temperature of stars. He did important research into the theory of the motions of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites
1944 – Franklin D. Roosevelt elected for a record fourth term as President of the United States of America
1962 - Eleanor Roosevelt died
1968 - Death of Margaret Mary Pearse, Irish language educator
1971 - The Official IRA murders Senator John Barnhill near Strabane
1972 - Richard Nixon reelected
1976 - Crosses are planted in Belfast for lives lost in Northern Ireland since 1969 -1,662 in all
1978 - Gene Tunney died; heavyweight boxing champ from 1926-1928 who defeated Jack Dempsey
1980 - Death of Frank Duff, founder of the Legion of Mary
1990 – Mary Robinson (née Bourke) becomes the first woman to be elected President of the Republic of Ireland.
electionsireland.org/results...ndex.cfm rangevoting.org/Ireland1990.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris...tion,_1990
1996 – NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.
2000 – Controversial US presidential election that is later resolved in the Bush v. Gore Supreme Court Case.
The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration discovers one of the country's largest LSD labs inside a converted military missile silo in Wamego, Kansas.
2006 – Chicago O'Hare UFO sighting



11/8 ast ire usgs
1656 - Edmond Halley born
1837 – Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which later becomes Mount Holyoke College, in South Hadley, MA, where Phoebe Prince hung herself on the anniversary of Edmond Halley's death. www.mtholyoke.edu/inaugurat...y_mhc.html
1854 – Johannes Rydberg born; Swedish physicist mainly known for devising the Rydberg formula, in 1888, which is used to predict the wavelengths of photons (of light and other electromagnetic radiation) emitted by changes in the energy level of an electron in an hydrogen atom.
1864 - Abraham Lincoln reelected
1881 - Robert Albert Charles Esnault-Pelterie born; French aircraft designer and spaceflight theorist. He gained an interest in space travel, and was the first person to develop the equations for rocket flight in space.
1885 - Hans Cloos born; German structural geologist. Following the war, he began a study of plutons and their interior structure. Cloos made pioneering studies of rock deformation, including granite tectonics. He employed scale models to study the physical mechanics of faulting, and examined how continents developed their structure.
1889 - Montana became state
1892 - Grover Cleveland elected
1895 –Wilhelm Röntgen produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901
1904 - Teddy Roosevelt elected
1922 - Christiaan Barnard born; South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first successful human-to-human heart transplant. D. 9/2/01
1923 – Jack Kilby born; microchip
1932 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected the 32d President of the United States defeating Herbert Hoover.
1940 - Charles T. Kowal born; American astronomer. Besides the unusual asteroid/comet 2060 Chiron in 1977, he discovered or co-discovered 19 asteroids, many supernovae and some comets.
webcache.googleusercontent.com/search
1950 – Mary Hart born
1952 – Jerry Remy born
1956 - Belgian astronomers Sylvain Arend and Georges Roland discovered Comet Arend-Roland. 7th brightest comet since 1935.
www.cfa.harvard.edu/icq/brightest.html
1957 – Operation Grapple X, Round C1: Britain conducts its first successful hydrogen bomb test over Kiritimati in the Pacific.
1960 - John Kennedy elected pres
An Irish peacekeeping force is ambushed in the Congo, causing the first overseas combat deaths of the Irish Republic. Nine are killed by Baluba tribesmen - one of these, Anthony Browne, will be awarded the Military Medal for Gallantry
1964 - Fernand Baldet died; French astronomer. He worked with Count Aymar de la Baume Pluvinel observing Mars from the newly built observatory on Pic du Midi in 1909. The resulting photographs were so sharp, that they were able to disprove Percival Lowell's claim of geometrical canals on the planet's surface.
1966 – Former Massachusetts Attorney General Edward Brooke becomes the first African American elected to the United States Senate.
1969 - Vesto Melvin Slipher died; American astronomer. He spent his entire career at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, where he was director from 1916 to 1952. He used spectroscopy to investigate the rotation periods of planets, the composition of planetary atmospheres. In 1912, he was the first to observe the shift of spectral lines of galaxies, so he was the discoverer of galactic redshifts. He was responsible for hiring Clyde Tombaugh and supervised the work that led to the discovery of Pluto. His brother Earl C. Slipher was also an astronomer. The Moon crater Slipher and a crater on Mars are named in his honor. "Slipher first detected the expanding nature of the universe." ~Official Lowell Observatory Fb page
1970 – Tom Anderson born, co-founder of MySpace
1978 - Norman Percevel Rockwell died, MA.
1980 - Saturn’s moon Atlas was discovered by Richard Terrile from Voyager photos and was designated S/1980 S 28. In 1983 it was officially named after Atlas of Greek mythology, because it "holds the rings on its shoulders" like the Titan Atlas held the sky up above the Earth. It is also designated as Saturn XV. *Shit evidence that this is the correct date
earthquake, CA, 7.2, no deaths
1987 – Remembrance Day Bombing: A Provisional IRA bomb explodes in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland during a ceremony honouring those who had died in wars involving British forces. Twelve people are killed and sixty-three wounded.
1988 - George HW Bush elected
1998 - John Hunt died
The Provisional IRA announces that it will decommission large amounts of Semtex to allow Sinn Féin to take its seats in the new Northern Executive
2001 - Senior IRA leaders meet in Co. Louth to discuss further arms decommissioning
In a meeting at the White House, Taoiseach Bertie Ahern assures President Bush he will do everything possible to ensure Ireland's international banking services are not used to fund Osama Bin Laden and his followers
The Poulnabrone portal dolmen in the Burren, Co. Clare is bought for £300,000 by the State to protect it from vandalism www.ancientireland.org/poulna...dex.htm
2006 - transit of Mercury
2011 - Asteroid 2005 YU55, about a quarter-mile wide and on the list potentially dangerous Near-Earth asteroids, will pass by Earth at a distance of 98,000 miles, well within lunar orbit. Discovered 12/28/2005.
solarsystem.nasa.gov/news/display.cfm
www.space.com/spacewatch/...ght_sky.html www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx



11/9 ast usgs
1620 – Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower sight land at Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
1731 - Benjamin Banneker born; known as the Sable Astronomer; predicted eclipses
1791 – Foundation of the Dublin Society of United Irishmen.
1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte leads the Coup d'état of 18 Brumaire ending the Directory government, and becoming one of its three Consuls (Consulate Government).
1802 - Elijah Lovejoy born, Albion, ME; abolitionist murdered in Alton, IL (birthplace of Robert Wadlow, James Earl Ray, Miles Davis. Wadlow world's tallest man)
1827 - Charles Wolf born; discovered Wolf-Rayet stars
www.nasa.gov/centers/god...5wrstar.html
1830 - Jan Sniadecki died; Śniadecki published many works, including his observations on recently discovered planetoids
1850 - Louis Lewin born; German pharmacologist. In 1886, he published the first methodical analysis of the Peyote cactus, which was originally named in his honor Anhalonium lewinii. One of Lewin's most enduring tasks was to create a system of classification of psychoactive drugs and plants based on their pharmacologic action. His original categories were (in small part): Hypnotica (Tranquilizers such as Kava), Phantastica (Hallucinogens or Entheogens such as Peyote or Ayahuasca)….
1857 – The Atlantic founded in Boston.
1872 – The Great Boston Fire of 1872.
1874 – Albert Francis Blakeslee born, American botanist specialized in sexuality of fungi
1881 – Edwin Drake died, American oil driller
1888 – Jack the Ripper kills Mary Jane Kelly, his last known victim. *US Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords and a dozen more were shot in Tuscon today. She recently defeated Jesse Kelly and Giffords' husband is astronaut ___ Kelly.
1906 – Theodore Roosevelt is the first sitting President of the United States to make an official trip outside the country. He did so to inspect progress on the Panama Canal.
1913 – The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, the most destructive natural disaster ever to hit the lakes, destroys 19 ships and kills more than 250 people.
1918 – Thomas Ferebee born, Enola Gay bombardier over Hiroshima
1921 – Albert Einstein is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work with the photoelectric effect.
1924 – Henry Cabot Lodge died, American Senator from MA
1934 – Carl Sagan born
Ingvar Carlsson born, Swedish politician; following the assassination of Olof Palme in 1986 Ingvar Carlsson became the new Prime Minister
1963 – At Miike coal mine, Miike, Japan, an explosion kills 458, and hospitalises 839 with carbon monoxide poisoning. Also, in Japan, a three-train disaster occurs in Yokohama, kills more than 160 people.
1965 – Several U.S. states and parts of Canada are hit by a series of blackouts lasting up to 13 hours in the Northeast Blackout of 1965.
Catholic Worker member Roger Allen LaPorte, protesting against the Vietnam War, sets himself on fire in front of the United Nations building.
1967 – Apollo program: NASA launches the unmanned Apollo 4 test spacecraft atop the first Saturn V rocket from Cape Kennedy, Florida.
First issue of Rolling Stone Magazine is published.
1968 - mag. 5.5 quake, Illinois. The largest historical earthquake in Illinois. This earthquake was felt over all or portions of 23 states
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1970 – Vietnam War: The Supreme Court of the United States votes 6 to 3 against hearing a case to allow Massachusetts to enforce itslaw granting residents the right to refuse military service in an undeclared war.
1977 - William C. Sullivan shot to death by hunter who mistook Sullivan for a deer in NH. Former head of the FBI intelligence operations.
1979 – Nuclear false alarm: the NORAD computers and the Alternate National Military Command Center in Fort Ritchie, Marylanddetected purported massive Soviet nuclear strike. After reviewing the raw data from satellites and checking the early warning radars, the alert is cancelled.
1990 – Mary Robinson is elected Ireland's first female President.
2004 – Iris Chang suicide
2005 – The Venus Express mission of the European Space Agency is launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
2008 - The asteroid 4179 Toutatis passes Earth.




11/10
1969 - Deirdre Gogarty born; Irish world boxing champ



11/11 ast
1572 - Tycho Brahe saw SN 1572 or Tycho's Supernova in Cassiopeia
www.google.com/search
1620 – The Mayflower Compact is signed in what is now Provincetown Harbor near Cape Cod.
1744 – Abigail Adams born, First Lady of the United States
1851 - The first U.S. patent for a telescope design was issued to Alvan Clark. (No. 8,509). Clark was a portrait painter and engraver, but at the age of 40 become involved in telescope making. Using glass blanks his firm, Alvan Clark & Sons, ground lenses for refracting telescopes, including the largest in the world at the time: the 18.5-inch at Dearborn Observatory at the Old University of Chicago (the lens was originally intended for Ole Miss), the 26-inch at the United States Naval Observatory, the 30-inch at Pulkovo Observatory (destroyed in the Siege of Leningrad; only the lens survives), the 36-inch telescope at Lick Observatory (still third-largest) and later the 40-inch at Yerkes Observatory, which remains the largest successful refracting telescope in the world.
www.google.com/patents
www.google.com/patents
patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser
www.todayinsci.com/11/11_11.htm
www.cosmeo.com/viewEvents.cfm
1864 – George Washington Crile born, Chili, OH; Crile is now formally recognized as the first surgeon to have succeeded in a direct blood transfusion. He also contributed to other procedures, such as neck dissection. Crile designed a small haemostatic forceps which bears his name; the Crile mosquito clamp. He also described a technique for using opioids, regional anaesthesia and general anaesthesia which is a concept known as balanced anaesthesia. In 1921 Crile co-founded the Cleveland Clinic. Died in Cleveland.
American Civil War: Sherman's March to the Sea – Union General William Tecumseh Sherman begins burning Atlanta, Georgiato the ground in preparation for his march south.
1872 – David I. Walsh born, 46th Governor of Massachusetts
1875 - Vesto Melvin Slipher born (d. November 8, 1969) was an American astronomer. He spent his entire career at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, where he was director from 1916 to 1952. He used spectroscopy to investigate the rotation periods of planets, the composition of planetary atmospheres. In 1912, he was the first to observe the shift of spectral lines of galaxies, so he was the discoverer of galactic redshifts. He was responsible for hiring Clyde Tombaugh and supervised the work that led to the discovery of Pluto. His brother Earl C. Slipher was also an astronomer. The Moon crater Slipher and a crater on Mars are named in his honor. "Slipher first detected the expanding nature of the universe." ~Official Lowell Observatory Fb page
*See Henry Lee Giclas, astronomer born in Flagstaff and worked at Lowell where he discovered asteroids and comets.
1889 – Washington is admitted as the 42nd U.S. state. Nine days before Edwin Hubble's birth.
1914 - James G. Baker born, American astonomer and optician; in 1940 he developed the Baker-Schmidt telescope, a modification of the schmidt camera. Baker collaborated with Joseph Nunn to build a series of 12 satellite tracking cameras that would be called the Baker-Nunn camera. He and Edwin Land were instrumental in persuading President Dwight Eisenhower to have the U-2 spy plane built. Baker also designed the lenses and most of the cameras used on the U-2 spy plane and later the SR-71 Blackbird. In addition, he designed the lenses and cameras used in the Samos satellite program, and a modified version of these optics were later used in the lunar mapping programs. In 1960 he became president of the Optical Society of America.
1918 – World War I ends: Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside Compiègne in France. The war officially ends at 11:00 (The eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month) and this is annually honoured with a two-minute silence.
1922 - earthquake, Atacama, Chile, mag. 8.5. tsunami caused damage in Hilo, Hawaii
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...11_11.php earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...world.php
1925 - Robert A. Millikan announced the discovery of cosmic rays. He also created the name.
1951 – Kim Peek born, American megasavant
1994 – John A. Volpe died, 61st and 63rd Governor of Massachusetts, 2nd United States Secretary of Transportation
1998 - Paddy Clancy, Irish folk musician dies
2002 - Venus's "moon", 2002 VE68, discovered by LONEOS, the Lowell Observatory Near Earth Object Search
www.universetoday.com/81575/v...-a-moon/
A huge temple, once surrounded by about 300 huge posts made from an entire oak forest, is discovered directly beneath the Hill of Tara in Co. Meath.



11/12 ast usgs 2010
1833 - The Great Leonid Meteor Storm occurred on the night of the 12th/13th. The Leonids are famous because their meteor showers, or storms, can be, and have been in a few cases, among the most spectacular. Because of the superlative storm of 1833 and the recent developments in scientific thought the Leonids have had a major effect on the development of the scientific study of meteors which had previously been thought to be atmospheric phenomena. The meteor storm of 1833 was of truly superlative strength. One estimate is over one hundred thousand meteors an hour, but another, done as the storm abated, estimated in excess of two hundred thousand meteors an hour over the entire region of North America east of the Rocky Mountains. It was marked by the Native Americans, slaves and owners, and many others. It was, in a word, unignorable. Many thought it was the end of the world.
1842 - John William Strutt born. English physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered the element argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904. He also discovered the phenomenon now called Rayleigh scattering, explaining why the sky is blue, and predicted the existence of the surface waves now known as Rayleigh waves.
1847 – Sir James Young Simpson, a British physician, is the first to use chloroform as an anaesthetic.
1866 – Sun Yat-sen born, Chinese revolutionary and politician
1891 - Seth Barnes Nicholson born. American astronomer. In 1914, at the University of California's Lick Observatory, while observing the recently-discovered Jupiter moon Pasiphaë, he discovered a new one: Sinope. He spent his entire career at Mount Wilson Observatory, where he discovered three more Jovian moons: Lysithea and Carme in 1938 and Ananke in 1951, as well as a Trojan asteroid 1647 Menelaus, and computed orbits of several comets and of Pluto. In the early 1920s, he and Edison Pettit made the first systematic infrared observations of celestial objects.
1893 – The treaty of the Durand Line is signed between present day Pakistan and Afghanistan; the Durand Line has gained international recognition as an international border between the two nations.
1912 – The frozen bodies of Robert Scott and his men are found on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.
1916 - Percival Lowell died
1924 - Audouin Dollfus born. French astronomer and aeronaut, specialist in studies of the solar system and discoverer of Janus, a moon of Saturn. By using the polarization of light, it is possible to detect an atmosphere around a planet or natural satellite. In 1950, most scientists thought that Mercury, because of its small size, had probably lost its atmosphere due to molecular escape into space. Dollfus announced that he had detected a very small atmosphere, using polarization measurements. In 1966, Dollfus discovered Janus, a small inner moon of Saturn.
1934 – Charles Manson born
1944 - George David Birkhoff died. American mathematician, best known for what is now called the ergodic theorem Ergodic theory is a branch of mathematics that studies dynamical systems with an invariant measure and related problems. Its initial development was motivated by problems of statistical physics.
1949 - The Hale 5-meter (200-inch) telescope opened for regular scheduled observations at Palomar Observatory. Thirteen years of mirror polishing finally grind the "Big Eye" to the desired form. Edwin Hubble takes the first photographic exposure with the 200-inch in January.
ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/...ge1.html
1958 – A team of rock climbers led by Warren Harding completes the first ascent of The Nose on El Capitan in Yosemite Valley.
Nick Stellino born, Italian-born American television chef
1970 – The 1970 Bhola cyclone makes landfall on the coast of East Pakistan becoming the deadliest tropical cyclone in history. 300,000 - 500,000 dead.
www.hurricanescience.org/histo...bhola/
1980 – The NASA space probe Voyager I makes its closest approach to Saturn and takes the first images of its rings.
1981 – Space Shuttle program: mission STS-2, utilizing the Space Shuttle Columbia, marks the first time a mannedspacecraft is launched into space twice.
1985 - A total solar eclipse occurs over Antarctica at 14:11:22 UTC.
1996 – mag. 7.7 quake, Peru. 14 dead.
A Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 and a Kazakh Ilyushin Il-76 cargo plane collide in mid-air near New Delhi, killing 349. The deadliest mid-air collision to date.
1999 – The Düzce earthquake strikes Turkey with a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale. 900 dead.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
2001 – In New York City, American Airlines Flight 587, an Airbus A300 en route to the Dominican Republic, crashes minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport, killing all 260 on board and five on the ground.



11/14 ast usgs
1716 - Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz died; German mathematician, philosopher. He occupies an equally large place in both the history of philosophy and the history of mathematics. He discovered calculus independently of Newton, and his notation is the one in general use since. He also discovered the binary system, foundation of virtually all modern computer architectures.
1788 - Giovanni Domenico Maraldi died; Italian-born astronomer, nephew of Giacomo F. Maraldi. While observing Comet De Chéseaux with Jacques Cassini in 1746, he discovered two "nebulous stars", which later turned out to be globular clusters M15 and M2.
1896 – Mamie Eisenhower born, First Lady of the United States
1910 – Aviator Eugene Ely performs the first take off from a ship in Hampton Roads, Virginia. He took off from a makeshift deck on the USS Birmingham in a Curtiss pusher.
1916 – Sherwood Schwartz born, American television writer and producer
1933 – Fred Haise born, Apollo 13 astronaut; He is one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon.
1954 – Condoleezza Rice born
1968 - Janine Lindemulder born, porn actress; ex of Jesse James and mom of their daughter, Sunny.
1969 – Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the surface of the Moon.
1975 - Travis Barker born
1991 – In Royal Oak, Michigan, a fired United States Postal Service employee goes on a shooting rampage, killing four and wounding five before committing suicide.
2003 – Astronomers Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz discover 90377 Sedna, a Trans-Neptunian object. The most distant celestial body known to orbit our Sun was discovered. It is Sedna, a trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet candidate.
2016 - The Moon moves into its nearest point to Earth, called perigee, at the same time as its fullest phase of the Lunar Cycle. The Moon appears to be 14% bigger and 30% brighter than the year's other full moons. The last time these two events coincide was on 12/12/2008.
www.idialstars.com/clfumo.htm www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/new...7206.ece





11/15 ast usgs 2010
1630 - Johannes Kepler died
1706 – Tsangyang Gyatso died, 6th Dalai Lama
1738 - William Herschel born
1835 - Johann Tobias Bürg died. He published some astronomical tables on the Moon that were praised for their accuracy.
1848 - Francesco De Vico died. Italian astronomer at Vatican Observatory. He discovered or co-discovered a number of comets, including periodic comets 54P/de Vico-Swift-NEAT and 122P/de Vico. He also independently discovered the comet (C/1847 T1) that brought fame to Maria Mitchell as "Miss Mitchell's Comet", two days after she did. He also made observations of Saturn and the gaps in its rings (he was the first to see the narrow division in the rings of Saturn now known as the Keeler Gap after James Keeler). Next perihelion of 54P/de Vico-Swift-NEAT will occur on anniversary of today's date in 2017.
1877 - one of the largest quakes in Nebraska - mag. 5.1
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1906 - largest earthquake in New Mexico
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1928 - Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin died. American geologist and educator. In 1893 he founded the Journal of Geology, of which he was editor for many years. He developed the planetesimal theory, which states that Earth was made from smaller objects that gradually built the planets by accretion. From this theory and other geological evidence he concluded that Earth was much older than assumed by Lord Kelvin (ca 100 million years) at the time. B. 9/25/1843
1939 – In Washington, D.C., US President Franklin D. Roosevelt lays the cornerstone of theJefferson Memorial.
1971 – Intel releases world's first commercial single-chip microprocessor, the 4004.
1985 – The Anglo-Irish Agreement is signed at Hillsborough Castle by British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Irish Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald.
2006 - mag. 8.3 quake, Kuril Islands. Most powerful quake of 2006.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...stats.php
2007 - Over 3,000 people are believed to have died after Cyclone Sidr hits Bangladesh, with the death toll expected to rise.



11/16
1841: French physicist Jules-Louis-Gabriel Violle, who made the 1st high-altitude determination of the solar constant, is born



11/17
1865 - John Stanley Plaskett died; Canadian astronomer known for his expert design of instruments and his extensive spectroscopic observations. He designed an exceptionally efficient spectrograph for the 15-inch refractor and measured radial velocities and found orbits of spectroscopic binary stars. In the 1930s he published the first detailed analysis of the rotation of the Milky Way, demonstrating that the sun is two-thirds out from the centre of our galaxy about which it revolves once in 220 million years. He successfully lobbied for and designed and supervised construction of the 72-inch reflector built for the new Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria and was appointed its first director in 1917. There he extended the work on radial velocities and spectroscopic binaries and studied spectra of O and B-type stars. He was able to confirm the Lindblad-Oort model of galactic rotation with these data, and he also did important work on interstellar calcium.
1940 – Luke Kelly born, Irish folk music singer and banjo player
1950 – Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, is enthroned as the leader of Tibet at the age of fifteen.
1982 – Duk Koo Kim dies unexpectedly from injuries sustained during a 14-round match against Ray Mancini in Las Vegas, Nevada, prompting reforms in the sport of boxing.


11/18 ast
1755 - Cape Ann earthquake, Mass. Most of the damage occurred in and around Cape Ann and Boston, Massachusetts, and people throughout the Northeast United States and Southeast Canada felt the earthquake. Only the Charleston Earthquake in South Carolina, which killed one hundred people and destroyed most buildings in Charleston, was more powerful on the United States' East Coast. U.S. President Chester Arthur died on the anniversary of the Cape Ann Earthquake and eleven weeks after the Charleston Earthquake in 1886. Six months before the Charleston Earthquake and on the anniversary of U.S. President John Quincy Adams' death, 22-year-old Charles Martin Hall discovered an efficient method for isolating aluminum, the third most abundant element in Earth's crust after oxygen and silicon. Another Hall, Asaph Hall, and President Chester Arthur were born ten days apart in New England in October 1829. Asaph Hall discovered the two moons of Mars. President John Kennedy and Arthur Eddington died on the anniversary of Asaph Hall's death. Aluminum is the most abundant metal in Earth's crust and is found mostly in compounds. Charles Hall's inexpensive method of aluminum extraction broadened the accessibility of the metal, used now in many household products and products outside the home from electrical transmission wires to vehicles.
1787 - Louis Daguerre born; (d. July 10, 1851) French artist and chemist, recognized for his invention of the daguerreotype process of photography.
1810 - Asa Gray born; considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century
1886 - President Chester Arthur died
1923 - Alan Shepard born, Derry, NH; second person and the first American in space. He later commanded the Apollo 14 mission, and was the fifth person to walk on the moon.
1929 - 1929 Grand Banks earthquake, a magnitude 7.2 earthquake occurred in the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Newfoundland triggering tsunami. 28 dead.
1956 - Clarence Augustus Chant died; Canadian astronomer; 9/21/1922 total solar eclipse expedition to confirm Einstein theory. astro.utoronto.ca/ddo.rasc.html
1969 - Joseph Kennedy died
1982 – Duk Koo Kim died, Korean boxer



11/20 ast usgs 2010
1602 - Otto von Guericke born; His major scientific achievement was the establishment of the physics of vacuums. Guericke applied the barometer to weather prediction and thus prepared the way for meteorology. D. 5/11/1686
1620 – Peregrine White born, first English child born in the Plymouth Colony
1704 – Charles Plumier died, French botanist; genus Plumeria (species used in Polynesian/Hawaiian leis)
1751 - George Graham died; "his greatest innovation was the invention of the dead beat escapement" - In mechanical watches and clocks, an escapement is a device which converts continuous rotational motion into an oscillating or back and forth motion. It is the source of the "ticking" sound produced by watches and clocks.
1820 – An 80-ton sperm whale attacks the Essex (a whaling ship from Nantucket, Massachusetts) 2,000 miles from the western coast of South America (Herman Melville's 1851 novel Moby-Dick is in part inspired by this story).
1873 - William Weber Coblentz born; US Patent 1,077,219 for a solar cell invention to convert sunlight to electricity.
1874 – James Michael Curley born, 53rd Governor of Massachusetts
1882 - Henry Draper died; Draper was one of the pioneers of the use of astrophotography. He took the first stellar spectrum in 1872 that showed absorption lines. He directed an expedition to photograph the 1874 transit of Venus, and was the first to photograph the Orion Nebula, on September 30, 1880.
www.naic.edu/~gibson/draper/
1889 - Edwin Hubble born
1892 – James Collip born, Canadian biochemist, co-discoverer of insulin
1918 - Corita Kent born; painter of the Rainbow Swash on Boston's gas tank
1924 – Benoît Mandelbrot born, Polish-born French mathematician
1925 - Bobby Kennedy born
1927 – Ed "Too Tall" Freeman born, American United States Army officer, helicopter pilot and Medal of Honor recipient (d. 2008)
1934 – Willem de Sitter died, Dutch astronomer; work extensively on the motions of the satellites of Jupiter, determining their masses and orbits from decades of observations. He redetermined the fundamental constants of astronomy and determined the variation of the rotation of the earth. He also performed statistical studies of the distribution and motions of stars, but today he is best known for his contributions to cosmology. Since Holland remained neutral in World War I, de Sitter was able to be the liaison between scientists in warring countries, notably A.S Eddington in Britain and Albe’'s field equations showed that a near-empty universe would expand. Later, he and Einstein found an expanding universe solution without space curvature. "De Sitter universe" D. 1872
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
1942 – Joe Biden born; U.S. vice president
1943 – World War II: Battle of Tarawa (Operation Galvanic) begins – United States Marines land on Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islandsand suffer heavy fire from Japanese shore guns and machine guns. *Maiana Atoll, near Tarawa, resembles an Ear.
1946 – Duane Allman born, American guitarist (The Allman Brothers Band) (d. 10/29/1971)
Judy Woodruff born, American TV anchor
1954 – Clyde Vernon Cessna died, American aviation designer (b. 1879)
1959 – James P. McGovern born, US rep for MA
1969 – mag. 4.5 quake, W.VA; largest historical quake in the state
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
Vietnam War: The Cleveland Plain Dealer publishes explicit photographs of dead villagers from the My Lai massacre in Vietnam.
1970 – Delia Gonzalez born, American boxer; world flyweight champ
1984 – The SETI Institute is founded.
1992 – In England, a fire breaks out in Windsor Castle, badly damaging the castle and causing over £50 million worth of damage.
1998 – A court in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan declares accused terrorist Osama bin Laden "a man without a sin" in regard to the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.
The first module of the International Space Station, Zarya, is launched.



11/22 ast ire usgs 2010
1868 – John Nance Garner born, U.S. Vice President
1875 – Henry Wilson died, Vice President of the United States
1880 - James Craig Watson died; Canadian-American astronomer. He discovered 22 asteroids, beginning with 79 Eurynome on 9/14/1863. One of his asteroid discoveries, 139 Juewa was made in Beijing when Watson was there to observe the 1874 transit of Venus
1900 – Arthur S. Sullivan died, British composer
1907 - Asaph Hall died
1917 - Teoberto Maler died; explorer who devoted his energies to documenting the ruins of the Maya civilization.
1919 – Máire Drumm born, vice president of Sinn Féin and a commander in Cumann na mBan. Murdered by British scum.
1923 - Andrew Sullivan Cork No 4 Brigade Mallow Coy. 5TH Battalion dies on hunger strike in Mountjoy prison in Dublin.
1944 - Arthur Eddington died
1963 - Kennedy killed; Johnson became pres
Aldous Huxley died
1973 – Chadwick A. Trujillo born, American astronomer
1974 - Hugh Callaghan, Patrick Hill, Robert Hunter, Noel McIlkenny, William Power and John Walker, who become known as “The Birmingham Six” are charged in connection with pub bombings which took place earlier in the week. Nineteen people were killed. They are found guilty in August 1975 of carrying out the bombings and sentenced to life imprisonment. But they are released after 16 years in jail when their convictions are quashed by the Court of Appeal in May 1991. The real bombers are never prosecuted and no group has ever admitted planting devices.
1976 – Regina Halmich born, world champ boxer
1985 - Maria Sabina Gutierrez Tibon died
www.stainblue.com/maria.html www.erowid.org/culture/ch...maria.shtml
www.entheology.org/edoto/anmviewer.asp
oaxaca-travel.com/guide/cultural.php
1986 – Mike Tyson defeats Trevor Berbick to become youngest heavyweight champion in boxing history.
1995 - Egypt, Eilat, Israel, and much of the North African Mediterranean is struck by the strongest earthquake (7.2 Mw) along the Dead Sea Transform in a century; 8 are killed.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
2010 - Stampede at festival in Cambodia's capital, Phnom Penh, killed 350. The three-day water festival marks the end of the rainy season and the main attraction is traditional boat races along the river.
2065 - Venus will transit/occult Jupiter
science.nasa.gov/science-n...st16may_1/




11/23
Love sharpener?
1844 - Thomas Henderson died; Scottish astronomer noted for being the first person to measure the distance to Alpha Centauri, the major component of the nearest stellar system to Earth, and for being the first Astronomer Royal for Scotland.




11/24
1784 - President Zachary Taylor born
1994 - Phoebe Prince born obits.masslive.com/obituari...uary.aspx
Our beloved daughter Phoebe Nora Mary Prince died tragically on Thursday, January 14th, 2010. Phoebe was gifted with exceptional beauty - but that is not important. She was gifted with a sharp and creative brain - but that is not important. She had impressive artistic talent - but that is not important. What her family and friends from both sides of the Atlantic grieve in is the loss of the incandescent enthusiasm of a life blossoming. Phoebe was born in Bedford, England on Thursday, 24th November, 1994. At the age of two she moved to County Clare, Ireland where she enjoyed life with an energy only the young possess. At age 14 the family moved to South Hadley, MA so that Phoebe could experience America and be near family, especially her Uncle John, Auntie Eileen, and cousins Brendan and Molly. Here she touched many lives with her Irish mannerisms and sense of humor. Phoebe will forever live in the hearts of her many friends here in America and Ireland, in particular her dearest friend Cliodhna, from Doolin, County Clare. Phoebe leaves behind her mother Anne Obrien Prince, father Jeremy Prince, sisters Lauren, Tessa and Bridget and brother Simon.
1995 - Nan died



11/25 ast usgs 2010
1343 – A tsunami, caused by the earthquake in the Tyrrhenian Sea, devastates Naples (Italy) and theMaritime Republic of Amalfi, among other places.
1667 – A deadly earthquake rocks Shemakha in the Caucasus, killing 80,000 people.
1703 – The Great Storm of 1703, the greatest windstorm ever recorded in the southern part of Great Britain, reaches its peak intensity which it maintains through November 27. Winds gust up to 120 mph, and 9,000 people die.
1759 – An earthquake hits the Mediterranean destroying Beirut and Damascus and killing 30,000-40,000.
1833 – A massive undersea earthquake, estimated magnitude between 8.7-9.2 rocks Sumatra, producing a massive tsunami all along the Indonesian coast.
1839 – A cyclone slams India with high winds and a 40 foot storm surge, destroying the port city of Coringa (which has never been completely rebuilt). The storm wave sweeps inland, taking with it 20,000 ships and thousands of people. An estimated 300,000 deaths result from the disaster.
1848 - William Fredrick Denning born. He discovered several comets including the periodic comet 72P/Denning-Fujikawa and the lost comet D/1894 F1. The latter was the last comet discovered on British soil until the discoveries of George Alcock. He also studied meteors and novas, discovering Nova Cygni 1920 (V476 Cyg).
1926 – The deadliest November tornado outbreak in U.S. history strikes on Thanksgiving day. 27 twisters of great strength are reported in the Midwest, including the strongest November tornado, an estimated F4, that devastates Heber Springs, Arkansas. There are 51 deaths in Arkansas alone, 76 deaths and over 400 injuries in all.
www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/en...spx
www.thesuntimes.com/lifestyl...g-tornado
1960 – John F. Kennedy, Jr. born
1963 – President John F. Kennedy is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
1987 – Typhoon Nina pummels the Philippines with category 5 winds of 165 mph and a surge that destroys entire villages. At least 1,036 deaths are attributed to the storm.
1988 - mag. 5.9 quake, Quebec. Felt in the New England states and in parts of Indiana, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and as far south as Washington, D.C.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
2011 - partial solar eclipse



11/26 ast usgs 2010
1607 – John Harvard born, clergyman; Harvard U.
1678 – Jean Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan born, French geophysicist. In 1729 he devised an experiment showing the existence of a circadian rhythm in plants. In 1731 he observed a nebulosity around a star near the Orion nebula. This was later designated M43.
1778 – In the Hawaiian Islands, Captain James Cook becomes the first European to visit Maui.
1789 – A national Thanksgiving Day is observed in the United States as recommended by President George Washington and approved by Congress.
1835 (or 11/20/1835) - Honore Flaugergues died; French astronomer. He discovered the "Great Comet of 1811" (C/1811 F1), and independently co-discovered the "Great Comet of 1807" (C/1807 R1). In attempting to measure the rotation period of Mars, he noted inconsistencies in timing of yellow-colored features and concluded he was seeing atmospheric features rather than surface features. Therefore, some credit him with the discovery of dust clouds on Mars, however this is in dispute since his telescope was probably too small to accomplish this.
1863 – President Abraham Lincoln proclaims November 26th as a national Thanksgiving Day, to be celebrated annually on the final Thursday of November (since 1941, on the fourth Thursday).
1895 - Bertil Lindblad born; discovered the rotation of our Milky Way and confirmed Harlow Shapley’s direction and approximate distance to the center of the Galaxy, and he estimated the galactic mass and the period of the Sun’s orbit.
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
1896 - Benjamin Apthorp Gould died; American astronomer. He is notable for creating the Astronomical Journal, discovering the Gould Belt. On June 1, 1884, he made the last definite sighting of the Great Comet of 1882. Gould's measurements of L. M. Rutherfurd's photographs of the Pleiades in 1866 entitle him to rank as a pioneer in the use of the camera as an instrument of precision; and he secured at Cordoba 1400 negatives of southern star clusters, the reduction of which occupied the closing years of his life.
1917 – The National Hockey League is formed, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, and Toronto Arenas as its first teams.
1939 – Tina Turner born
1943 – Edward O'Hare died, American ace pilot
1952 – Sven Hedin died, Swedish explorer; During four expeditions to Central Asia he discovered the Transhimalaya (once named the Hedin Range in his honor) and the sources of the Brahmaputra, Indus and Sutlej Rivers, Lake Lop Nur, and the remains of cities, grave sites and the Great Wall of China in the deserts of the Tarim Basin.
1965 – In the Hammaguir launch facility in the Sahara Desert, France launches a Diamant-A rocket with its first satellite, Asterix-1 on board, becoming the third country to enter outer space.
1970 – In Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 1.5 inches (38.1 mm) of rain fall in a minute, the heaviest rainfall ever recorded.
1977 – 'Vrillon', claiming to be the representative of the 'Ashtar Galactic Command', takes over Britain's Southern Television for six minutes at 5:12 PM.
1983 – Chris Hughes born, American businessman, co-founder of Facebook
1999 - The "Mars Meteorites" SAU 005 & 008 were discovered. These meteorites are known to be of Martian origin because of gases preserved in the glassy material of their interior. They were hurled into space some 600,000 years ago when a probable asteroid impact on Mars tossed them high enough to escape the planet’s gravity, and they were captured by our gravity these many thousands of years later. They are just two of the 32 meteorites found on Earth which have been positively determined from their chemical compositions to be of Martian origin.
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/snc/sau005.html
mag. 7.5 quake, Vanuatu; 5 dead
2004 – Male Po'ouli (Black-faced honeycreeper) dies of Avian malaria in the Maui Bird Conservation Center in Olinda, Hawaii before it could breed, making the species in all probability extinct.
2008 - Edwin Ernest Salpeter died; Austrian-Australian-American astrophysicist. In 1964 Salpeter and independently Yakov B. Zel'dovich were the first to suggest that accretion discs around massive black holes are responsible for the huge amounts of energy radiated by quasars (which are the brightest active galactic nuclei). This is currently the most accepted explanation for the physical origin of active galactic nuclei and the associated extragalactic relativistic jets.
www.news.cornell.edu/stories....ed.html
2010 - lunar occultation of Iris www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm



11/27
1872 - A meteor shower display is seen over France.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/187....33...73H
meteorshowersonline.com/shower...ds.html



11/28
1999 - Leighlinbridge Meteorite County Carlow, Ireland
2032 - Saturn at perihelion
answers.yahoo.com/question/index



11/29
1913 - B. E. Markarian born. Markarian's Chain is a stretch of galaxies that forms part of the Virgo Cluster. It's called a "chain" because, when viewed from Earth, the galaxies lie along a smoothly curved line.



11/30
1787 - William Herschel discovered NGC 185 (also known as Caldwell 18) is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy about 2.08 million light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia.
1949 - Rick Simpson born; hemp cure





1926 1968 1992 1949 1950 2001 1925 2000 1966 1956

1926
Nan
1/1 - Ireland's first regular radio service, 2RN (later Radio Éireann), begins broadcasting.
January 3 – George Martin born, English producer of The Beatles
1/20 - Sarah Conlon born
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_Conlon
January 26 – John Logie Baird demonstrates a mechanical television system.
2/8 - Neal Cassady born
February 27 – David H. Hubel born, Canadian neuroscientist. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system.
March 16 – Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fuel rocket, at Auburn, Massachusetts.
March 23 – Eamon de Valera organizes Fianna Fáil in Ireland.
4/6 - Ian Paisley born, Northern Irish politician
April 9 – Hugh Hefner born
4/21 - Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom born
July 12 – A lightning strike destroys an ammunition depot in Dover, New Jersey.
September 18 – Great Miami Hurricane: A strong hurricane devastates Miami, Florida, leaving over 100 dead and causing several hundred million dollars in damage (equal to nearly $100 billion dollars today).
September 26 – Gene Tunney defeats Jack Dempsey and becomes heavyweight champion of the world.
October 20 – A hurricane kills 650 in Cuba.
www.cubahurricanes.org/histor...les.php
books.google.com/books
10/31 - Houdini died
November 3 – Annie Oakley died, born Phoebe…
11/25 - The deadliest November tornado outbreak in U.S. history strikes on Thanksgiving day. 27 twisters of great strength are reported in the Midwest, including the strongest November tornado, an estimated F4, that devastates Heber Springs, Arkansas. There are 51 deaths in Arkansas alone, 76 deaths and over 400 injuries in all.
www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/en...spx
www.thesuntimes.com/lifestyl...g-tornado
11/27 - Mount Vesuvius erupts. Not much about it at google
December 23 – Robert Bly born, American poet. 'Iron John'
December 29 – Rainer Maria Rilke died, Austrian poet



1968
January 2 – Cuba Gooding Jr. born
January 5 – Andrzej Gołota born, Polish boxer
January 6 – John Singleton born, African-American film director and writer
January 15 – An earthquake in Sicily kills 231 and injures 262.
January 19 – At a White House conference on crime, singer and actress Eartha Kitt denounces the Vietnam War to Lady Bird Johnson while attending a "ladies' lunch".
January 25 – The Israeli submarine INS Dakar sinks in the Mediterranean Sea, killing 69.
1/27 - A French submarine sinks in the Mediterranean Sea with 52 men.
1/29 - Edward Burns born, American actor. *Same birthday as Robin Morgan (see 9/7 below) and Germaine Greer.
2/1 - Lisa Marie Presley born, American singer
2/4 - Neal Cassady died
2/7 - Porntip Nakhirunkanok born, Bangkok, Miss Universe 1988
February 8 – American civil rights movemet: A civil rights protest staged at a white-only bowling alley in Orangeburg, South Carolina is broken up by highway patrolmen; 3 college students are killed.
Gary Coleman born, American actor (Diff'rent Strokes) (d. 2010)
February 12 – Chynna Phillips born
2/18 - Molly Ringwald born
3/1 - Muho Noelke born, German Zen master
March 2 – Daniel Craig born, British actor
March 6 – Moira Kelly born, American actress
3/10 - Helen Walker died, cancer at 47, American actress. B. Worcester, MA
March 11 – Lisa Loeb born, American singer
March 27 – Yuri Gagarin died, Soviet cosmonaut, first human in space
3/28 - Iris Chang born, American author (d. 2004)
March 31 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson announces he will not seek re-election.
4/4 - Martin Luther King, Jr. is shot dead at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee.
Apollo Program: Apollo-Saturn mission 502 (Apollo 6) is launched, as the second and last unmanned test-flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle.
4/6 - A double explosion in downtown Richmond, Indiana kills 41 and injures 150.
April 8 – Patricia Arquette born
April 14 – Anthony Michael Hall born, West Roxbury, MA
4/23 - Surgeons at the Hôpital de la Pitié, Paris, perform Europe's first heart transplant, on Clovis Roblain.
Timothy McVeigh born, American terrorist (d. 2001)
May 15 – An outbreak of severe thunderstorms produces tornadoes causing massive damage and heavy casualties in Charles City, Iowa, Oelwein, Iowa, and Jonesboro, Arkansas.
May 22 – The U.S. nuclear-powered submarine Scorpion sinks with 99 men aboard, 400 miles southwest of the Azores.
June 1 – Helen Keller died
June 3 – Radical feminist Valerie Solanas shoots Andy Warhol as he enters his studio, wounding him.
June 5 – U.S. presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy is shot at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California by Sirhan Sirhan. Kennedy dies from his injuries the next day.
June 8 – James Earl Ray is arrested for the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
June 20 – Austin Currie, Member of Parliament (MP) at Stormont in Northern Ireland, along with others, squats a house in Caledon to protest discrimination in housing allocations.
7/8 - Billy Crudup born
Michael Weatherly born, actor
July 18 – The semiconductor company Intel gets founded.
July 29 – Arenal Volcano erupts in Costa Rica for the first time in centuries. At about 7:30 a.m. a powerful eruption took place and destroyed the west flank of the volcano. Three additional craters were formed. The town of Tabacón was buried, killing seventy eight people.
August 11 – The last steam passenger train service runs in Britain. A selection of British Railways steam locomotives make the 120-mile journey from Liverpool to Carlisle and return to Liverpool, before having their fires dropped for the last time (a working known as the Fifteen Guinea Special).
Noordin Mohammad Top born, Malaysian Islamist terrorist (d. 2009); He was killed during a police raid in Solo, Central Java, on 17 September 2009 conducted by the Indonesian anti-terrorist team, Densus 88
August 24 – France explodes its first hydrogen bomb.
August 22–30 – Police clash with anti-war protesters in Chicago, Illinois, outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention
September 1 – Mohamed Atta born, Egyptian terrorist (d. 2001)
9/7 - 150 women (members of New York Radical Women) arrive in Atlantic City, New Jersey to protest against the Miss America Pageant, as exploitative of women. Led by activist and author Robin Morgan, it is one of the first large demonstrations of Second Wave Feminism as Women's Liberation begins to gather much media attention.
September 10 – Guy Ritchie born
September 11 – French General René Cogny and 94 others die in an Air France Caravelle jetliner crash near Nice in the Mediterranean.
September 17 – Anastacia born, American singer-songwriter
9/18 - Franchot Tone died, American actor
September 30 – At Paine Field, near Everett Washington in the United States, Boeing officially rolls out its new 747 for the media and the public.
October 5 – Police baton civil rights demonstrators in Derry, Northern Ireland, marking the beginning of The Troubles.
October 7 – Thom Yorke born
10/11 - Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission (Wally Schirra, Donn Eisele, Walter Cunningham). Mission goals include the first live television broadcast from orbit and testing the lunar module docking maneuver.
October 15 – Led Zeppelin makes their first live performance, at Surrey University in England
Jyrki 69 born, Finnish singer
October 17 – Ziggy Marley born, Jamaican musician and oldest son of Bob Marley
October 29 – Tsunku born, Japanese singer, music producer, and song composer
11/4 - Miles Long born, American Pornographic Actor and Director
11/5 - U.S. presidential election, 1968: Richard M. Nixon elected
11/14 - Janine Lindemulder born, American adult film actress
November 20 – The Farmington Mine Disaster in Farmington, West Virginia, kills seventy-eight men.
November 22 – The Beatles release their self-titled album popularly known as the White Album.
December 3 – The '68 Comeback Special marks the concert return of Elvis Presley.
December 9 – Douglas Engelbart publicly demonstrates his pioneering hypertext system, NLS, in San Francisco.
December 15 – Jess Willard died, American boxer
12/20 - The Zodiac Killer is believed to have shot Betty Lou Jensen and David Faraday on Lake Herman Road, Benicia, San Francisco Bay, California.
12/22 - Mao Zedong advocates that educated youth in urban China be re-educated in the country. It marks the start of the "Up to the mountains and down to the villages" movement.
December 24 – Apollo Program: U.S. spacecraft Apollo 8 enters orbit around the Moon. Astronauts Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and William A. Anders become the first humans to see the far side of the Moon and planet Earth as a whole.




1992
1/19 - Fifth closest full moon
sites.google.com/site/larrygerstman/moon (bout 7/8 down pg)
February 7 – The Maastricht Treaty is signed, founding the European Union.
February 17 – A court in Milwaukee, Wisconsin sentences serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer to life in prison.
March 13 – In eastern Turkey, an earthquake registering 6.8 on the Richter scale, kills over 500.
March 17 – A suicide car-bomb goes off in the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, killing 29 and injuring 242.
April 10 – A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb explodes in the Baltic Exchange in the City of London; 3 are killed, 91 injured.
April 13 – Roermond, the Netherlands, is rocked by mag. 5.4 earthquake along the Peel Fault. 1 dead.
April 29 – In Simi Valley, California, a jury acquits four LAPD police officers accused of excessive force in the videotaped beating of African American motorist Rodney King, causing the 1992 Los Angeles riots and leading to 53 deaths and $1 billion in damage.
5/12 - Robert Reed died, American actor
June 8 – The first World Ocean Day is celebrated, coinciding with the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
June 28 – A magnitude 7.3 earthquake strikes Landers, California, followed by a magnitude 6.4 aftershock 8 km south-east of Big Bear Lake, California.
August 24–28 – Hurricane Andrew hits south Florida and dissipates over the Tennessee valley when it merges with a storm system; 23 are killed.
September 2 – An earthquake in Nicaragua kills at least 116 people
September 6 – Christopher McCandless body is found
September 11 – Hurricane Iniki hits the Hawaiian Islands, Kauai and Oahu.
September 23 – A large Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb destroys the forensic laboratories in Belfast.
September 24 – The Kentucky Supreme Court, in Kentucky v. Wasson, holds that laws criminalizing same-sex sodomy are unconstitutional
October 2 – A riot breaks out in the Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil, resulting in the Carandiru Massacre. The resulting casualties were 111 prisoners killed: 102 from gunshots fired by the military police and nine from stab wounds apparently inflicted by other prisoners before the arrival of the police. None of the sixty eight police officers were killed. Survivors claimed that the police also fired at inmates who had already surrendered or were trying to hide in their cells
October 3 – After performing a song protesting alleged child abuse by the Catholic Church, Sinéad O'Connor rips up a photo of Pope John Paul II on Saturday Night Live
October 9 – A 12.4-kilogram meteorite lands in the driveway of the Knapp residence in Peekskill, New York, destroying the family's Chevrolet Malibu. It becomes known as the Peekskill meteorite.
The Chief of Naval Operations adopts the US Navy's core values: Honor, Courage and Commitment.
10/12 - mag. 5.8 quake, Egypt, 550 dead. 2nd deadliest of '92
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...eaths.php
November 3 – U.S. presidential election, 1992: Bill Clinton defeats incumbent U.S. President George H. W. Bush
December 4 – U.S. military forces land in Somalia.
12/12 - mag. 7.8 quake, Flores, Indonesia; 2,500 dead. Strongest, deadliest quake of 1992.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/1992/





1949
Wolfgang Puck, Austrian chef, born on 1/8 or 7/8
1/10 - George Foreman born
Linda Lovelace born, porn star
1/11 - Los Angeles, California receives its first recorded snowfall. *Jenna Haze photo of snow in her LA yard
1/14 - Harry Stack Sullivan died, American psychiatrist
January 20 – U.S. President Harry S. Truman begins his full term.
February 9 – Judith Light born
3/28 - English astronomer Fred Hoyle coins the term Big Bang during a BBC Third Programme radio broadcast.
4/1 - Éire leaves the British Commonwealth and becomes the Republic of Ireland.
April 18 – Éire formally becomes the Republic of Ireland.
5/1 - Nereid, a moon of Neptune, is discovered by Gerard P. Kuiper.
5/22 - After two months in Bethesda Naval Hospital, United States Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense James Forrestal commits suicide, under circumstances that seem suspicious to many.
7/10 - mag. 7.5 quake, Tajikistan, 12,000 dead
July 12 – Douglas Hyde died, first President of Ireland
7/27 - The de Havilland Comet, the Worlds First Jet-Powered Airliner, makes its first flight.
August 5 – A 6.75 Richter scale earthquake in Ecuador kills 6,000 and destroys 50 towns.
August 22 – The Queen Charlotte earthquake is Canada's largest earthquake since the 1700 Cascadia earthquake.
8/29 - The Soviet Union tests its first atomic bomb, code named "Joe 1". Its design imitates the American plutonium bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan in 1945.
10/27 - An airliner flying from Paris to New York crashes in the Azores island of São Miguel. Among the victims are violinist Ginette Neveu and French boxer Marcel Cerdan.
November 3 – Larry Holmes born
11/12 - The Hale 5-meter (200-inch) telescope opened for regular scheduled observations at Palomar Observatory. Thirteen years of mirror polishing finally grind the "Big Eye" to the desired form. Edwin Hubble takes the first photographic exposure with the 200-inch in January.
ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/...ge1.html
12/15 - A typhoon strikes a fishing fleet off Korea, killing several thousand.




1950
5/31 - Vic Toweel beat Manuel Ortiz for the world bantamweight boxing championship
8/15 - The mag. 8.6 Assam-Tibet Earthquake 1,526 deaths.




2001
January 13 – A 7.6 magnitude earthquake hits all of El Salvador, killing at least 800 people and leaving thousands homeless.
January 15 – Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, launches on the internet.
January 20 – George Walker Bush succeeds William Jefferson Clinton as the 43rd President of the United States of America.
1/26 - deadliest earthquake of 2001, mag. 7.7 in India, 20,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/2001/
February 12 – The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touches down in the "saddle" region of 433 Eros, becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid.
February 13 – A 6.6 magnitude earthquake hits El Salvador, killing at least 400.
May 22 – A large trans-Neptunian object (28978 Ixion) is found during the Deep Ecliptic Survey.
June 5–9 – Tropical Storm Allison produces 36 inches (900 mm) of rain in Houston, Texas, killing 22, damaging the Texas Medical Center, and causing more than 5 billion American dollars of damage overall.
6/23 - most powerful earthquake of 2001. Peru, 140 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...stats.php
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001...earthquake
August 20 – Fred Hoyle died, British astronomer. 3/28/49 - Hoyle coined the term Big Bang during a BBC Third Programme radio broadcast.
September 2 – Christiaan Barnard died, South African surgeon; performed the world's first successful human-to-human heart transplant.
9/11 - 9/11
Christina Greene born; shot to death by Jared Loughner in Tuscon on 1/8/2010
globalgrind.com/channel/ne...101-photos/
October 15 – NASA's Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles (180 km) of Jupiter's moon Io.
November 10 – Ken Kesey died
Heavy rains and mudslides in Algeria kill more than 900.
November 12 – In New York City, American Airlines Flight 587, headed to the Dominican Republic, crashes in Queens minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport, killing all 260 on board.
November 29 – George Harrison died; Beatles
December 27 – Typhoon Vamei forms within 1.5 degrees of the equator. No other tropical cyclone in recorded history has come as close to the equator.



1925
2/23 - Joel Hastings Metcalf died; discovered asteroid 747 Winchester in Winchester, MA.
2/28 - The 6.2 Charlevoix-Kamouraska earthquake strikes northeastern North America.
3/4 - Gramps born and Calvin Coolidge inaugurated
March 12 – Sun Yat-sen died, Chinese revolutionary
March 16 – Luis E. Miramontes born, Mexican chemist
March 18 – The Tri-State Tornado rampages through Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana, killing 695 people and injuring 2,027. It hits the towns of Murphysboro, Illinois; Gorham, Illinois; Ellington, Missouri; and Griffin, Indiana.
5/1 - Scott Carpenter born, American astronaut; the second American to orbit the Earth and the fourth American in space
5/2 - Johann Palisa died, Austrian astronomer. He was a prolific discoverer of asteroids, discovering 122 in all, from 136 Austria in 1874 to 1073 Gellivara in 1923. Some of his notable discoveries include 153 Hilda, 216 Kleopatra, 243 Ida, 253 Mathilde, 324 Bamberga, and the Amor asteroid 719 Albert.
5/19 - Pol Pot born
Malcolm X born
May 29 – The British explorer Percy Fawcett sends a last telegram to his wife, before he disappears in the Amazon. Fawcett b. 1867
June 1 – Thomas R. Marshall died, Vice President of the United States
Percy and Florence Arrowsmith are married. This couple, who celebrated their 80th wedding anniversary June 1, 2005 (Percy aged 105, and wife Florence 100), are acknowledged by the Guinness Book of Records as record-holders for the longest marriage for a living couple
June 8 – Barbara Bush born, First Lady of the United States
June 13 – Charles Francis Jenkins achieves the first synchronized transmission of pictures and sound, using 48 lines, and a mechanical system. A 10-minute film of a miniature windmill in motion is sent across 5 miles from Anacostia to Washington, DC. The images are viewed by representatives of the National Bureau of Standards, the U.S. Navy, the Commerce Department, and others. Jenkins calls this "the first public demonstration of radiovision".
June 29 – Santa Barbara Earthquake of 1925: A 6.3 earthquake destroys downtown Santa Barbara, California.
July 10 – Meher Baba begins his 44 year silence.
July 14 – Pancho Villa died, Filipino world boxing champion
8/12 - Norris and Ross McWhirter born; guinness book of records. Ross killed by IRA
September 16 – Charles Haughey born, sixth Taoiseach
October 1 – Mount Rushmore is dedicated.
October 30 – John Logie Baird creates Britain's first television transmitter.
11/20 - Bobby Kennedy born
12/4 - Lino Lacedelli born, Italian mountaineer who made the first ascent of K2
12/15 - Battling Siki died, Senegalese boxer, world light heavyweight champion



2000 usgs
Godsmack "Awake"
January 18 – The Tagish Lake meteorite impacts the Earth.
January 31 – Alaska Airlines Flight 261 crashes off the California coast into the Pacific Ocean, killing 88.
February 9 – Torrential rains in Africa lead to the worst flooding in Mozambique in 50 years, which lasts until March and kills 800 people.
February 21 – UNESCO holds the inaugural celebration of International Mother Language Day.
March 9 – Nupedia, predecessor to Wikipedia, is created.
4/3 - Terence
May 3 – A rare conjunction of 7 celestial bodies (Sun, Moon, planets Mercury–Saturn) occurs during the New Moon
May 4 – An earthquake hits Banggai, Sulawesi, Indonesia, leaving 54 dead. 2nd deadliest quake of 2000
June 4 – An earthquake hits Bengkulu, Indonesia, leaving 94 dead. Deadliest quake of 2000.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...eaths.php
June 17 – A centennial earthquake (6.5 on Richter scale) hits Iceland on its national day.
6/28 - Athena Harvey found murdered in her Wareham, MA home. Husband charged.
June 30 – At the Roskilde Festival near Copenhagen, Denmark, 9 die and 26 are injured on a set while the rock group Pearl Jam performs.
July 10 – In southern Nigeria, a leaking petroleum pipeline explodes, killing about 250 villagers who were scavenging gasoline.
July 14 – A powerful solar flare, later named the Bastille Day event, causes a geomagnetic storm on Earth.
July 25 – Air France Flight 4590, a Concorde aircraft, crashes into a hotel in Gonesse just after takeoff from Paris, killing all 109 aboard and 4 in the hotel.
August 12 – The Russian submarine K-141 Kursk sinks in the Barents Sea, resulting in the deaths of all 118 men on board.
September 29 – The Long Kesh prison in Northern Ireland is closed.
October 11 – 250 million gallons of coal sludge spill in Martin County, Kentucky (considered a greater environmental disaster than the Exxon Valdez oil spill).
November 7 – United States presidential election, 2000: Republican candidate Texas Governor George W. Bush defeats Democratic Vice President Al Gore in one of the closest elections in history, but the final outcome is not known for over a month because of disputed votes in Florida.
November 11 – Kaprun disaster, Austria: A funicular fire in an Alpine tunnel kills 155 skiers and snowboarders.
December 13 – Bush v. Gore: The U.S. Supreme Court stops the Florida presidential recount, effectively giving the state, and the Presidency, to George W. Bush.
December 25 – A shopping center fire at Luoyang, Henan, China kills 309.




1966
Vietnam War
Several Acid Tests are conducted in San Fran/LA area
February 3 – The unmanned Soviet Luna 9 spacecraft makes the first controlled rocket-assisted landing on the Moon.
3/1 - Soviet space probe Venera 3 crashes on Venus, becoming the first spacecraft to land on another planet's surface.
3/8 - An Irish Republican Army bomb destroys Nelson's Pillar in Dublin.
3/31 - The Soviet Union launches Luna 10, which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.
April 3 – The first manmade object Luna 10 enters lunar orbit.
5/10 - Genaro Hernandez born, Mexican-American boxer; world junior lightweight champ
5/16 - Bob Dylan's seminal album, Blonde on Blonde is released in the U.S.
The legendary album Pet Sounds by The Beach Boys is released.
5/20 - Joey Gamache born, American boxer; world lightweight champ
5/22 - Uranus at perihelion
answers.yahoo.com/question/index
www.heavens-above.com/planetsummary.asp
www.auxmaillesgodefroy.com/sens...nodes
books.google.com/books year only
books.google.com/books gives may 20
6/2 - Surveyor program: Surveyor 1 lands in Oceanus Procellarum on the Moon, becoming the first U.S. spacecraft to soft-land on another world.
Éamon de Valera is re-elected as Irish president.
June 5 – Gemini 9: Gene Cernan completes the second U.S. spacewalk (2 hours, 7 minutes).
6/8 - Topeka, Kansas is devastated by a tornado that registers as an "F5" on the Fujita Scale, the first to exceed US $100 million in damages. Sixteen people are killed, hundreds more injured
An XB-70 Valkyrie prototype is destroyed in a mid-air collision with a F-104 Starfighter chase plane during a photo shoot. NASA pilot Joseph A. Walker and USAF test pilot Carl Cross are both killed.
6/28 - Mary Stuart Masterson born
6/30 - Mike Tyson born
7/18 - Gemini 10 (John Young, Michael Collins) is launched. After docking with an Agena target vehicle, the astronauts then set a world altitude record of 474 miles (763 km).
7/29 - Bob Dylan is injured in a motorcycle accident near his home in Woodstock, New York.
8/5 - The Beatles release the legendary Revolver album in the United Kingdom.
August 7 – Jimmy Wales born, American co-founder of Wikipedia *10th anniversary of wikipedia is today!
8/10 - Lunar Orbiter 1, the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another world, is launched.
August 11 – The Beatles hold a press conference in Chicago, during which John Lennon apologizes for his "more popular than Jesus" remark, saying, "I didn't mean it as a lousy anti-religious thing."
8/13 - An earthquake in Turkey kills 2,394 and injures 10,000.
August 19 – An earthquake in eastern Turkey destroys whole cities.
August 24 – The Doors record their self-titled debut LP.
August 29 – The Beatles end their US tour with a concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California. It is their last-ever live performance, except for the short "rooftop concert" at the Apple Corps offices in January 1969.
9/1 - While waiting at a bus stop, Ralph Baer an inventor with Sanders Associates, writes a four-page document which lays out the basic principles for creating a video game to be played on a television: the beginning of a multi billion dollar industry.
September 8 – Star Trek, the classic science fiction television series, debuts on NBC-TV with its first episode
November 6 – Lunar Orbiter 2 is launched.
November 8 – Gordon Ramsay born, British chef
November 9 – John Lennon meets Yoko Ono at the Indica Gallery.
11/17 - A spectacular Leonid meteor shower passes over Arizona, at the rate of 2,300 a minute for 20 minutes.
Jeff Buckley born
November 23 – Seán T. O'Kelly died, second President of Ireland
November 24 – The Beatles begin recording sessions for their landmark Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album.
December 8 – Sinéad O'Connor born
12/17 - Milos Tichy born, Czech astronomer; prolific discoverer of asteroids.
December 30 – Christian Herter died, United States Secretary of State and MA governor




1956
1/3 - Mel Gibson born
January 10 – Shawn Colvin born *just watched her perform on PBS "Three Girls and Their Buddy"
1/20 - Bill Maher born
January 21 – Sam Langford died, Canadian boxer
February 22 – Elvis Presley enters the United States music charts for the first time, with Heartbreak Hotel.
March 1 – The International Air Transport Association finalizes a draft of the Radiotelephony spelling alphabet for the International Civil Aviation Organization.
March 13 – Elvis Presley releases his first Gold Album titled Elvis Presley.
3/28 - Susan Ershler born, American mountaineer. Ershler and her husband, Phil, are the first couple to climb the “Seven Summits” together, the highest mountain on each continent. The crowning accomplishment of such an endeavor was achieved May 16, 2002, when Susan, and her husband reached the summit of Mount Everest.
April 14 – Videotape is first demonstrated at the 1956 NARTB (now NAB) convention in Chicago by Ampex. It is the demonstration of the first practical and commercially successful videotape format known as 2" Quadruplex.
April 27 – Heavyweight boxing champion Rocky Marciano retires without losing a professional boxing match.
April 30 – Alben W. Barkley died, Vice President of the United States
May 9 – Manaslu, eighth highest mountain in the world, is first ascended.
5/17 - Sugar Ray Leonard born
Austin Osman Spare died, English magician
May 18 – Lhotse (main), the fourth highest mountain, is first ascended.
6/29 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Federal Aid Highway Act, creating the Interstate Highway System
June 30 – A TWA Lockheed Constellation and United Airlines Douglas DC-7 collide in mid-air over the Grand Canyon in Arizona, killing all 128 people aboard both aircraft in the deadliest civil aviation disaster to date; the accident leads to sweeping changes in the regulation of cross-country flight and air traffic control over the United States.
July 8 – The mountain Gasherbrum II in Pakistan is first ascended.
July 9 – Tom Hanks born
July 25 – 72 kilometers (45 miles) south of Nantucket Island, the Italian ocean liner SS Andrea Doria sinks after colliding with the Swedish ship SS Stockholm in heavy fog, killing 51.
July 30 – A Joint Resolution of Congress is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorizing "In God We Trust" as the U.S. national motto.
7/31 - Deval Patrick born
August 5 – Maureen McCormick born, American actress (The Brady Bunch)
August 25 – Alfred Kinsey died, American sex researcher
September 2 – Angelo Fusco born, Provisional Irish Republican Army member
9/3 - Pat McGeown born, Provisional Irish Republican Army member
September 9 – Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time.
September 10 – Johnny Fingers born, Irish musician (The Boomtown Rats)
September 13 – The hard disk drive is invented by an IBM team led by Reynold B. Johnson.
October 14 – Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Indian Untouchable leader, converts to Buddhism along with 385,000 followers
October 17 – Mae Jemison born, African American astronaut
October 21 – Carrie Fisher born
November 1 – City Lights Books publishes Howl and Other Poems by Allen Ginsberg.
November 3 – Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer's The Wizard of Oz, premieres on the CBS channel.
November 4 – 1956 Hungarian Revolution: More Soviet troops invade Hungary to crush a revolt that started on October 23. Thousands are killed, more are wounded, and nearly a quarter million leave the country.
November 6 – Dwight D. Eisenhower reelected
November 19 – Francis L. Sullivan died, English actor
November 30 – Floyd Patterson wins the world heavyweight boxing championship that was vacant after the retirement of Rocky Marciano.
12/2 - A pipe bomb planted by George Metesky explodes at the Paramount Theater in Brooklyn, injuring 6 people.







JULY

7/1 ast usgs 2010
1646 - Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz born; German mathematician, philosopher. He occupies an equally large place in both the history of philosophy and the history of mathematics. He discovered calculus independently of Newton, and his notation is the one in general use since. He also discovered the binary system, foundation of virtually all modern computer architectures.
1770 – Lexell's Comet passed closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of 0.0146 a.u.
1908 – SOS is adopted as the international distress signal.
1858 – Joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace's papers on evolution to the Linnean Society.
1879 – Charles Taze Russell publishes the first edition of the religious magazine The Watchtower.
1898 – Spanish-American War: the Battle of San Juan Hill is fought in Santiago de Cuba. T. Roosevelt participated.
1917 - Humphry Osmond born
1999 – Forrest Mars Sr. died, American candy magnate
2004 - The Cassini probe entered orbit around Saturn
2011 - partial solar eclipse



7/2 ast usgs
1566 – Nostradamus died
1621 - Thomas Harriot died, English astronomer. He is sometimes credited with the introduction of the potato to Great Britain and Ireland. Harriot was the first person to make a drawing of the Moon through a telescope, on July 26, 1609, over four months before Galileo.
1776 – The Continental Congress adopts a resolution severing ties with Great Britain although the wording of the formal Declaration of Independence is not approved until July 4.
1881 – Charles J. Guiteau shoots and fatally wounds U.S. President James Garfield, who eventually dies from an infection on September 19.
1898 - Hugh Latimer Dryden born; NASA Deputy Administrator
1906 - Hans Bethe born; role in Trinity bom test and "Fat Man" Nagasaki bomb
1939 – John H. Sununu born, White House Chief of Staff under George HW Bush
1947 – Larry David born
1957 - mag. 7.1 quake, Iran, 1,200 dead
1966 – The French military explodes a nuclear test bomb codenamed Aldébaran in Mururoa, their first nuclear test in the Pacific.
1967 - First detection of gamma ray bursts (GRB): the Vela 4 and Vela 3 satellites detected a flash of gamma radiation unlike any known nuclear weapons signature.[4] Uncertain what had happened but not considering the matter particularly urgent, the team at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, led by Ray Klebesadel, filed the data away for investigation. As additional Vela satellites were launched with better instruments, the Los Alamos team continued to find inexplicable gamma-ray bursts in their data. By analyzing the different arrival times of the bursts as detected by different satellites, the team was able to determine rough estimates for thesky positions of sixteen bursts[4] and definitively rule out a terrestrial or solar origin. The discovery was declassified and published in 1973 as an Astrophysical Journal article entitled "Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts of Cosmic Origin"
1978 – Julie Night born, American porn actress
2005 - Comet Giacobini-Zinner perihelion
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/200...643...23M p. 24
www.aerith.net/comet/cata.../index.html
2010 - Comet C/2009 R1 (McNaught) perihelion
www.heavens-above.com/comet.aspx
www.examiner.com/astronomy...orning-sky



7/3
2006 (Monday) - Asteroid 2004 XP14, an Apollo asteroid, a class that cross Earth's orbit, passed near Earth at 268,624 miles (432,308 km), or just 1.1 times the Moon's average distance from Earth.
www.space.com/spacewatch/...ght_sky.html www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13556129/



7/4 ast ire usgs 2010
1054 - Chinese astronomers detected SN 1054 in the constellation Taurus
www.nasa.gov/mission_pag..._nebula.html
www.nasa.gov/multimedia/...ure_921.html
www.astronomy.pomona.edu/arche...a.html seds.org/messier/more/m001_sn.html
www.solstation.com/x-object...b-neb.htm
1636 – City of Providence, Rhode Island forms.
1790 - George Everest born (On 5/29/1790, Rhode Island joined the U.S.)
1816 - Hiram Walker born, East Douglas, MA; founded Canadian Club whiskey.
1826 – John Adams died, 2nd President of the United States
Thomas Jefferson died, 3rd President of the United States
1831 – James Monroe died, 5th President of the United States
1868 – Henrietta Swan Leavitt born, American astronomer
astronomycompendium.wikispaces.com/July+4
1872 - President Calvin Coolidge born
1878 - George Cohan born, Providence, RI. Irish entertainer.
1882 - Emanuel Von der Pahlen born; German astronomer. He joined solar eclipse expeditions in 1905, 1912 and 1914. Between the world wars, he was employed at the Astrophysikalishen Observatorium Potsdam. He taught at the University of Basel. In 1947 he published Einführung in die Dynamik von Sternsystemen, a 241-page work on Galaxies.
1891 – Hannibal Hamlin died, U.S. Vice President
1901 - Johannes Schmidt died, German linguist. He developed the Wellentheorie ('wave theory') of language development.
1910 – Giovanni Schiaparelli died, Italian astronomer who first discovered canal-like markings on the planet Mars.
1918 - Charles Wolf died; discovered Wolf-Rayet stars
1919 - Jack Dempsey became world champ
1921 - Awaiting truce with the English, Eamon De Valera orders the American flag flown in Dublin to "emphasize the principle for which we are fighting"
1971 - Koko born; gorilla
1997 – NASA's Pathfinder space probe lands on the surface of Mars.
2000 - Earth at aphelion
www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astr...th-seasons
2001 - Earth at aphelion
2003 - Earth at aphelion
2005 – The Deep Impact collider hits the comet Tempel 1.
2008 - Earth at aphelion
2009 - Earth at aphelion
2011 - Earth at aphelion
2014 - Earth at aphelion



7/5
1826 - Stamford Raffles died; Rafflesia arnoldii



7/6 ast ire usgs
1781 - Stamford Raffles born; Rafflesia arnoldii
1868 - Death of songwriter and novelist Samuel Lover. His compositions included Widow Machree, The Low Backed Car, Molly Bawn, The Angel's Whisper, and The Four-leaved Shamrock
1883 - Arnold Kohlschütter born; German astronomer and astrophysicist from Halle. In 1911 he began working at the Mount Wilson Observatory, studying the spectra of the Sun and stars. In collaboration with Walter Sidney Adams, in 1914 they discovered that the absolute luminosity of a star was proportional to the relative intensity of the lines in the spectrum. This allowed astronomers to determine the distance of stars, including main sequence and giants, using the spectroscope. MINE: At Mount Wilson Observatory in California, in collaboration with Walter Adams, Mr. Kohlschutter learned information about stars which made for more precise measurements of stellar distances. Walter Adams, in addition to his work with Kohlschutter, studied the companion of the brightest star in our night sky and found it to be Earth's size and yet nearly as bright and as massive as our Sun. That star, Sirius B, a white dwarf star, was discovered in 1862 by Alvan Graham Clark, a telescope maker who was born in my and Emeril Lagasse's hometown, Fall River, Massachusetts - the state whose coast is the embodiment of the human head. Most stars in our Universe are or will become white dwarf stars like Sirius B. Our Sun will become a white dwarf.
articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/full....142S
1885 – Louis Pasteur successfully tests his vaccine against rabies. The patient is Joseph Meister, a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog.
1893 – The small town of Pomeroy, Iowa, is nearly destroyed by a tornado that kills 71 people and injures 200.
1921 – Nancy Reagan born
1935 – Tenzin Gyatso born, 14th Dalai Lama
Candy Barr born; porn star
1938 - Seth Barnes Nicholson discovered Jovian moon, Lysithea, member of the Himalia group
solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
1944 – The Hartford Circus Fire, one of America's worst fire disasters, kills approximately 168 people and injures over 700 in Hartford, Connecticut.
1946 - George W. Bush born
Clann na Poblachta, a radical new republican party is founded by Sean MacBride
1957 – John Lennon meets Paul McCartney at a fete in Woolton.
1962 - Storax Sedan was a shallow underground nuclear test conducted in Area 10 of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site as part of Operation Plowshare, a program to investigate the use of nuclear weapons for mining, cratering, and other civilian purposes. The radioactive fallout from the test contaminated more US residents than any other nuclear test, and the Sedan Crater is the largest man-made crater in the United States
1978 – The Taunton sleeping car fire occurs in Taunton, Somerset killing twelve people.
2009 - North America cloud



7/7 ast usgs 2010
1534 – European colonization of the Americas: first known exchange between Europeans and natives of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in New Brunswick.
1701 - William Stoughton died, American judge at the Salem witch trials. Town of Stoughton named for him.
www.stoughtonhistory.com/willi...on.htm
1746 - Giuseppe Piazzi born
1816 - Johann Rudolf Wolf born; Swiss astronomer and mathematician best known for his research on sunspots. Wolf was greatly impressed by the discovery of the sunspot cycle by Heinrich Schwabe and he not only carried out his own observations, but he collected all the available data on sunspot activity back as far as 1610 and calculated a period for the cycle of 11.1 years. In 1848 he devised a way of quantifying sunspot activity. The Wolf sunspot number, as it is now called, remains in use. In 1852 Wolf was one of four people who discovered the link between the cycle and geomagnetic activity on Earth.
1846 – Mexican-American War: American troops occupy Monterey and Yerba Buena, thus beginning the U.S. conquest of California.
1865 – American Civil War: Mary Surratt, Lewis Payne, and two more conspirators in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln are hanged.
1898 – U.S. President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.
1913 – Pinetop Perkins born, American blues pianist
1921 - Ezzard Charles born
1922 - Cathal Brugha (Charles Burgess) an anti-Treaty nationalist, died after being shot. Active in the Easter Rising, Irish War of Independence, and the Irish Civil War and was the first Ceann Comhairle (chairman) of Dáil Éireann.
1939 - Paul Solomon born; psychic
1940 – Ringo Starr born
1952 – The ocean liner SS United States passes Bishop's Rock on her maiden voyage, breaking the transatlantic speed record to become the fastest passenger ship in the world.
1956 – Fritz Moravec reaches the peak of Gasherbrum II (8,035 m).
1958 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act into law.
1959 - At 14:28 UT Venus occults the star Regulus. The rare event (which will next occur on October 1, 2044) is used for determining the diameter of Venus and the structure of Venus' atmosphere.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/196.....4..798M
1966 – Neil Tobin born, American magician and psychic entertainer
1970 – Wayne McCullough born, Belfast, Irish boxer; world bantamweight champ
1972 – Kirsten Vangsness born, American actress "Criminal Minds"
1973 – Veronica Lake died, American actress (b. 1919)
2001 - mag. 7.6 quake, Arequipa, Peru; 1 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
2005 – A series of four explosions occurs on London's transport system killing 56 people including four alleged suicide bombers and injuring over 700 others.
2006 – Syd Barrett died
2010 - mag. 5.9 quake, southern cal. felt by some fb friends
asteroid (904) Rockefellia will occult a 3.9 mag star in the constellation Aquila for observers along a path across India, Africa. www.cfa.harvard.edu/icq/MagScale.html
asteroidoccultation.com/2010_0...ary.txt
cosmos4u.blogspot.com/2010/07...tar.html



7/8 ast usgs
1538 - Diego de Almagro executed; participated in the Spanish conquest of Peru and is credited as the first European discoverer of Chile.
books.google.com/books
latinamericanhistory.about.com/od...htm
1663 – Charles II of England grants John Clarke a Royal Charter to Rhode Island.
1680 – The first confirmed tornado in America kills a servant at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
www.crh.noaa.gov/gld/ journals.ametsoc.org/doi/ful...2.0.CO;2 (#2)
www.tornadochaser.net/history.html
books.google.com/books
1695 – Christiaan Huygens died; discovered Saturn's largest moon, Titan, on 3/25/1655.
1855 - (July 8th or 9th) William Edward Parry died, English Arctic explorer; He reached 82°45′ North latitude, setting the record for human exploration farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′26″ by Albert Hastings Markham in 1875-1876.
1892 – St. John's, Newfoundland is devastated in the Great Fire of 1892.
1900 - George Antheil born. Actress Hedy Lamarr (11/9/13 - 1/19/00) and composer George Antheil receive a patent for a frequency hopping, spread spectrum communication system that later became the basis for modern technologies in wireless telephones and Wi-Fi. This early version of frequency hopping used a piano roll to change between 88 frequencies and was intended to make radio-guided torpedoes harder for enemies to detect or jam. The idea was not implemented in the USA until 1962, when it was used by U.S. military ships during a blockade of Cuba after the patent had expired. Perhaps owing to this lag in development, the patent was little-known until 1997, when the Electronic Frontier Foundation (JP BARLOW) gave Lamarr an award for this contribution. www.google.com/patents
1926 - Elisabeth Kübler-Ross born; pioneer in Near-death studies
1934 - Benjamin Baillaud died, French astronomer; first president of the International Astronomical Union. Born 1848
1944 – Jai Johanny Johanson born, American drummer and percussionist (The Allman Brothers Band)
1947 – Reports are broadcast that a UFO crash landed in Roswell, New Mexico.
1949 – Wolfgang Puck born
1957 - Grace Coolidge died, First Lady of the United States
1968 - Billy Crudup born www.nytimes.com/learning/g...100708.html
mag. 4.4 quake, North Dakota; Felt over approximately 3,000 square miles of south-central North Dakota. This was the first earthquake to be instrumentally located in the State historically, and one of the few ever felt. The shock centered near Huff, where a television set shifted and sounds like thunder were heard.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1986 - mag 6.1 quake, CA; 30 injured
1999 - Pete Conrad died, American astronaut
2010 - lunar occultation of Iris www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
Asteroid (472) Roma occults 2.7 mag star delta Ophiuchi. visible to the naked eye esa-mm.esa.int/SPECIALS/S...ZVAG_2.html
www.iota-es.de/roma2010/roma_eng.html astrosurf.com/eaon/Cartes...IP_79593.htm
www.youtube.com/watch
Asteroid Juno is in conjunction with the Sun



7/10 ast usgs
Gramps
988 – The city of Dublin is founded on the banks of the river Liffey.
1212 – The most severe of several early fires of London burns most of the city to the ground.
1792 – George Mifflin Dallas born, U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania and the 11th Vice President of the United States
1821 – The United States takes possession of its newly bought territory of Florida from Spain.
1832 - Alvan Graham Clark born, Fall River, MA
1850 – Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 13th President of the United States upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, 16 months into his term.
inaugural.senate.gov/history...1850.cfm
1851 – Louis-Jacques Daguerre died, French inventor and photographer
1890 – Wyoming is admitted as the 44th U.S. state.
1908 – Phoebe Knapp died, American hymn writer
1910 - Johann Galle died
1913 – Death Valley, California hits 134 °F (~56.7 °C), the highest temperature recorded in the United States.
1921 – Belfast's Bloody Sunday: 16 people are killed and 161 houses destroyed during rioting and gun battles in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
Harvey Ball, Jake LaMotta, and Eunice Kennedy Shriver born
1925 – Meher Baba begins his silence of 44 years. His followers observe Silence Day on this date in commemoration.
1949 - mag. 7.5 quake, Tajikistan, 12,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1958 - mag. 7.7 quake, Alaska; 2 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1971 – Laurent Dauthuille died, French boxer; beat Jake LaMotta for world middleweight title
1997 – In London scientists report the findings of the DNA analysis of a Neandertal skeleton which support the "out of Africa theory" of human evolution placing an "African Eve" at 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.
2005 – Hurricane Dennis slams into the Florida Panhandle, causing billions of dollars in damage.



7/11 ast
1732 - Joseph Lalande born; astronomer, teacher of Giuseppe Piazzi; By his publications in connection with the transit of Venus of 1769 he won great fame. However, his difficult personality lost him some popularity. As a lecturer and writer he helped popularise astronomy. His star catalog of 1801 contains many faint but nearby (and thereby low mass) stars, so that a star name such as Lalande 21185 is almost guaranteed to refer to such a star, rather than a bluer, brighter, more distant one.
1735 – Mathematical calculations suggest that it is on this day that dwarf planet Pluto moved inside the orbit of Neptune for the last time before 1979.
1767 - President John Quincy Adams born
1801 – French astronomer Jean-Louis Pons made his first comet discovery. In the next 27 years he discovered another 36 comets, more than any other person in history. *Not a lot of info.
1899 - Elwyn Brooks White born *Margaret Bourke White, saw her and her b-day today re: the Sea Islands Hurricane at Joe Frazier's birthplace. And the reason I'm mentioning EB White now is because a woman at myadultprofile quoted him: "I arise in the morning torn between a desire to improve the world and a desire to enjoy the world. This makes it hard to plan the day."
1901 - Luigi Carnera discovered asteroid 472 Roma. Occultation of delta Ophiuchi by (472) Roma on July 8, 2010
ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi#top
www.youtube.com/watch
1918 - Venetia Burney born; named Pluto
articles.latimes.com/2009/ma...-phair11
www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obi...hair.html
1921 – A truce is called in the Irish War of Independence; see Irish calendar.
1953 - Leon Spinks born; world heavyweight champion boxer
1957 - Patsy O'Hara born; IRA; 1981 hunger striker
irishrepublican.weebly.com/pats....html
1958 - Martin Doherty born; IRA man murdered 5/21/94
1965 – Ernesto Hoost born, Dutch kickboxer and four-time K-1 World Champion.
1974 - Krista Kay Blake, 19, who had a penchant for hitchhiking, was last seen getting into a blue van driven by a white male. Body found in Dole Valley, WA. Likely victim of Warren Forrest
rebelcherokee.labdiva.com/victims.html
www.aolnews.com/crime/arti...in/19496283
1975 – Nadya Suleman born, American mother of octuplets
1991 - very long total solar eclipse
eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEcatma...axT.html
2007 - Astronomer Lin Chi-Sheng with a 16-inch (410 mm) telescope at the Lulin Observatory in Nantou, Taiwan, shot discovery photographs of Comet Lulin on July 11, 2007. However, it was the 19-year old Ye Quanzhi from Sun Yat-sen University in China who identified the new object from three of the photographs taken by Lin.
2010 - total solar eclipse eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEmono/...010.html




7/12
1928 - Elias James Corey born, Methuen, MA; In 1990 he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis", specifically retrosynthetic analysis. *Ufo reported in Methuen on 4/18/10.
ufoclearinghouse.webs.com/apps/...-light
1991 - Erik Per Sullivan born, Worcester.
2011 - Neptune year www.skyandtelescope.com/news/9...09.html



7/13 ast usgs
1762 – James Bradley died, English Astronomer Royal; Bradley is best known for two fundamental discoveries in astronomy, the aberration of light (1725–28), and the nutation of the Earth's axis (1728–48). These discoveries were called "the most brilliant and useful of the century" by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, historian of astronomy, mathematical astronomer and director of the Paris Observatory, in his history of astronomy in the 18th century (1821), because "It is to these two discoveries by Bradley that we owe the exactness of modern astronomy. .... This double service assures to their discoverer the most distinguished place (after Hipparchus and Kepler) above the greatest astronomers of all ages and all countries. In 1722 Bradley measured the diameter of Venus with a large aerial telescope (objective focal length of 212 ft (65 m)).
1822 - Heinrich Louis d'Arrest born; he was party to Johann Gottfried Galle's search for Neptune. On September 23, 1846, he suggested that a recently drawn chart of the sky, in the region of Urbain Le Verrier's predicted location, could be compared with the current sky to seek the displacement characteristic of a planet, as opposed to a stationary star. Neptune was discovered that very night. He discovered asteroid 76 Freia on 10/21/1862. D'Arrest's later work at the Leipzig Observatory led him, in 1851, to the discovery of the comet named for him (formally designated 6P/d'Arrest).
1939 - Billy Conn beat Melio Bettina to become world light-heavyweight boxing champion
1944 – Ernő Rubik born, Hungarian inventor; Rubik's Cube. *This morning on Ellen a woman in her audience completed a Rubik's Cube while balancing a stack of books on her head and reciting the numbers in pi.
1956 – Michael Spinks born, American former boxer; world light heavyweight champ and IBF heavyweight champ. Spinks became the first reigning light-heavyweight champion to win the heavyweight title.
1990 - mag. 6.4 earthquake, northeast Afghanistan; 45 mountain climbers were killed on Pik Lenina, USSR by an avalanche which was triggered by the earthquake. *Same northeast region of Afghanistan where "the deadliest earthquakes in 1998 occurred. In that same region of northeast Afghanistan, now embroiled in war, a bomb targeted and killed a provincial governor and nineteen more on Friday, October 8, 2010." (from my project)
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php



7/14
1965 - The space probe Mariner 4 flew by Mars, sending back photographs of the planet.
www.nytimes.com/learning/g...tml#article



7/16 ast ire usgs
1731 – Samuel Huntington born, American statesman, signer of the Declaration of Independence, 3rd Governor of Connecticut and 7th President of the Continental Congress
1746 - Giuseppe Piazzi born
www.lpi.usra.edu/books/Ast...f/3027.pdf
1749 – Cyrus Griffin born, American statesman, 16th and last president of the Continental Congress
1769 – Father Junipero Serra founds California's first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá. Over the following decades, it evolves into the city of San Diego.
1790 – The District of Columbia is established as the capital of the United States after signature of the Residence Act. www.loc.gov/rr/program/b...esidence.html
1861 – American Civil War: at the order of President Abraham Lincoln, Union troops begin a 25 mile march into Virginia for what will become The First Battle of Bull Run, the first major land battle of the war.
1866 - Edwin Frost born, VT; In 1902, he discovered the strange behavior of Beta Cephei, which later became the prototype for Beta Cephei variable stars.
1870 – Lambert McKenna born, Irish Jesuit priest and scholar of the Irish language
1872 – Roald Amundsen born, Norwegian polar explorer
1882 – Mary Todd Lincoln died, First Lady of the United States
1928 – Andrzej Zawada born, Polish mountaineer; In 1980 Krzysztof Wielicki and Leszek Cichy made the first winter ascent of Mount Everest (8848 m), the highest mountain on Earth. Zawada led the expedition. It was the first ascent in winter of a peak above 8,000 m.
1935 - earthquake, Taiwan, 2,700 dead
1945 – World War II: the leaders of the three Allied nations, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill, President of the United States Harry S Truman and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, meet in the German city of Potsdam to decide the future of a defeated Germany.
Manhattan Project: the Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon at the Trinity site near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
1947 - Rocky Graziano defeated Tony Zale to become world middleweight champ
1968 – Larry Sanger born, American co-founder of Wikipedia
1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 11, the first manned space mission to land on the Moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center atCape Canaveral, Florida.
1971 – Ed Kowalczyk born
1990 – Luzon Earthquake struck Philippines. 1,600 dead.
Mark Showalter discovered Saturn's innermost moon, Pan.
1994 – Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collides with Jupiter. Impacts continue until July 22.
1999 - Olympic champion Michelle de Bruin is stripped of her Irish swimming records; the triple gold medal winner at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta was banned for four years by the FINA in August of 1998 for tampering with a urine sample. *Today is the 9th anniversary of my "Neel" dream.
2002 - The IRA leadership issues a statement which includes an apology for the killing of 'non-combatants.' Northern Ireland secretary, Dr John Reid, welcomes the gesture as one of unprecedented strength.
2010 - earthquake, mag 3.6, centered in the Rockville, Md., felt in Washington DC. It was the strongest earthquake in Washington since record keeping began in 1974. It was also the anniversary of the passage of the Residence Act - the law which made the District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.) the capital of the United States. news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100..._earthquake earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...2010yua6/



7/17
2007 - Mike Brown discovered 2007 OR10



7/18 ast ire usgs 2010
1488 - Alvise Cadamosto died, Italian explorer; In the service of the Portuguese crown, Cadamosto explored the Atlantic coast of Africa and discovered several islands of the Cape Verde archipelago between 1455 and 1456. In his first voyage, which started on March 22, 1455, he visited the Madeira Islands and the Canary Islands. On the second voyage, in 1456, Cadamosto became the first European to reach the Cape Verde Islands.
1561 - Battle of Red Sagums - Shane O'Neill defeats English
1579 - James Fitzmaurice lands forces in Dingle with the intention of encouraging an uprising against England
1635 - Robert Hooke born; Discovered Jupiter's Great Red Spot (c. 1665 w/ Cassini). Invented "stress is proportional to strain" or law of elasticity, today called Hooke's Law. This is the first fundamental mathematical formulation in modern Seismology.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1650 - Christoph Scheiner died; German Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer, and co-discoverer of sunspots.
1853 - Hendrik Lorentz born, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize laureate derived the transformation equations subsequently used by Albert Einstein to describe space and time. In 1892, with the attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, Lorentz proposed that moving bodies contract in the direction of motion. Lorentz introduced the term local time, which expresses the relativity of simultaneity between reference frames in relative motion.
1870 – The First Vatican Council decrees the dogma of papal infallibility.
1874 - Cathal Brugha (Charles Burgess) an anti-Treaty nationalist, is born in Dublin. Active in the Easter Rising, Irish War of Independence, and the Irish Civil War and was the first Ceann Comhairle (chairman) of Dáil Éireann.
1920 - 19 people are killed in four days of sectarian violence in Derry/Londonderry
1921 – John Glenn born, American astronaut and politician
1937 – Hunter S. Thompson born
1952 - Emanuel Von der Pahlen died (b. 7/4/1882) was a German astronomer. He joined solar eclipse expeditions in 1905, 1912 and 1914. Between the world wars, he was employed at the Astrophysikalishen Observatorium Potsdam. He taught at the University of Basel. In 1947 he published Einführung in die Dynamik von Sternsystemen, a 241-page work on Galaxies.
1951 - Jersey Joe Walcott beat Ezzard Charles for the world heavyweight championship
1968 - Corneille-Jean-François Heymans died; Belgian physiologist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1938 for showing how blood pressure and oxygen content of the blood are measured by the body and transmitted to the brain.
1969 - The workers of the Tientsin zoo began participating in earthquake forecasting in 1968. On the morning of July 18, 1969, they discovered unusual behavior in many kinds of animals was arousing attention (the swans abruptly left the water, a Manchurian tiger stopped pacing in his cage, a Tibetan yak collapsed, and a panda held its head in its paws and moaned). After collecting these reports they realized that, as well as other factors that might have caused this unusual behavior, it might be a precursor to an earthquake. They felt it was timely to make a report to the city's Earthquake Office. At noon of that day, a magnitude 7.3 earthquake occurred at Pohai. earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1980 – Kristen Bell born, Huntington Woods, MI
1986 – A tornado is broadcast live on KARE television in Minnesota when the station's helicopter pilot makes a chance encounter.
1994 - Fragment G, the largest fragment of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, impacted Jupiter
www.isc.tamu.edu/~astro/sl....html#Q3.9
www.isc.tamu.edu/~astro/sl....html#Q3.1
1995 – On the Caribbean island of Montserrat, the Soufriere Hills volcano erupts. Over the course of several years, it devastates the island, destroying the capital and forcing most of the population to flee.
hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowat..._07_28.html
1997 - Eugene Merle Shoemaker died, American astronomer
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/news82.html
2004 - John Kraus died; He designed the Big Ear radio telescope at the Ohio State University which was constructed mostly by a team of OSU students.


June, okay. But what about July? Shootin for July 19th. Lizzie Borden was born here in Fall River. And Keith Godchaux of the Grateful Dead (keyboards) was also apparently born, so says wikipedia. Now, how much do I trust wikipedia? THAT's a good question. So, I'll delve further. At some point, I'll no longer and it'll no longer matter what wikipedia says. I respect wikipedia, it's been very helpful in my research, my project, all of that. But I know these dates of birth and death and such aren't gona matter forever. Question is, how fast can I make 'em not matter. Anybody with me on that? haha
By the way, Lizzie I got down. She's, all that's clear for me. Godchaux? I'm do some readin.

7/19 ast ire usgs 2010
1692 – Salem Witch Trials: Sarah Good, Elizabeth Howe, Susannah Martin, Sarah Wildes, and Rebecca Nurse are hanged for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts
1846 - Edward Charles Pickering born, Boston; director of Harvard College Observatory from 1877 to his death in 1919 www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
1851 - William Wilson, astronomer and physicist, is born in Belfast. D. July 1908
www.irishastrosoc.123bemyhost.com/a...ml
www.eaas.co.uk/cms/index.php
1860 – Lizzie Borden born, Fall River
web.archive.org/web/200802...endates.htm
1912 – A meteorite with an estimated mass of 190 kg explodes over the town of Holbrook in Navajo County, Arizona, causing approximately 16,000 pieces of debris to rain down on the town. *See meteorite explosion in NM on 7/31/10.
www.meteorite.com/blog/holb...2001-2006/ www.turnstone.ca/holbrook.htm
1948 – Keith Godchaux born, American keyboardist (Grateful Dead) (d. 1980)
www.dead101.com/biokeith.htm
1963 – Joe Walker flies a North American X-15 to a record altitude of 106,010 metres (347,800 feet) on X-15 Flight 90. Exceeding an altitude of 100 km, this flight qualifies as a human spaceflight under international convention.
1971 – Vitali Klitschko born, Ukrainian boxer; current WBC world heavyweight champion. He has the highest knockout percentage (95%) of any heavyweight boxing champion in overall fights. He also holds the distinction of being a three time world heavyweight champion, having previously held the WBO and WBC titles, and has never been knocked out or knocked down in any professional boxing bout. His younger brother, Wladimir Klitschko, is the current IBF, WBO, IBO and Ring Magazine world heavyweight champion. Vitali is the first professional boxing world champion to hold a Ph.D. (in sports science). Vitali Klitschko has recently announced that he intends to retire from professional heavyweight boxing at the end of 2010.
1979 – The Sandinista rebels overthrow the government of the Somoza family in Nicaragua.
1982 - Dexy’s Midnight Runners reach No. 1 in the British charts with Come On Eileen
1983 – The first three-dimensional reconstruction of a human head in a CT is published.
2008 - Sarah Conlon died, lung cancer at 82
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_Conlon
2009 - Anthony Wesley spotted Jupiter impact
Frank McCourt died, cancer; Angela's Ashes
2010 - James Gallant of Westport, MA, struck by lightning while working at Sylvan Nursery in Dartmouth. Revived by CPR. www.heraldnews.com/topstori...lightning



7/22 ast ire usgs 2010
1633 – Trijntje Keever died, presumed to have been the tallest woman ever
1784 - Friedrich Bessel born, German mathematician and astronomer; contemporary of Carl Gauss; he is credited with being the first to use parallax in calculating the distance to a star. Astronomers had believed for some time that parallax would provide the first accurate measurement of interstellar distances—in fact, in the 1830s there was a fierce competition between astronomers to be the first to measure a stellar parallax accurately. In 1838 Bessel won the race, announcing that 61 Cygni had a parallax of 0.314 arcseconds; which, given the diameter of the Earth's orbit, indicated that the star was about 3 parsecs (9.8 light years) away. He narrowly beat Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve and Thomas Henderson, who measured the parallaxes of Vega and Alpha Centauri in the same year. As well as helping determine the parallax of 61 Cygni, Bessel's precise measurements allowed him to notice deviations in the motions of Sirius and Procyon, which he deduced must be caused by the gravitational attraction of unseen companions. His announcement of Sirius's "dark companion" in 1844 was the first correct claim of a previously unobserved companion by positional measurement, and eventually led to the discovery of Sirius B. Bessel's work in 1840 contributed in some degree to the discovery of Neptune. Died 3/17/1846
1796 – Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio "Cleveland" after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.
1826 – Giuseppe Piazzi died
1887 – Gustav Ludwig Hertz born, German physicist, Nobel laureate
1890 – Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy born
1903 – Cassius Clay died, American emancipationist
1915 - Sandford Fleming died; Canadian engineer and inventor Scottish-born Canadian engineer and inventor, known for proposing worldwide standard time zones
1916 – Marcel Cerdan born, French boxer; world middleweight boxing champion. Marcel…Mars/Marsh - Dublin Street
1932 – Reginald Fessenden died
1933 – Wiley Post becomes the first person to fly solo around the world traveling 15,596 miles in 7 days, 18 hours and 45 minutes.
1993 – Great Flood of 1993: Levees near Kaskaskia, Illinois rupture, forcing the entire town to evacuate by barges operated by the Army Corps of Engineers.
1994 - The last of the large fragments of the Comet Shoemaker-Levy strikes Jupiter
2006 – José Antonio Delgado's body found on Nanga Parbat; Venezuelan mountain climber; first Venezuelan mountaineer to reach the summit of five eight-thousanders.
2007 - Dubliner Padraig Harrington becomes the first Irish golfer to win the British Open in 60 years
2008 - perihelion of Comet Borrelly. On 9/21/01, Deep Space 1 flies within 2,200 km of Comet Borrelly.
www.aerith.net/comet/cata.../index.html www.earthriseinstitute.org/coms43.html www.perihelio.org/19porb.htm
2009 - The longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century, lasting up to 6 minutes and 38.8 seconds, occurs over parts of Asia and the Pacific Ocean.



7/23 ast usgs 2010
1865 – Max Heindel born, Danish occultist and mystic (d. 1/6/1919 - day Teddy Roosevelt died)
1885 - President Ulysses Grant died
1892 - Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia born; revered as the returned Messiah of the Bible, God incarnate, among the Rastafari movement. D. 8/27/75
1920 - b. Astrophysicist Chushiro Hayashi. Created models for stars of mass between 0.01 & 100x the Sun.
1928 - Vera Cooper Rubin born; American astronomer who pioneered work on galaxy rotation rates. Her magnum opus was the uncovering of the discrepancy between the predicted angular motion of galaxies and the observed motion, by studying galactic rotation curves. This phenomenon became known as the galaxy rotation problem.
1930 – quake, Italy, 1,400dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...View+Date
Glenn Curtiss died, American aviation pioneer
1931 – Queen Te Atairangikaahu of the New Zealand Māori born
1937 - The isolation of pituitary hormone was announced by Yale University
1954 – Annie Sprinkle born, American porn star and performance artist
1955 – Cordell Hull died, 47th United States Secretary of State, Nobel Prize laureate
1964 – Ed Forchion born, American marijuana activist
1980 – Keith Godchaux died, American pianist (Grateful Dead)
1984 – Vanessa Williams becomes the first Miss America to resign when she surrenders her crown after nude photos of her appeared in Penthouse magazine.
1990 – Kenjiro Takayanagi died; Japanese pioneer in the development of television. Although he failed to gain much recognition in the West, he built the world's first all-electronic television receiver, and is referred to as "the father of Japanese television".
1995 - Comet Hale-Bopp discovered by Thomas Bopp and Alan Hale
2005 – Three bombs explode in the Naama Bay area of Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, killing 88 people.



7/25 ast usgs 2010
1610 - Galileo discovered Saturn's rings (though then he didn't know exactly what he was looking at)
books.google.com/books
scienceblogs.com/SETI/2010...--_400.php
1722 – Dummer's War begins along the Maine-Massachusetts border.
1868 – Wyoming becomes a United States territory.
1894 - Gavrilo Princip born, Serbian assassin; assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. *Anna Lindh's killer was Swedish-born Serb
1898 – The United States invasion of Puerto Rico begins with U.S. troops led by General Nelson Miles landing at harbor of Guánica, Puerto Rico (The land invasion, proper, began that day: Sea-based bombardment and shelling of the capital city of San Juan had been occurring since May 1898).
1920 - Astrophysicist Chushiro Hayashi born. Created models for stars of mass between 0.01 & 100x the Sun.
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
www.inamori-f.or.jp/laureate...rf_e.html
1965 – Bob Dylan goes electric as he plugs in at the Newport Folk Festival, signaling a major change in folk and rock music.
1969 - mag. 5.9 quake, China, 3,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1973 – Soviet Mars 5 space probe launched.
1976 – Tera Patrick born
1978 – Louise Brown, the world's first "test tube baby" is born.
2010 – Redford White died, brain & lung cancer, Filipino comedian (b. 1955)



7/26 ast usgs 2010
1609 - Thomas Harriot was the first person to make a drawing of the Moon through a telescope, on July 26, 1609, over four months before Galileo. www.space.com/6310-histor...oon-map.html
www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencet...ileo.html
www.livescience.com/space/09...-map.html
1739 – George Clinton born, 4th Vice President of the USA
1788 – New York ratifies the United States Constitution and becomes the 11th state of the United States.
1856 – George Bernard Shaw born
1863 - Sam Houston died
1875 - Carl Jung born
1894 - Aldous Huxley born
1895 – Jane Bunford born, Britain's tallest-ever person
1940 - Mary Jo Kopechne born
1945 – The Potsdam Declaration is signed in Potsdam, Germany.
The US Navy cruiser USS Indianapolis arrives at Tinian with parts of the warhead for the Hiroshima atomic bomb.
1948 - Freddie Mills defeated Gus Lesnevich to become world light heavyweight boxing champ. *Now "Gary Unmarried" is on and a couple weeks ago I saw my Redford dream recreated on Mohr's show. He was in a setting which looked like my dream and he wanted to give something he'd made to someone famous.
1953 – Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle orders an anti-polygamy law enforcement crackdown on residents of Short Creek, Arizona, which becomes known as the Short Creek Raid.
1958 – Explorer program: Explorer 4 is launched.
1963 – An earthquake in Skopje, Yugoslavia (now in the Republic of Macedonia) leaves 1,100 dead.
Syncom 2, the world's first geosynchronous satellite, is launched from Cape Canaveral on a Delta B booster.
1971 – Apollo Program: Apollo 15 Mission – Launch of Apollo 15.
1973 – Lenka Kotková born, Czech astronomer prolific discoverer of asteroids.
1979 – Derek Paravicini born, British autistic savant
1984 - Ed Gein died; serial killer. B 8/27/06. He lived in Plainfield, Wisconsin, where he dug up graves and made stuff from the parts, and killed people.
1990 - Brent Mydland died. B. 10/21/52
2003 - Redford-Neely
Saturn perihelion. 29-year orbit
www.google.com/#sclient=p...d04ba3c5cf9
books.google.com/books




7/27 ast usgs
1733 - Jeremiah Dixon born. English surveyor and astronomer who is perhaps best known for his work with Charles Mason, from 1763 to 1767, in determining what was later called the Mason-Dixon line. Dixon served as assistant to Charles Mason in 1761 when the Royal Society selected Mason to observe the transit of Venus from Sumatra. However, their passage to Sumatra was delayed, and they landed instead at the Cape of Good Hope where the transit was observed on June 6, 1761. Dixon sailed to Norway in 1769 with William Bayly to observe another transit of Venus. www.thomaspynchon.com/mason-d...bio.html
1740 - Jeanne Baré born, French explorer; member of Louis Antoine de Bougainville's expedition on the ships La Boudeuse and Étoile in 1766–1769. Baré was probably the first woman to have completed a voyage of circumnavigation.
1801 - George Airy born; His many achievements include work on planetary orbits, measuring the mean density of the Earth, a method of solution of two-dimensional problems in solid mechanics and, in his role as Astronomer Royal, establishing Greenwich at the location of the prime meridian. His reputation has been tarnished by allegations that, through his inaction, Britain lost the opportunity of priority in the discovery of Neptune.
1844 - John Dalton died, English physicist and chemist; He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into colour blindness (sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honour).
1882 - Geoffrey de Havilland born, British aircraft designer
1921 – Researchers at the University of Toronto led by biochemist Frederick Banting announce the discovery of the hormone insulin.
1944 - mag. 7.1 quake, Alaska
1949 - first flight of the first prototype DH 106 Comet took place in Hatfield, England
1953 – The Korean War ends when the United States, the People's Republic of China, and North Korea sign an armistice agreement.
1962 - James H. Kindelberger died; American pioneer of aviation. He was also a leader of North American Aviation
1967 – Juliana Hatfield born, American guitarist, singer songwriter from Boston
1972 – Maya Rudolph born, American actress and comedian
1974 – Watergate Scandal: the House of Representatives Judiciary Committee votes 27 to 11 to recommend the first article ofimpeachment (for obstruction of justice) against President Richard Nixon.
1976 - Tangshan earthquake left 255,000 dead in China. Ranked #2 on USGS list of deadliest quakes in all history
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...07_27.php
1977 – Jonathan Rhys Meyers born, Irish actor
1979 - Jorge Arce born, Mexican boxer; world champion in three weight divisions
1980 - mag. 5.2 quake, Kentucky; largest historic earthquake in KY
1988 - Frank Zamboni died; "the Zamboni"
1996 – Centennial Olympic Park bombing: in Atlanta, Georgia, a pipe bomb explodes at Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics. One woman (Alice Hawthorne) is killed, and a cameraman suffers a heart attack fleeing the scene. 111 are injured.
2002 – Ukraine airshow disaster: a Sukhoi Su-27 fighter crashes during an air show at Lviv, Ukraine killing 85 and injuring more than 100 others, the largest air show disaster in history.
2003 – Bob Hope died
2007 – Phoenix News Helicopter Collision: news helicopters from Phoenix, Arizona television stations KNXV and KTVK collide overSteele Indian School Park in central Phoenix while covering a police chase.




7/28 ast usgs ire
1866 - Beatrix Potter born; best known for children's books featuring anthropomorphic characters such as in The Tale of Peter Rabbit. Her study and watercolors of fungi led to her being widely respected in the field of mycology.
1867 – Charles Dillon Perrine born, American-born Argentine astronomer; discovered Jovian moons, Himalia and Elara
1883 - earthquake, Italy, 2,000 dead
1914 – World War I began: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after Serbia rejects the conditions of an ultimatum sent by Austria on July 23 following the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
1915 - Charles Hard Townes born; early innovator in masers and lasers; Nobel Prize
1930 – Allvar Gullstrand died, Swedish ophthalmologist, Nobel laureate
1943 – World War II: Operation Gomorrah – The British bomb Hamburg causing a firestorm that kills 42,000 German civilians.
Richard Wright born, English keyboardist (Pink Floyd)
1949 – Randall Wallace born; "Braveheart"
1954 - Chinyere Nnenna (Pierce) Freelon born, Cambridge, MA; singer
1976 (7/27 UTC) - Tangshan earthquake left 255,000 dead in China. Ranked #2 on USGS list of deadliest quakes in all history
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...07_27.php
1981 - mag. 7.3 earthquake, Iran, 1,500 dead
1996 – The remains of a prehistoric man are discovered near Kennewick, Washington. Such remains will be known as the Kennewick Man.
1998 – Lenny McLean died, English bareknuckle fighter
2002 – Nine coal miners trapped in the flooded Quecreek Mine in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, are rescued after 77 hours underground.
2004 – Francis Crick died
2005 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army calls an end to its thirty year long armed campaign in Northern Ireland.
Tornadoes touch down in a residential areas in south Birmingham and Coventry England, injuring 39 people.



7/29 ast usgs
1507 – Martin Behaim died, German- or Bohemian-born navigator and geographer at the service of the King of Portugal
1781 - Johann Kies died, German astronomer. Born in Tübingen 9/14/1713, Kies worked in Berlin in 1751 alongside Jérôme Lalande in order to make observations on the lunar parallax in concert with those of Nicolas Louis de Lacaille at the Cape of Good Hope.
1843 - Johannes Schmidt born, German linguist. He developed the Wellentheorie ('wave theory') of language development. D. 7/4/1901.
1848 – Irish Potato Famine: Tipperary Revolt – in Tipperary, an unsuccessful nationalist revolt against British rule is put down by police.
1851 – Annibale de Gasparis discovers asteroid 15 Eunomia. Also discovered 16 Psyche, which was at opposition on 12/8/2010.
1857 - Thomas Dick died (b. 24 November 1774 in Hilltown, Dundee, Scotland) scientific teacher and writer (don’t bother goin further)
1890 – Vincent van Gogh died
1900 - Mikhail Tikhonravov born, soviet pioneer of spacecraft design and rocketry.
1905 – Dag Hammarskjöld born, Swedish 2nd UN Secretary-General, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (d. 1961)
1911 – Foster Furcolo born, 60th Governor of Massachusetts
1915 – Francis W. Sargent born, 64th Governor of Massachusetts
1918 - Ernest Christmas died; Australian painter. *Painting on his wikipedia page is of volcano and earlier today I found Arenal volcano which erupted in 1968 in Costa Rica… "cannabis 'crud'"--billy crudup b. 1968
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erne..._Christmas
1923 – Jim Marshall born, English founder of Marshall Amplification
1950 - Mike Starr born, Flushing, Queens, American actor; The Irishman (2010)
1956 – Teddy Atlas born, Staten Island, NY. American boxing trainer. Teddy Atlas trained as an amateur boxer briefly with Hall of Fame trainer Cus D'Amato, but he was forced to retire after suffering a back injury. Atlas became an assistant to D'Amato, and he occasionally helped in the training of protege Mike Tyson. His relationship with Tyson ended after Tyson at the age of 15 had been sexually inappropriate with a 13 year old female relative of Atlas. Atlas put a .38 caliber handgun to Tysons ear and told him to never touch his family again or he would murder him. Atlas enjoyed his greatest professional success as a head trainer with Michael Moorer. He also drew criticism for what some considered to be overly dramatic speeches in the ring corner, particularly during Moorer's Heavyweight title fight with Evander Holyfield, and some felt he did these antics to draw attention to himself rather than help his fighter, during one such speech Atlas blocked Moorer from sitting on his stool and remarked "do you want me to take over". Atlas has denied this, stating that he did what he believed the fighter needed based on his understanding of the fighter. Moorer went on to defeat Holyfield by a majority decision. He also worked the corner of Featherweight world champion Barry McGuigan in one fight, trained Light-Heavyweight Donny Lalonde
1958 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs into law the National Aeronautics and Space Act, which creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
1959 – John Sykes born, British guitarist (Thin Lizzy, Whitesnake, Tygers of Pan Tang)
1967 – During the fourth day of celebrating its 400th anniversary, the city of Caracas, Venezuela is shaken by a mag. 6.5 earthquake, leaving approximately 500 dead.
mag. 6.0 earthquake, Colombia; 10 dead
1968 - Arenal Volcano erupts in Costa Rica for the first time in centuries. At about 7:30 a.m. a powerful eruption took place and destroyed the west flank of the volcano. Three additional craters were formed. The town of Tabacón was buried, killing seventy eight people.
1976 – In New York City, David Berkowitz (aka the "Son of Sam") kills one person and seriously wounds another in the first of a series of attacks.
1980 - mag. 6.6 earthquake, Nepal; 200 dead
1981 – "SPEN" - A worldwide television audience of over 700 million people watch the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer at St Paul's Cathedral in London.
1982 – Allison Mack born
Vladimir K. Zworykin died, Russian-born American physicist and inventor
1985 - mag. 6.6 quake, afghanistan, 5 dead
1994 – Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin died, British chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 5/12/1910, Egypt)
2005 – Astronomers announce their discovery of the dwarf planet Eris.



7/31 ast ire usgs
781 – The oldest recorded eruption of Mt. Fuji (Traditional Japanese date: July 6, 781).
1498 – On his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to discover the island of Trinidad.
1653 – Thomas Dudley died, Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony
1858 - Richard Dixon Oldham born, British geologist; Irish geologist and seismologist who discovered the evidence for the existence of the Earth's core. In 1897, Oldham noticed that seismograms from earthquakes consistently showed three different disturbances, the first and second "preliminary tremors" (now known as P waves and S waves, respectively) and the "large waves" that followed the preliminary tremors, and that the difference in arrival time between the "large waves" and the "preliminary tremors" increased in a predictable fashion with increasing distance from the earthquake. In 1900, he established that the "preliminary tremors" (P and S waves) have travel paths that take them through the body of the Earth (we now call them body waves), and that the "large waves" (now called surface waves) travel along the Earth's surface. In 1906, Oldham used evidence from eathquake waves to demonstrate the existence of a large central core at a depth of about 3,821 km beneath the Earth's surface.
nuclearplanet.com/Earth%20C...overy.html
1875 – Andrew Johnson died, 17th President of the United States
1893 - Founding of the Gaelic League in order to revive the use of the Irish language and foster appreciation of Ireland's Celtic heritage
1913 - John Milne died; pioneer seismologist
www.eas.slu.edu/People/BJM.../milne.html
web.mit.edu/invent/iow/milne.html adsabs.harvard.edu/full/191....36..370W
1922 - During the Battle of Dublin (1922), Harry Boland shot by Free Staters in Skerries; he would die three days later. Boland opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty along with de Valera, and in the ensuing Irish Civil War, he sided with the Anti-Treaty IRA.
1923 - Ahmet Ertegun born; founder of Atlantic Records, writer of classic blues songs, and chairman of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and museum, described as "one of the most significant figures in the modern recording industry."
1940 – Udham Singh executed, Indian Freedom Fighter
1944 - Antoine de Saint Exupery died
1945 – William Weld born, 68th Governor of Massachusetts
www.nytimes.com/learning/g...100731.html
1954 – First ascent of K2, by an Italian expedition led by Ardito Desio.
1956 - Deval Patrick born; 71st governor of Massachusetts
1964 – Ranger program: Ranger 7 sends back the first close-up photographs of the moon, with images 1,000 times clearer than anything ever seen from earth-bound telescopes.
1971 – Apollo program: Apollo 15 astronauts become the first to ride in a lunar rover.
1972 – Three car bombs are detonated in Claudy, Northern Ireland, killing nine in what is believed to be a Provisional Irish Republican Army attack.
Operation Motorman: British troops move into the no-go areas of Belfast and Derry, Northern Ireland.
1973 – A Delta Air Lines jetliner crashes while landing in fog at Logan Airport, Boston, Massachusetts killing 89.
1976 – Viking program: Viking 1 – NASA releases the famous Face on Mars photo.
1981 - Kevin Lynch, political prisoner, dies on hunger strike in the Maze prison
1987 – A rare, class F4 tornado rips through Edmonton, Alberta, killing 27 people and causing $330 million in damage.
1998 - Parades Commission rejects a fresh application by Orangemen to parade along the nationalist Garvaghy Road in Portadown on August 2
1999 – Discovery Program: Lunar Prospector – NASA intentionally crashes the spacecraft into the Moon, thus ending its mission to detect frozen water on the moon's surface.
2000 - The British Army begins dismantling the controversial Borucki observation post which has dominated the skyline in Crossmaglen for more than 20 years.
2004 - Koichi Itagaki discovered SN 2004dj , the brightest supernova since SN 1987A at the time of its discovery. The supernova's progenitor is a star in a young, compact star cluster in the galaxy NGC 2403, in Camelopardalis. www.astrosurf.com/snweb2/20...djHome.htm
hubblesite.org/newscenter...23/image/a/
2007 - After 38 years, the occupation of Northern Ireland by the British Army ends at midnight. Operation Banner is the Army's longest continuous campaign in its history with more than 300,000 personnel serving and 763 directly killed by paramilitaries.
2010 - A meteor exploded in the atmosphere near Santa Fe, New Mexico creating a brilliant fireball just before 5 a.m. Local amateur radio astronomer Thomas Ashcraft captured the event from his personal observatory using an all-sky optical video camera developed by Sandia National Laboratories that is specifically sensitive to the near infrared flashes that meteors create. www.wired.com/wiredscienc...eball-video/





OCTOBER

10/1 ast usgs 2010
1969 - Zach Galifianakis born; middle name Knight
www.zachgalifianakis.com/main.htm
1847 - Maria Mitchell discovered Miss Mitchell's Comet
1876 - James Lick died, California land baron. In 1888, Lick Observatory was completed and given to the University of California as the Lick Astronomical Department. The Observatory was the first permanently staffed mountain top observatory in the world and housed the largest refracting telescope in the world at that time.
1897 - The world’s largest refractor (40”), built by Alvan Clark, debuted at the dedication of the University of Chicago’s Yerkes Observatory. The immense telescope was 64 feet long and weighed 6 tons. First light for the 40” was Jupiter.
1924 – Jimmy Carter born, 39th President of the United States, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
1939 - George R. Carruthers born, astrophysicist who was the principal inventor of a new space camera to measure ultraviolet light which can be used to identify interstellar atoms and molecules.
1958 – NASA is created to replace NACA.
1962 - The 300-foot radio telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) went live at Green Bank, West Virginia. It held its place as the world’s second largest radio scope until it collapsed in 1988. (It was rebuilt as a 100 meter dish in 2000.)
1964 – The Free Speech Movement is launched on the campus of University of California, Berkeley.
1969 - mag. 6.4 quake, Peru, 140 dead.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1987 – The Whittier Narrows earthquake shakes the San Gabriel Valley, registering as magnitude 5.9. Eight dead.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1995 - mag. 6.3 quake, Turkey, 100 dead.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1996 – Pat McGeown, Provisional Irish Republican Army member (b. 1956)



10/2
1910 - Asteroid Interamnia, seventh largest in the Solar System (300 kilometers in diameter) was discovered by Italian astronomer Vincenzo Cerulli from an observatory in Teramo.



10/3 ast usgs
1590 - Michael Maestlin observed the occultation of Mars by Venus at Heidelberg.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars...servations
books.google.com/books
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/197....10..345W (p. 3) Gives 10/13 as date. That's the Gregorian calendar and Heidelberg went the old way then.
1656 – Myles Standish died
1795 – General Napoleon Bonaparte first rises to national prominence being named to defend the FrenchNational Convention against armed counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the three year old revolutionary government.
1877 - French astronomer Edouard Stephan was using the first telescope designed with a coated mirror when he discovered something a bit more with NGC 7331. He found a group of nearby galaxies! This faint gathering of five is now known as “Stephan’s Quintet” and its members are no further apart than the diameter of our own Milky Way galaxy. *Astronomy Compendium is only source to give this date
1915 - mag. 7.1 quake, Nevada. largest historical earthquake in Nevada
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1932 - Max Wolf died; German astronomer. He was among the first astronomers to show that the spiral nebulae have absorption spectra typical of stars and thus differ from gaseous nebulae. His most important contribution was the introduction of photography to discover hundreds of asteroids. Among the stars he discovered is Wolf 359, a dim red dwarf that was later found to be one of the nearest stars to our solar system. He shot the first photograph of the North America Nebula on 12/12/1890.
1935 – Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invades Ethiopia under General de Bono.
Charles Duke born, American astronaut. He is the youngest of only twelve people who have walked on the moon.
1942 – Spaceflight: The first successful launch of a V-2 /A4-rocket from Test Stand VII at Peenemünde, Germany. It is the first man-made object to reach space.
1947 - After 11 years of grinding and polishing, a 200-inch diameter telescope lens for the Mount Palomar Observatory was completed. The telescope in which the lens was mounted was named the Hale Telescope in recognition of the late Dr. George E. Hale who had initiated the project. The completed telescope was first used on Feb 1, 1949 by taking pictures of a Milky Way constellation.
John Perry Barlow born, WY.
1952 – The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon.
1961 – Rebecca Stephens born, first British woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest
1962 – The 18.1kg Zagami Mars Meteorite impacted Nigeria
Project Mercury: Sigma 7 is launched from Cape Canaveral, with Astronaut Wally Schirra aboard, for a six-orbit, nine-hour flight.
1967 – Woody Guthrie died, Huntington's disease
1974 - mag. 7.6 quake, Peru, 80 dead. The earthquake generated a minor tsunami that was recorded in Peru, Hawaii, Samoa, and California.
1980 - Danny O'Donoghue born, Irish singer (The Script) *Shared a The Script video on fb yesterday after seeing one on TheCoolTV
1981 - The Hunger Strike by Provisional Irish Republican Army and Irish National Liberation Army prisoners at the Maze Prison inNorthern Ireland ends after seven months and ten deaths.
1983 – Thiago Alves born, Brazilian mixed martial artist.
1992 - After performing a song protesting alleged child abuse by the Catholic Church, Sinéad O'Connor rips up a photo of Pope John Paul II on Saturday Night Live
1993 - Battle of Mogadishu (part of Operation Gothic Serpent in Somalia): In an attempt to capture officials of warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid's organisation in Mogadishu, Somalia, 18 US Soldiers and about 1,000 Somalis are killed in heavy fighting.
2003 – Roy Horn of Siegfried & Roy is attacked by one of the show's tigers on Horn's birthday. *Somalia is in the "Horn" of Africa (Horse Ear)



10/5 [ast usgs?] 2010
1550 – Foundation of Concepción, city in Chile.
1789 - William Scoresby born; English explorer and scientist who pioneered in the scientific study of the Arctic and contributed to the knowledge of terrestrial magnetism. He improved upon Admiralty compasses and eventually all navy ships were supplied with Scoresby compasses.
1818 - Nancy Hanks died, mother of Abraham Lincoln
1829 - President Chester Arthur born
1864 – The Indian city of Calcutta is almost totally destroyed by a cyclone; 60,000 die.
1869 – A strong hurricane devastates the Bay of Fundy region of Maritime Canada. The storm had been predicted over a year before by a British naval officer.
1880 - William Lassell died. He discovered Triton, a moon of Neptune, and Ariel and Umbriel, satellites of Uranus
1882 - Robert Goddard born, Worcester, MA
Giorgio Abetti born; Italian astronomer known for his studies of the sun. He went on expeditions to observe eclipses of the sun, including one to Siberia in 1936 and to Sudan in 1952. He wrote a popular text on the sun, a handbook of astrophysics (1936) and a popular history of astronomy (1963).
1912 - Lewis Boss died; American astronomer best known for his compilation of two catalogues of stars (1910, 1937). In 1882 he led an expedition to Chile to observe a transit of Venus
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/191....24..255T
books.google.com/books
1918 - Roland Garros died
1923 - Edwin Hubble discovered the Cepheid variable star which set him on the path to his paramount discovery of galaxies outside our Milky Way galaxy.
1926 – Willi Unsoeld born; American mountaineer who, along with Tom Hornbein, were members of the first American expedition to summit Mount Everest on May 22, 1963.
1929 - Richard Gordon born; Apollo 12 astronaut. He is one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon.
1930 - Pavel Popovich born; Soviet cosmonaut who piloted the Vostok 4 spacecraft, launched August 12, 1962. He and Andriyan G. Nikolayev, who was launched a day earlier in Vostok 3, became the first two men to be in space simultaneously. He subsequently commanded the flight of Soyuz 14 launched July 3, 1974 which docked with the Salyut 3 space station.
1943 - Steve Miller born
1947 – The first televised White House address is given by U.S. President Harry S. Truman.
1948 – The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake kills 110,000. 10th deadliest.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ctive.php
1958 – Neil DeGrasse Tyson born, American astrophysicist
1959 - Maya Lin born; architect; Vietnam Memorial *She was born 10 days before Emeril and in her birthplace, Ohio, at the time of my birthday over several nights Ufos were seen above Euclid, Ohio, in 2010.
1968 – Police baton civil rights demonstrators in Derry, Northern Ireland – considered to mark the beginning of The Troubles.
1970 – The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is founded.
1974 – Guildford pub bombings: bombs planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) kill four British soldiers and one civilian.
Rich Franklin born; mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter and former Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) middleweight champion.
1998 - Margaret Mary Ray suicide; schizophrenic stalked Dave Letterman and Story Musgrave
2003 - Timothy Treadwell died
2004 - Maurice Wilkins died; Nobel laureate; DNA



10/6
1889 - Fitzgerald "Gerald" Heard born; LSD enthusiast



10/7
1737 - A tropical cyclone strikes Bengal, India killing approximately 300,000.
2008 - The meteoroid 2008 TC3 impacts Earth, becoming the first such object to be discovered prior to impact
www.space.com/scienceastr...-101215.html
www.centauri-dreams.org/



10/8 ast ire usgs
1793 - John Hancock died
1822 - Birth in Dublin of Richard D'Alton Williams. He is educated at Carlow Academy and studies medicine at Saint Vincent's Hospital, Dublin. He becomes a member of the Young Ireland movement and contributes poetry to The Nation under the pseudonym 'Shamrock'. In 1848, he is tried for treason for articles he publishes in the Irish Tribune, but he is successfully defended by lawyer and fellow poet Samuel Ferguson
1869 - President Franklin Pierce died
1873 - Ejnar Hertzsprung born; Danish astronomer who first proved the existence of giant and dwarf stars in the early 1900s. His discoveries included the relationship between color and luminosity, which wasn’t truly recognized until it was recovered by Henry Russell. Now it is a familiar part of all our studies as the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In 1913 he determined the distances to several Cepheid variable stars by statistical parallax, and was thus able to calibrate the relationship discovered by Henrietta Leavitt between Cepheid period and luminosity. In this determination he made a mistake, possibly a slip of the pen, putting the stars 10 times too close. He used this relationship to estimate the distance to the Small Magellanic Cloud.
www.nafa.dk/Historie/Hertzsprung.htm
1874 - Nance O'Neil born, stage & film actress, friend of Lizzie Borden
1909 - An earthquake in the Zagreb area leads Andrija Mohorovičić to identify the Mohorovičić discontinuity. The Mohorovičić discontinuity, usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle. The Moho separates both oceanic crust and continental crust from underlying mantle. The Moho mostly lies entirely within the lithosphere; only beneath mid-ocean ridges does it define the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary. The Mohorovičić discontinuity was first identified in 1909 by Andrija Mohorovičić a Croatian seismologist, when he observed that seismograms from shallow-focus earthquakes had two sets of P-waves and S-waves, one that followed a direct path near the Earth's surface and the other refracted by a high velocity medium
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...vicic.php
1913 - Robert Rowe Gilruth born; American aerospace scientist, engineer, and a pioneer of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space programs. He directed Project Mercury, the initial program for achieving manned space flight. Under his leadership, the first American astronaut orbited the Earth only a little over 3 years after NASA was created. Gilruth was named the Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center and assigned the responsibility of designing and developing the spacecraft and associated equipment, planning and controlling missions, and training flight crews.
1917 – Billy Conn born; world light-heavyweight boxing champion. Became champ on 7/13/39.
1940 - Robert Emden died; Swiss astrophysicist and mathematician who wrote Gaskugeln(Gas Spheres, 1907), giving a mathematical model of stellar structure as the expansion and compression of gas spheres, wherein the forces of gravity and gas pressure are in equilibrium.
1959 - Gavin Friday born
1974 - Seán MacBride, President of the International Peace Bureau, Geneva, Switzerland, and President of the Commission of Namibia, United Nations, New York, USA, is awarded a half share of the Nobel Peace Prize. MacBride was one-time Chief of Staff of the IRA.
1985 - Malcolm Ross died; Captain in the United States Naval Reserve (USNR), an atmospheric scientist, and a balloonist who set several records for altitude and scientific inquiry, with more than 100 hours flight time in gas balloons by 1961. Along with Lieutenant Commander Victor A. Prather (USN), he set the current altitude record for a manned balloon flight, which has not been broken since 1961.
2005 - Pakistan earthquake
2009 - Small asteroid detonated above Sulawesi (near Bone), Indonesia.
neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news165.html en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watampone neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news165.html
2010 - Provincial governor Mohammad Omar and 19 more were killed by a bomb in northeast Afghanistan
www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn...96.html




10/9 ast usgs 2010
1562 – Gabriele Falloppio died, Italian anatomist and early advocate for the use of condoms; the Fallopian tube
1604 - Supernova 1604, Kepler's Supernova, in the constellation Ophiuchus. One of the last 3 supernovae to occur in our galaxy.
books.google.com/books
fuse.pha.jhu.edu/~wpb/Kepler/kepler.html
1635 – Founder of Rhode Island Roger Williams is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony as a religious dissident after he speaks out against punishments for religious offenses and giving away Native American land.
1780 - The first U.S. astronomy expedition to record an eclipse of the sun left on this day from Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass., for Penobscot Bay, led by Samuel Williams. They set up equipment to observe the predicted total eclipse of the sun. A solar eclipse occurred, but the expedition was shocked to find itself outside the path of totality. They saw a thin arc of the sun instead of its complete obscuration by the moon.
1806 - Benjamin Banneker died, (b. 11/9/1731) free African-American began his solo study of astronomy at age 58. He was able to make the calculations to predict solar and lunar eclipses and to compile an ephemeris for the Benjamin Banneker's Almanac, which an anti-slavery society published from 1792 through 1797.
1871 - largest earthquake in Delaware
1873 – Karl Schwarzschild born, German physicist and astronomer. He is best known for providing the first exact solution to the Einstein field equations of general relativity, for the limited case of a single spherical non-rotating mass, which he accomplished in 1915, the same year that Einstein first introduced general relativity. The Schwarzschild solution, which makes use of Schwarzschild coordinates and the Schwarzschild metric, leads to the well-known Schwarzschild radius, which is the size of the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole. He was something of a child prodigy, having a paper on celestial mechanics (orbits) published when he was only sixteen.
1879 - Max von Laue born; German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.
1888 – The Washington Monument officially opens to the general public.
1915 – Clifford M. Hardin born, 17th United States Secretary of Agriculture '69-'71. D. 4/4/10 - CA quake?
Belva Plain born, NYC; best-selling American author of mainstream women's fiction.
1933 - A great unpredicted meteor shower was seen from Europe that surprised astronomers. Dr. W.J. Fisher, a Harvard astronomer, identified the Giacobini-Zinner comet as the cause. Though short-lived, this exceeded in brilliance the showers of 1833 and 1866. It was regarded as one of the major meteoric displays of history, resulting from stray fragments of comet burning up in Earth's upper atmosphere.
1936 – Generators at Boulder Dam (later renamed to Hoover Dam) begin to generate electricity from the Colorado River and transmit it 266 miles to Los Angeles, California.
1940 - John Lennon born
World War II: Battle of Britain – During a night-time air raid by the German Luftwaffe, St. Paul's Cathedral in London, England is hit by a bomb.
1943 - Pieter Zeeman died, Dutch physicist who shared with Hendrik A. Lorentz the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1902 for his discovery of the Zeeman effect (the polarization of light emitted in the presence of a magnetic field).
1944 – John Entwistle born, British musician (The Who) (d. 2002)
1952 – Sharon Osbourne born
1958 – Pope Pius XII died Eugenio Pacelli, (b. 1876)
1963 – In northeast Italy, over 2,000 people are killed when a large landslide behind the Vajont Dam causes a giant wave of water to overtop it.
1966 – David Cameron born, British PM
1967 – A day after being captured, Marxist revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara is executed for attempting to incite a revolution in Bolivia.
1969 – In Chicago, the United States National Guard is called in for crowd control as demonstrations continue in connection with the trial of the "Chicago Eight" that began on September 24.
1976 – Nick Swardson born; comedian
1978 – Nicky Byrne born, Irish musician (Westlife)
1989 – An official news agency in the Soviet Union reports the landing of a UFO in Voronezh.
1992 - A 13 kilogram (est.) fragment of the Peekskill meteorite lands in the driveway of the Knapp residence in Peekskill, New York, destroying the family's 1980 Chevrolet Malibu www.nyrockman.com/peekskill.htm
1995 – mag. 8.0 quake, central Mexico; 50 dead
Alec Douglas-Home died, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
2006 (or 10/11) – SN 2006jc, a hypernova, was detected by Japanese amateur astronomer Koichi Itagaki in the galaxy UGC 4904. The star produced a high energy outburst that did not lead to stellar collapse.
www.supernovae.net/sn2006/sn2006jc.html
www.astrosurf.com/snweb2/20...jcHome.htm
www.sciencedaily.com/release...2306.htm
www.astronomy.com/en/siteco...uzzle.aspx
North Korea allegedly tests its first nuclear device.
2009 - NASA spacecraft impacted lunar crater seeking water; 41 gallons found; 1 billion gallons suspected to be in same crater.



10/11 ast usgs
1758 (year Halley returned) - Heinrich Wilhelm Matthäus Olbers born; discovered 2 Pallas, the second asteroid known to man.
1884 - Eleanor Roosevelt born
1889 – James Prescott Joule died, English physicist
1916 - Isaac Ward died, Belfast; discovered SN 1885 in Andromeda Galaxy (M31). first supernova discovered beyond our Milky Way galaxy
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/198....17...98B (pg. 100)
1918 - mag. 7.5 quake & tsunami, Puerto Rico; though there have been more powerful quakes there, this was the most destructive quake there; 116 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1926 - Thich Nhat Hanh born
1939 – Austin Currie born, Irish politician
1957 - The Jodrell Bank radio telescope, the world's largest radio telescope, designed by Sir Bernard Lovell, began operating. Though the telescope is popularly known for tracking and communicating with man-made satellites, its prime function is the study of the universe by means of radio waves emitted by distant stars.
1968 - NASA launches Apollo 7, the first successful manned Apollo mission
1983 - Simon F. Green and John K. Davies discovered 3200 Phaethon in images from October 11, 1983 while searching Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data for moving objects. 3200 Phaethon is an asteroid with an unusual orbit that brings it closer to the Sun than any other numbered asteroid. For this reason, it was named after the Greek myth of Phaëton, son of the sun god Helios. It measures 5.10 km in diameter. Phaethon is the parent body of the Geminids meteor shower of mid-December. *The shower is peaking tonight. Hence my adding it here.
1984 – Aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger, astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan becomes the first American woman to perform a space walk.
1994 - The space probe Magellan ended its mission to explore Venus when flight controllers lowered its orbit into Venus' dense atmosphere and it plunged toward the surface. Radio contact was lost the next day. Magellan had collected radar images of the surface in strips about 17-28 km (10-17 mi) wide and radioed back the information on the large shield volcanoes, vast lava plains and sparse craters.
2000 - The 100th Space Shuttle mission (STS-92) is flown.




10/12 ast usgs 2010
1492 – Christopher Columbus's expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, specifically in The Bahamas. The explorer believes he has reached South Asia
1891 - The Astronomical Society of France was established.
1918 - Katla erupts in Iceland. Eruption ends a month later on 11/4.
books.google.com/books
docs.google.com/viewer
1923 - Goody Petronelli born, Brockton, MA; With his brother Patrick, Petronelli managed and trained Marvin Hagler. His other fighters have included Robbie Sims, Steve Collins, and Kevin McBride. In 1983, the Petronellis received The Al Buck Award for Manager of the Year by the International Boxing Hall of Fame.
1959 – Anna Escobedo Cabral born, 42nd Treasurer of the United States
1971 - Dean Acheson died; Secretary of State in the administration of President Harry S. Truman from 1949 to 1953
1984 – Brighton hotel bombing: The Provisional Irish Republican Army attempt to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet. Thatcher escapes but the bomb kills five people and wounds 31
1992 - mag. 5.8 quake, Cairo, Egypt, 552 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...eaths.php
1994 – NASA loses radio contact with the Magellan spacecraft as the probe descends into the thick atmosphere of Venus (the spacecraft presumably burned up in the atmosphere).
2002 – Terrorists detonate bombs in the Sari Club in Kuta, Bali, killing 202
2010 - Small NEO, 2010 TD54, passed within 60,000 km of Earth. At closest approach will be over SE Asia, vicinity of Singapore. *It was discovered on 10/9/2010 (Belva Plain's birthday)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_TD54
Belva Plain died; novelist




10/13
1860 - The 1st successful aerial photograph in the U.S. was taken over Boston by James Wallace Black in a balloon
2011 - The 32,000-meter asteroid 1036 Ganymed will pass by Earth
io9.com/5671675/




10/14 ast usgs 2010
1066 – Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings – In England on Senlac Hill, seven miles from Hastings, the Norman forces of William the Conqueror defeat the English army and kill King Harold II of England.
1322 – Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats King Edward II of England at Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland's independence.
1644 – William Penn born, English founder of Pennsylvania
1656 – Massachusetts enacts the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). The marriage of church-and-state in Puritanism makes them regard the Quakers as spiritually apostate and politically subversive.
1788 - Edward Sabine born, Dublin. On 4/6/1852, he announced that the 11 yr sunspot cycle was "absolutely identical" with the geomagnetic cycle. Sabine studied the Earth's magnetic field, and discovered that irregular variations of the sunspots and Earth's magnetism fluctuate together (1852) which was the first link known between the Sun and the Earth other than the sun's radiation and its gravity.
docs.google.com/viewer page 3
1831 – Jean-Louis Pons died, French astronomer. Between 1801 and 1827 Pons discovered thirty-seven comets, more than any other person in history.
1882 – Eamon de Valera born
1890 - Dwight Eisenhower born
1894 – E. E. Cummings born
1912 – While campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the former President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, is shot and mildly wounded by John Schrank, a mentally-disturbed saloon keeper. With the fresh wound in his chest, and the bullet still within it, Mr. Roosevelt still carries out his scheduled public speech.
1946 – Craig Venter born, American biologist
1947 – Captain Chuck Yeager of the U.S. Air Force flies a Bell X-1 rocket-powered experimental aircraft, the Glamorous Glennis, faster than the speed of sound - over the high desert of Southern California - and becomes the first pilot and the first airplane to do so in level flight.
1958 – The American Atomic Energy Commission, with supporting military units, carries out an underground nuclear weapon test at the Nevada Test Site, just north of Las Vegas, Nevada.
1967 – Savanna Samson born, American porn star
1968 – The first live telecast from a manned spacecraft, the Apollo 7, launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the U.S.A.
An earthquake rated at 6.8 on the Richter Scale destroys the Australian town of Meckering, Western Australia, and it also ruptures all nearby main highways and railroads. A survey revealed a fracture of the earth's crust along an arc 29 kilometers in length which passed 1 kilometer northwest of Meckering. earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
Jim Hines of the United States of America becomes the first man ever to break the so-called "ten-second barrier" in the 100-meter sprint in the Summer Olympic Games held in Mexico City with a time of 9.95 seconds.
1979 – The first Gay Rights March on Washington, D.C., the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights, demands "an end to all social, economic, judicial, and legal oppression of lesbian and gay people", and draws 200,000 people.
1982 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.
1984 – Martin Ryle died, English radio astronomer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics
2003 - Anagarika Munindra died; Bengali vipassana meditation teacher; Anagarika simply means a practicing Buddhist who leads a homeless life without attachment in order to focus on the dharma. Munindra was born in Chittagong, Bangladesh, to the Barua family, descendents of the original Buddhists of India forced east by the eleventh-century Muslim invasion.
2010 – Benoît Mandelbrot died, Polish-born American mathematician



10/15 ast ire usgs 2010
1608 - Evangelista Torricelli born, Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer. This discovery has perpetuated his fame, and the torr, a unit of pressure, was named in his honor. He also designed and built a number of telescopes and simple microscopes. Although Galileo invited Torricelli to visit, he did not accept until just three months before Galileo's death. During his stay, however, he wrote out Galileo's Discourse of the Fifth day.
1763 - Birth of United Irish leader, Lord Edward Fitzgerald at Carton House in Co. Kildare
1783 – The Montgolfier brothers' hot air balloon marks the first human ascent, by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, (tethered balloon).
1829 - Asaph Hall. D. 11/22/1907
1858 - John L. Sullivan
1884 – Arch Hoxsey born, pioneer aviator with the Wright brothers (d. 1910)
1909 - Jesse Greenstein born
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html www.nytimes.com/2002/10/24...24GREE.html
1910 - Stanley Ketchel murdered; world middleweight and light heavyweight boxing champ
1919 - Malcolm Ross born; Captain in the United States Naval Reserve (USNR), an atmospheric scientist, and a balloonist who set several records for altitude and scientific inquiry, with more than 100 hours flight time in gas balloons by 1961. Along with Lieutenant Commander Victor A. Prather (USN), he set the current altitude record for a manned balloon flight, which has not been broken since 1961.
1944 - David Trimble born, Irish politician, Nobel laureate
1949 - Death of Eoin MacNeill, Irish historian and founder of the Irish Volunteers. He was a co-founder of the Gaelic League, to preserve Irish language and culture
1951 – Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducted the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first two oral contraceptives.
1953 – British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.
1956 – Fortran, the first modern computer language, is shared with the coding community for the first time.
1959 - Emeril Lagasse born
1963 - Sander Weinreb (with Barrett, Meeks, and Henry) made the first detection of an interstellar molecule using the MIT Millstone Hill 84-foot dish. By the dawn of 2000, nearly 200 different interstellar molecules had been identified and many of these are classified as organic.
1968 - Led Zeppelin makes their first live performance, at Surrey University in England
Jyrki 69 born, Finnish singer
1979 - earthquake, california, mag 6.5. 90 injured.
1980 - Ronnie Bunting, Protestant Irish nationalist, is assassinated. He became a member of the Official IRA in the early 1970s and was a founder member of the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) in 1974. He became leader of the INLA in 1978.
1997 – The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.
earthquake, Chile, mag. 7.1. 5 dead.
2001 – NASA's Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter's moon Io.
2003 – The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi runs into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal in Staten Island, killing 11 people and injuring 43.
2006 - earthquake, Hawaii, mag. 6.7. Largest quake in US that year. earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...6/ustwbh/
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/2006/



10/16
1737 - An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 9.3 occurs off the shore of Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Tsunamis up to 60m (200 ft) high followed in the Pacific ocean.
2005 - Steve Arnold discovered 1,400-lb. meteorite in Kiowa County, KN
www.mrstevearnold.com/Photo_Gallery.html




10/17 ast usgs ire
1091 – T8/F4 tornado strikes the heart of London.
1604 - Supernova 1604, or Kepler's Supernova, seen by Johannes Kepler in the constellation Ophiuchus. Last supernova observed in our galaxy. It had been discovered on the 9th.
chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2004/kepler/
1781 – General Charles Cornwallis offers his surrender to the American revolutionists at Yorktown, Virginia.
1882 - The Irish National League is founded by Charles Parnell
1887 - Gustav Kirchhoff died, German physicist who, with Robert Bunsen, established the theory of spectrum analysis (a technique for chemical analysis by analyzing the light emitted by a heated material), which Kirchhoff applied to determine the composition of the Sun. He found that when light passes through a gas, the gas absorbs those wavelengths that it would emit if heated, which explained the numerous dark lines (Fraunhofer lines) in the Sun's spectrum.
1912 – Pope John Paul I born (d. 1978)
1914 – Jerry Siegel born, Cleveland, OH, American cartoonist; co-creator of Superman (along with Joe Shuster)
1920 - Irish republican Michael Fitzgerald died on hunger strike in Cork
1933 – Bill Anders born, American astronaut; He is, along with Apollo 8 crewmates Frank Borman and Jim Lovell, one of the first three persons to have left Earth orbit and traveled to the Moon (of only 24 people to date).
Albert Einstein, fleeing Nazi Germany, moves to the U.S.
1934 - Santiago Ramon Y Cajal died; Spanish doctor and histologist who (with Camillo Golgi) received the 1906 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for establishing the neuron, or nerve cell, as the basic unit of nervous structure.
1936 - Hiroo Kanamori born web.gps.caltech.edu/faculty/kanamori/
1938 – Evel Knievel born
1941 - John Stanley Plaskett died; Canadian astronomer known for his expert design of instruments and his extensive spectroscopic observations. He designed an exceptionally efficient spectrograph for the 15-inch refractor and measured radial velocities and found orbits of spectroscopic binary stars. In the 1930s he published the first detailed analysis of the rotation of the Milky Way, demonstrating that the sun is two-thirds out from the centre of our galaxy about which it revolves once in 220 million years. He successfully lobbied for and designed and supervised construction of the 72-inch reflector built for the new Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria and was appointed its first director in 1917. There he extended the work on radial velocities and spectroscopic binaries and studied spectra of O and B-type stars. He was able to confirm the Lindblad-Oort model of galactic rotation with these data, and he also did important work on interstellar calcium.
1954 – Carlos Buhler born, American high altitude mountaineer; summitted Everest 10/8/83
1966 - mag. 8.1 earthquake, Peru; 125 dead
1989 – 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (7.1 on the Richter scale) hits the San Francisco Bay Area and causes 57 deaths directly (and 6 indirectly).
1998 – At Jesse, in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, a petroleum pipeline explodes killing about 1200 villagers, some of whom are scavenging gasoline.
2002 – Derek Bell died, Irish harpist (The Chieftains)
2010 - asteroid 2010 TE55 passed Earth at .95 LD ("lunar distances")
www.hohmanntransfer.com/#2010TE55




10/20 ast usgs 2010
1631 - Michael Maestlin died; Among his students was Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Although he primarily taught the traditional geocentric Ptolemaic view of the solar system, Maestlin was also one of the first to accept and teach the heliocentric Copernican view. Maestlin corresponded with Kepler frequently and played a sizable part in his adoption of the Copernican system. Galileo Galilei's adoption of heliocentrism was also attributed to Maestlin. The first known calculation of the (inverse) golden ratio as a decimal of "about 0.6180340" was written in 1597 by Maestlin in a letter to Kepler. Maestlin catalogued the Pleiades cluster on December 24, 1579. Eleven stars in the cluster were recorded by Maestlin, and possibly as many as fourteen were observed. He also observed the occultation of Mars by Venus on October 3, 1590, at Heidelberg. Asteroid 11771 Maestlin (4136 T-2), named for him, is a Main-belt Asteroid discovered on September 29, 1973 by C. J. van Houten.
1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.
1818 – The Convention of 1818 signed between the United States and the United Kingdom which, among other things, settled the Canada – United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.
1870 - mag. 6.5 quake, Southeast Canada, near New England. This damaging earthquake was apparently centered between Montreal and Quebec in the Saint Lawrence Valley.
1883 – Peru and Chile signed the Treaty of Ancón, by which the Tarapacá province is ceded to the latter, bringing an end to Peru's involvement in the War of the Pacific.
1891 - James Chadwick born; received the Nobel Prize for Physics (1935) for his discovery of the neutron.
1926 - A hurricane kills 650 in Cuba.
www.cubahurricanes.org/histor...les.php
books.google.com/books
1936 - Anne Sullivan Macy died
1944 – Liquid natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland, then explodes; the explosion and resulting fire level 30 blocks and kill 130.
1950 - Tom Petty born
1958 – Viggo Mortensen born
1964 - President Herbert Hoover died
1972 - Harlow Shapley died, American astronomer
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
1986 - mag. 8.3 quake, Kermadec Islands Region, no deaths reported
1999 – Jack Lynch died, Taoiseach of Ireland
2003 - Eric Durand killed Brendan Camara, 4, (Laura Bowden's son) at Calvin Ave., Somerset
www.projo.com/massachuset...3f9f625.html
2010 - Comet 103P/Hartley 2 closest to Earth. This will be its closest approach since its 1986 discovery and one of the closest approaches of any comet in the last few centuries.
cometography.com/pcomets/103p.html ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi
www.skyandtelescope.com/observ...69.html
x-ray nova, named MAXI J1409-619, inside our Milky Way Galaxy in the constellation Centaurus.
www.astronomy.com/en/News-O...alaxy.aspx
Bob Guccione died, American publisher (Penthouse magazine)


10/21 ast usgs ire 2010
Grandpa
Kelly Curry
Alfred Nobel born
1803 - Thomas Paliser Russell executed; co-founder and leader of the United Irishmen was executed for his part in Robert Emmet's rebellion in 1803.
1805 – Horatio Nelson died, British admiral
1862 - Heinrich d'Arrest discovered asteroid 76 Freia, a "very large main belt asteroid." D'Arrest involved in discovery of Neptune. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List...ts_by_mass
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/190....32..211L
books.google.com/books
books.google.com/books
1868 - mag. 6.8 earthquake, CA; 30 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/nca/1868/
1879 - Using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasted 13½ hours before burning out).
1907 - mag. 8.0 earthquake, Russia; 12,000 dead
1952 – Brent Mydland born, American keyboardist (Grateful Dead)
1953 - Bobo Olson defeated Randy Turpin for the world middleweight boxing championship vacated by the retired Sugar Ray Robinson
1964 - Jon Carin born, American musician (Pink Floyd)
1965 - Comet Ikeya-Seki perihelion, aka Great Comet of 1965
1967 - Ejnar Hertzsprung died; Danish astronomer who first proved the existence of giant and dwarf stars in the early 1900s. His discoveries included the relationship between color and luminosity, which wasn’t truly recognized until it was recovered by Henry Russell. Now it is a familiar part of all our studies as the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
1969 – Jack Kerouac died
1980 - Hans Asperger died; Asperger syndrome -- Daniel Tammet
books.google.com/books (pg 7)
1983 – Charlotte Sullivan born, Canadian actress
1998 – Francis W. Sargent died; 64th Gov. of MA
2002 - Jesse Greenstein died
2003 - Images of the dwarf planet Eris are taken using the Samuel Oschin telescope (Schmidt camera) at Palomar and subsequently used in its discovery by the team of Michael Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David Rabinowitz.




10/22 ast usgs 2010
1790 – Warriors of the Miami tribe under Chief Little Turtle defeat United States troops under GeneralJosiah Harmar at the site of present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana, in the Northwest Indian War.
1792 - Guillaume Le Gentil died; He discovered what are now known as the Messier objects M32, M36 and M38, as well as the nebulosity in M8, and he was the first to catalogue the dark nebula sometimes known as Le Gentil 3 (in the constellation Cygnus). He was part of the international collaborative project to measure the distance to the Sun, by observing the transit of Venus at different points on the earth. Edmond Halley had suggested the idea, but it required careful measurements from different places on earth, and the project was launched with more than a hundred observers dispatched to different parts of the globe, for observing the transit coming up in 1761. The French expedition turned out to be particularly unlucky, and perhaps the most unfortunate was Guillaume le Gentil, who set out for Pondicherry, a French colony in India…
1881 - Clinton Joseph Davisson born, American experimental physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1937 with George P. Thomson of England for discovering that electrons can be diffracted like light waves.
1882 - mag. 4.9 quake, Oklahoma. The most severe damage was limited to the shaking of loose bricks from chimneys at Ft. Smith, Arkansas (northwest of Little Rock), and the knocking of bricks from the top of a wall at Bonham, Texas (northeast of Dallas). Felt over a wide area, including Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1905 - Karl Guthe Jansky born, American Discoverer of cosmic radio waves
1906 – Paul Cézanne died, French painter
1917 – Bob Fitzsimmons died, English boxer
1920 - Tim Leary born
1948 – Lynette Fromme born, American attempted assassin of Gerald Ford
1966 - Luna 12 was launched towards the Moon.
1968 - Apollo program: Apollo 7 safely splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean after orbiting the Earth 163 times.
1970 – Amy Redford born, American actress, director and producer
1975 - Soviet Venera 9 sent Earth the very first look at Venus’ surface.
2005 – Tropical Storm Alpha forms in the Atlantic Basin, making the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record with 22 named storms.




10/24 ast ire usgs
1601 – Tycho Brahe died, Danish astronomer www.nada.kth.se/~fred/tycho/index.html
www.britannica.com/EBchecke...cho-Brahe
1642 - Irish Confederate rebels establish government at Kilkenny
1655 – Pierre Gassendi died; The first observation of a transit of Mercury was by Pierre Gassendi on 11/7/1631. (Transit of Venus also happened on 12/7 that year) Johannes Kepler had however predicted the occurrence of transits of Mercury and Venus some time before that.
www.chlt.org/sandbox/lhl...page.284.php
oce.catholic.com/index.php
www.britannica.com/EBchecke...-Gassendi
oregonstate.edu/instruct/p...ssendi.html
www.transitofmercury.com/
www.nasa.gov/vision/univ...planets.html
www.space.com/spacewatch/..._030502.html
1786 - William Herschel likely discovered the North America Nebula in Cygnus. Not only does the North America Nebula emit pleasing red light, but it is also a star-forming region. This is evidenced by a few open clusters of stars probably associated with the nebula. The most obvious of these is NGC 6997, which has formed near the "east coast" of the nebula. William Herschel catalogued this cluster on the same date as his possible discovery of the nebula itself (October 24, 1786).
www.eso.org/public/images/b04/
books.google.com/books
www.calvin.edu/academic/p...s/NAmerica/
paschalis.webs.com/nebulae.htm (bottom of page)
books.google.com/books
1804 - Wilhelm Eduard Weber born; German physicist. He studied magnetism with Gauss, and in 1864 published his Electrodynamic Proportional Measures containing a system of absolute measurements for electric currents, which forms the basis of those in use. The SI unit of magnetic flux, the weber (symbol: Wb) is named after him.
1830 – Marianne North born, English naturalist and flower painter
1851 - William Lassell discovered Uranus’ moons Ariel and Umbriel
1908 - J. Tuzo Wilson born. The spatial distribution of earthquakes was a fundamental in developing the theory of plate tectonics. J. Tuzo Wilson made a major contribution with the discovery of Transform Faults, which are shear faults with significant motion that are abruptly terminated by ridges or collision zones.
gsahist.org/gsat/gt01sep24_25.htm
1911 – Orville Wright remains in the air 9 minutes and 45 seconds in a Wright Glider at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina.
1926 – Harry Houdini's last performance, which is at the Garrick Theatre in Detroit, Michigan.
1931 – The George Washington Bridge opens to public traffic. *Tyler Clementi jumped to his death off the bridge 9/22/10, after his roommate at Rutgers broadcast his sexual encounter with another man.
1945 – Duncan Lunan born, Scottish astronomer; He is a founder and an active member of ASTRA and supervised the creation of the Sighthill stone circle, the first astronomically aligned stone circle in Britain built for 3,000 years
Founding of the United Nations
1946 – A camera on board the V-2 No. 13 rocket, launched from White Sands, NM, takes the first photograph of earth from outer space.
1964 – Toni Kinshofer died, German mountaineer, first winter ascent of the Eiger North Face
1970 - Zond 8, a member of the Soviet Union's Zond program, flew past the Moon at a distance of 1,110.4 km and obtained both black and white and color photographs of the lunar surface. Scientific measurements were also obtained during the flight. It then reentered Earth's atmosphere and splashed down in the Indian Ocean on October 27, 1970.
1971 – Dervla Kirwan born, Irish actress; Dervla is a great grand daughter of Margaret Collins-O'Driscoll who was a sister of General Michael Collins, the Irish leader during the War of Independence.
1977 – Veterans Day is observed on the fourth Monday in October for the seventh and last time. (The holiday is once again observed onNovember 11 beginning the following year.)
1980 - mag. 7.0 earthquake, Mexico; 300 dead
1989 – Jerzy Kukuczka died, Polish mountaineer, second person to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders
1990 - The IRA kills 6 soldiers and a civilian in bomb attacks at Derry and Newry
1991 – Gene Roddenberry died
1995 - A total solar eclipse is visible from Iran, India, Thailand, and Southeast Asia.
1998 – Launch of Deep Space 1 comet/asteroid mission
2002 – Police arrest spree killers John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo, ending the Beltway sniper attacks in the area around Washington, DC.
2005 – Hurricane Wilma makes landfall in Florida resulting in 35 direct 26 indirect fatalities
238P/Read (P/2005 U1), a Main-belt comet discovered
2007 - Comet Holmes flares up to half a million times its former brightness, becoming visible to the naked eye in Perseus. Its coma later becomes larger in volume than the Sun, making it the second comet to do so in 2007 after Comet McNaught.
www.space.com/spacewatch/...es-size.html
www.newscientist.com/blog/sp...sun.html
www.universetoday.com/12060/c...the-sun/
web.archive.org/web/200710...775326.html
2010 - mag. 4.6 earthquake, Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming, triggered landslide on a hiking trail. No injuried reported.



10/25 ast ire
1647 - Evangelista Torricelli died, (b. October 15, 1608) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer. This discovery has perpetuated his fame, and the torr, a unit of pressure, was named in his honor.
1671 - Giovanni Cassini discovered Iapetus, one of Saturn's moons. Iapetus is the third largest and one of the stranger of the 18 moons of Saturn. Its leading side is dark with a slight reddish color while its trailing side is bright. The dark surface might be composed of matter that was either swept up from space or oozed from the moon's interior. This difference is so striking that Cassini noted that he could see Iapetus only on one side of Saturn and not on the other.
1782 – Levi Lincoln, Jr. born, 13th Governor of Massachusetts; longest consecutive-serving governor in Massachusetts' history at 9 years from 1825-1834, although he was not the longest serving governor (Michael Dukakis was the longest serving at 12 years, from 1975-1979, and then 1983-1991). Lincoln was distantly related to President Abraham Lincoln, their common ancestor being Samuel Lincoln, who left Hingham, Norfolk County, England, and settled in Hingham, Massachusetts in the 17th Century.
1789 - Samuel Heinrich Schwabe born, German astronomer who discovered the 10-year sunspot activity cycle. Schwabe was trying to discover a new planet inside the orbit of Mercury. From Oct 11, 1825, for 42 years, he observed the Sun virtually every day that the weather allowed. In doing so he accumulated volumes of sunspot drawings, the idea being to detect his hypothetical planet as it passed across the solar disk, without confusion with small sunspots. Schwabe did not discover any new planet. Instead, he published his results in 1842 that his 17 years of nearly continuous sunspot observations revealed a 10-year periodicity in the number of sunspots visible on the solar disk. Schwabe also made (1831) the first known detailed drawing of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter.
1864 – John Francis Dodge born, Niles, MI; American automobile pioneer (d. 1920)
1877 - Henry Norris Russell born; American leader in establishing the modern field of astrophysics. As the namesake for the American Astronomical Society’s highest award (for lifetime contributions to the field), Mr. Russell is the “R” in HR diagrams (1910), along with Ejnar Hertzsprung
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/194....51...13R (white dwarfs)
1881 – Pablo Picasso born
1888 – Richard E. Byrd born, American explorer
1920 - Terence MacSwiney died on hunger strike. Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork during the Irish War of Independence in 1920.
www.askaboutireland.ie/learni...ground/
www.jstor.org/pss/30092903 www.irishcultureandcustoms.com/02...tml
forum.irishmilitaryonline.com/sho....php
www.pgil-eirdata.org/html/pg...life.htm
1935 - Russell Schweickart born, Neptune, NJ; Apollo 9 astronaut
1945 - David N. Schramm born; American theoretical astrophysicist who was an authority on the particle-physics aspects of the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe. He considered the nuclear physics involved in the synthesis of the light elements created during the Big Bang. He predicted, from cosmological considerations, that a third family of neutrinos existed - which was later proven in particle accelerator experiments (1989). Schramm worked to evaluate undetected dark matter that contributed to the mass of the universe, and which would determine whether the universe would ultimately continue to expand.
1960 – Harry Ferguson died, farm equipment manufacturer; Irish engineer and inventor who is noted for his role in the development of the modern agricultural tractor, for becoming the first Irishman to build and fly his own aeroplane, and for developing the first four-wheel drive Formula One car, the Ferguson P99. Today his name lives on in the name of the Massey Ferguson company.
1965 – Eduard Einstein died, son of Albert Einstein
1966 - Luna 12 reached the lunar orbit. The spacecraft was equipped with a television system that obtained and transmitted photographs of the lunar surface.
1970 – Peter Aerts born; super heavyweight Dutch kickboxer and martial artist. He is three time K-1 World Grand Prix and Muay Thai World Champion.
1975 - Venera 10 landed on Venus
1991 – Bill Graham died, American rock promoter
2010 - Mount Merapi volcano began erupting in Java
www.thejakartapost.com/news/2...al.html



10/26 ast usgs
1609 – William Sprague born, English co-founder of Charlestown, Massachusetts. He died on his birthday in 1675.
1782 - Italian astronomer Geminiano Montanari was the first to record that Algol occasionally “faded,” and its methodical timing was cataloged by John Goodricke in 1782, who surmised that it was being partially eclipsed by a dark companion orbiting it. Thus was born the theory of the “eclipsing binary” and this was proved spectroscopically in 1889 by H. C. Vogel
1846 - Lewis Boss born (d. October 5, 1912). American astronomer best known for his compilation of two catalogues of stars (1910, 1937). In 1882 he led an expedition to Chile to observe a transit of Venus
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/191....24..255T
books.google.com/books
1888 – Nestor Ivanovich Makhno born, Ukrainian anarchist
1902 – Jack Sharkey born, American boxer
1906 – Primo Carnera born, Italian boxer
1947 – Hillary Rodham Clinton born, 67th United States Secretary of State
1959 - Soviet Union revealed the first pictures of the far side of the Moon. The pictures were taken about three weeks earlier from Lunik 3, the Soviet satellite launched on 4 October, and transmitted by radio to the Earth, 300,000 miles (483,000 km) away.
Paul Farmer born, North Adams, MA; American anthropologist; Farmer is one of the founders of Partners In Health (PIH), an international health and social justice organization. His work is the subject of Tracy Kidder's 2003 book Mountains Beyond Mountains: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, A Man Who Would Cure the World. In August 2009, Paul Farmer was named United Nations Deputy Special Envoy to Haiti to assist in improving the economic and social conditions of the Caribbean nation.
1969 - mag. 6.4 earthquake, Yugoslavia; 20 dead
1973 – Seth MacFarlane born
1974 - Bidia Dandaron died; major Buddhist author and teacher in the USSR.
1977 – The last natural case of smallpox is discovered in Merca district, Somalia. The WHO and the CDC consider this date the anniversary of the eradication of smallpox, the most spectacular success of vaccination.
1984 – "Baby Fae" receives a heart transplant from a baboon.
2010 - Mount Merapi volcano erupted for a second day in Java; 30 killed



10/27 ast ire usgs
1682 – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded.
1728 (OS) – James Cook born, British naval captain and explorer
1836 - Thomas Gwyn Elger born; A lunar mapper and the first director of the Lunar Section of the British Astronomical Association (BAA). He is known as a careful and indefatigable selenographer. He is most remembered for his book The Moon: A full Description and Map of its Principal Physical Features.Published in 1895, its maps are still highly regarded by lunar observers due to their uncluttered nature.
1838 – John Davis Long born, 32nd Governor of Massachusetts
1858 - U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt born
1878 - Between October 24 and this date, Fenians propose a 'New Departure': an alliance with the Parnellites
1891 - Great Nobi earthquake (10/28 Japan time); 7,000 dead
1932 – Sylvia Plath born, Jamaica Plain, Boston, MA; American poet
1949 – Marcel Cerdan died, French boxer; world middleweight boxing champion. Marcel…Mars/Marsh - Dublin Street
www.marcelcerdan.com/3.aspx sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault...ex.htm
1953 – British nuclear test Totem 2 is carried out at Emu Field, South Australia. *Ufo filmed 4/19/10 in neighboring Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
1956 – Veronica Hart born, Las Vegas; porn actress & director
1961 – NASA launches the first Saturn I rocket in Mission Saturn-Apollo 1.
1968 – Lise Meitner died, German physicist; part of the team that discovered nuclear fission
1973 – The Cañon City meteorite, a 1.4 kg chondrite type meteorite, strikes in Fremont County, Colorado.
1979 - Susie Castillo born, Methuen, MA; Miss USA/MTV host *On Sunday, 4/18/10, woman reportedly saw ufo.
www.susiecastillo.net/bio/ ufoclearinghouse.webs.com/apps/...-light
1980 – Beginning of the Hunger Strike by seven Republican prisoners in the 'H' Blocks at Long Kesh. Brendan Hughes the I.R.A Officer Commanding the prison would lead the prisoners on the strike followed by six others John Nixon, Sean McKenna, Raymond McCartney, Tommy McKearney and Leo Green. They are later joined by three female prisoners at Armagh Prison
John Hasbrouck van Vleck died; American physicist and mathematician, co-awarded the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physics, for his contributions to the understanding of the behavior of electrons in magnetic solids.
1994 – Gliese 229B is the first Substellar Mass Object to be unquestionably identified.
starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/S...rf.html
2002 - Severe storm batters Ireland causing power cuts and interruptions in road, rail, air and sea transport services
After comments by British prime minister Tony Blair that the continued existence of the IRA is an obstacle to rescuing the peace process, Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams says the IRA is never going to disband in response to ultimatums.



10/28
1841 – Johan August Arfwedson died; Swedish chemist who discovered the chemical element lithium in 1817 by isolating it as a salt. B. 1/12/1792.(see Georges Carpentier below)
1975 – Georges Carpentier died, French boxer welterweight champion of France and of Europe in 1911, middleweight champion of Europe in 1912, and light heavyweight champion of Europe in 1913. On June 1, 1913, he beat "Bombardier" Billy Wells in Ghent, Belgium to become heavyweight champion of Europe. He defended his title in December against Wells, in January 1914 against Pat O'Keefe and in London on July 16 he beat Ed "Gunboat" Smith to add the "White Heavyweight Championship of the World" to his European title. Carpentier's one attempt at the heavyweight Championship of the world came on July 2, 1921, when he faced Jack Dempsey and was knocked out. B. 1/12/1894(see Arfwedson above)
2004 - Jimmy McLarin died; Irish Canadian professional boxer who became two time welterweight world champion
2006 - Trevor Berbick died; world heavyweight champ
2010 - Comet 103P/Hartley 2 perihelion
cometography.com/pcomets/103p.html ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi
www.skyandtelescope.com/observ...69.html





10/29
1866 - Carl Gustav Witt born; discovered the first Near-Earth asteroid, 433 Eros
1918 - Max Wolf discovered asteroid 904 Rockefellia. Rockefellia occulted a 3.9 mag star in the constellation Aquila on 7/7/10.
2010 - Venus at inferior conjunction - Venus passes between the Earth and the sun. It happens once every 584 days.
www.space.com/spacewatch/...-101201.html




10/30 ast ire usgs
1735 - John Adams born
1937 - The closest approach to the earth by an asteroid, Hermes, was measured to be 485,000 miles, which, to an astronomer, is a mere hair's width (asteroid now lost).
1981 - Venera 13 was launched on its way toward Venus. Venera 13 landed at 7.5° S, 303° E. Recording a loud thunder, Venera 13 was the first probe to record sound on another world.
1983 - earthquake, Turkey, 1,500 dead







2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2003
The 'hobbit' hominid species Homo floresiensis was discovered in Flores, Indonesia.
www.google.com/search
1/23 – The last signal is received from NASA's Pioneer 10 spacecraft, some 7.5 billion miles from Earth.
2/1 – At the conclusion of the STS-107 mission, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates during reentry over Texas, killing all 7 astronauts onboard.
2/18 - Comet C/2002 V1 (NEAT) makes perihelion, seen by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. As of March 2011, NEAT's the 8th brightest comet of the last 75 years. www.space.com/spacewatch/..._030131.html
www.aerith.net/comet/cata...T.html#2003 www.cometography.com/lcomets/2002v1.html
2/20 – The Station nightclub fire in West Warwick, Rhode Island claims the lives of 100 people.
2/26 – An American businessman is admitted to the Vietnam France Hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam with the first identified case of SARS. WHO doctor Carlo Urbani reports the unusual, highly contagious disease to WHO. Both the businessman and doctor later die of the disease.
3/12 – The WHO issues a global alert on SARS.
3/13 – Human evolution: The journal Nature reports that 350,000-year-old upright-walking human footprints had been found in Italy.
3/19 – Iraq War begins with the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. and allied forces.
4/14 – The Human Genome Project is completed, with 99% of the human genome sequenced to 99.99% accuracy.
4/17 – The Stevens Report concludes that members of the Royal Ulster Constabulary and British Army cooperated with the Ulster Defence Association in the killings of Catholics in Northern Ireland.
4/20 – Bernard Katz died, German-born biophysicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; noted for his work on nerve biochemistry.
5/3 – The Old Man of the Mountain, a rock formation in New Hampshire, crumbles after heavy rain.
5/4–10 – A major severe weather outbreak spawns more tornadoes than any week in U.S. history; 393 tornadoes are reported in 19 states.
5/7 - transit of Mercury eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/transit...log.html
5/11 – Noel Redding died, Co. Cork; bassist for The Jimi Hendrix Experience.
5/21 – An earthquake in the Boumerdès region of northern Algeria kills 2,200. 2nd deadliest quake of 2003.
neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_dep...3/eq_030521/
6/12 - SN 2003gd discovered by Robert Evans in spiral galaxy Messier 74
6/22 – The largest hailstone ever recorded falls in Aurora, Nebraska.
7/6 – The 70-meter Eupatoria Planetary Radar sends a METI message Cosmic Call 2 to 5 stars: Hip 4872, HD 245409, 55 Cancri, HD 10307 and 47 Ursae Majoris, that will arrive at these stars in2036, 2040, 2044, 2044 and 2049 respectively
7/8 – Sudan Airways Flight 39, with 117 people on board, crashes in Sudan; the only survivor is a 2-year-old child.
7/21 - Tornado destroys Kinzua Bridge in Kane, PA
www.theallegheny.com/KinzuaB...tro.html
7/26 - Saturn perihelion. 29-year orbit www.space.com/spacewatch/..._031205.html
books.google.com/books
www.eaas.co.uk/cms/index.php
answers.yahoo.com/question/index
Redford-Neely
8/25 – The Spitzer Space Telescope was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, during Delta II.
8/27 - Perihelic opposition of Mars: Earth-Mars close encounter
www.nasa.gov/vision/univ...ingmars.html
9/3 – The Hubble Space Telescope starts Hubble Ultra Deep Field.
9/9 – Edward Teller died, Hungarian-born physicist
9/10 - Anna Lindh is stabbed on escalator and died next day.
9/12 - Johnny Cash died www.youtube.com/watch
9/18 – Hurricane Isabel makes landfall as a Category 2 Hurricane on North Carolina's Outer Banks. It directly kills 16 people in the Mid–Atlantic area.
9/25 - Mag. 8.3 earthquake strikes just offshore Hokkaidō, Japan. No deaths. Most powerful quake of 2003.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/2003/
9/29 – Hurricane Juan lands at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada as a category 2 storm, killing 2 directly and 5 indirectly.
10/5 - Bear killed Timothy Treadwell and his girlfriend, Amie Huguenard
10/15 – The 2003 Staten Island Ferry crash, Sullivan killed.
10/20 - Brendon Camara, 4, beaten to death inside his Calvin Ave, Somerset home. Mother Laura Bowden's boyfriend, Eric Durand convicted.
www.heraldnews.com/highligh...r-s-death
10/21 - Images of the dwarf planet Eris are taken and subsequently used in its discovery by the team of Michael Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David Rabinowitz.
11/4 - The most powerful solar flare as observed by satellite instrumentation is recorded, a flare that saturated the detectors on the GOES-12 satellite. www.spaceweather.com/solarfl...res.html
www.nasa.gov/vision/univ..._xflare.html
11/9 – A lunar eclipse is seen in the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Central Asia.
11/10 – Canaan Banana died, first President of Zimbabwe
11/14 - The most distant celestial body known to orbit our Sun was discovered. It is Sedna, a trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet candidate.
11/23 – A total solar eclipse is seen over Antarctica.
12/12 – Keiko died, Orca whale from Free Willy movies
12/22 – An earthquake in California kills 2.
12/26 - Bam, Iran earthquake. 31,000 dead. Deadliest quake of 2003.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/2003/



2004 usgs
January 4 – NASA's MER-A (Spirit) lands on Mars at 04:35 UTC.
January 24 – NASA's MER-B (Opportunity) lands on Mars at 05:05 UTC.
February 4 – Facebook was founded at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
February 24 – A 6.5 Richter scale earthquake in Northern Morocco hits in the Rif mountains near the city of Al Hoceima, killing 400. Ait Kamara is destroyed; 517 are killed.
March 2 – NASA announces that the Mars rover MER-B (Opportunity) has confirmed that its landing area was once drenched in water.
John Oke died; astronomer and professor of astronomy at Caltech. He worked in astronomical photometry and spectroscopy and is well known for creating instruments for the detection and measurement of cosmic phenomena. His instruments were use on the 200 inches (5.1 m) Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar, California and the Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. His work and instruments lead to the spectacular 1963 discovery that quasar 3C 273 was receding from Earth at one sixth the speed of light.
3/28 - On the anniversary of President Eisenhower's death, the first hurricane recorded in the South Atlantic Ocean made landfall at Santa Catarina - the state in Brazil which embodies the Adam's Apple in the South America Head-Neck.
June 5 – Ronald Reagan died
6/8 - transit of Venus
June 12 – A 1.3 kg chondrite type meteorite strikes a house in Ellerslie, New Zealand, causing serious damage but no injuries.
June 21 – In Mojave, California, SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately funded spaceplane to achieve spaceflight.
July 1 – The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft arrives at Saturn.
July 28 – Francis Crick died
7/31 - Koichi Itagaki discovered SN 2004dj , the brightest supernova since SN 1987A at the time of its discovery. The supernova's progenitor is a star in a young, compact star cluster in the galaxy NGC 2403, in Camelopardalis. www.astrosurf.com/snweb2/20...djHome.htm
hubblesite.org/newscenter...23/image/a/
August 3 – NASA's MESSENGER is launched (it will be captured into Mercury's orbit on March 18, 2011).
August 13 – Hurricane Charley kills 27 people in Florida, after killing 4 in Cuba and 1 inJamaica. Charley makes landfall near Cayo Costa, FL as a Category 4 hurricane. Charley is the most intense hurricane to strike the United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992.
Julia Child died
8/24 - Elisabeth Kübler-Ross died; pioneer in Near-death studies
August 30 – Fred Lawrence Whipple died, American astronomer
September 3 – Hurricane Frances makes landfall in Florida. After killing 2 people in the Bahamas, Hurricane Frances kills 10 people in Florida, 2 in Georgia and 1 in South Carolina.
September 13 – Luis E. Miramontes died, Mexican chemist
September 16 – Hurricane Ivan strikes Gulf Shores, Alabama, as a Category 3 storm, killing 25 in Alabama and Florida, becoming the 3rd costliest hurricane in American history (currently the 4th following the destruction of 2005's Hurricane Katrina).
September 17 – Hurricane Jeanne causes mudslides in Haiti, killing 3006.
September 23 – Mount St. Helens becomes active again.
9/29 - The asteroid 4179 Toutatis passes within four lunar distances of Earth.
The Burt Rutan Ansari X Prize entry SpaceShipOne performs a successful spaceflight, the first of two required to win the prize.
October 4 – Gordon Cooper died, American astronaut
October 5 – Maurice Wilkins died, New Zealand-born physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
October 23 – A Magnitude 6.7 earthquake and aftershocks of similar scale occur in the Tokamachi area. A huge landslide occurs on the outskirts of Nagaoka. According to Japanese officials, 68 people are killed
October 24 – Brazil successfully launches its first rocket into space.
October 26 – The Cassini probe passes within 1,200 km of Titan.
October 27 – Details of the discovery of a new, recent species of fossil hominid, Homo floresiensis, from the island of Flores, Indonesia, are published in National Geographic. www.nature.com/news/2004/...1025-4.html
news.nationalgeographic.com/news....html
ngm.nationalgeographic.com/feat...ext/2
www.guardian.co.uk/science/...uman-race
October 28 – Jimmy McLarnin died, Irish-born boxer; two time welterweight world champion
November 16 – The European Space Agency probe, Smart 1, passes from Earth orbit into the orbit of the Moon.
November 28 – A male Po'o-uli dies of avian malaria at the Maui Bird Conservation Center in Olinda before it can breed, making the species in all probability extinct.
12/26 - Sumatran quake. 250,000 dead
December 27 – Astrophysicists from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching near Munich measure the strongest burst from a magnetar. At 21:30:26 UT the earth is hit by a huge wave front of gamma and X-rays. It is the strongest flux of high-energetic gamma radiation measured so far.
www.mpe.mpg.de/gamma/High...PR20050218/ NASA and European satellites detected a gamma-ray flare from a magnetar, the neutron star SGR 1806-20, about 50,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. It was the brightest explosion detected up to that date. The apparent magnitude was brighter than a full moon and all historical star explosions. The light was brightest in the gamma-ray energy range, far more energetic than visible light or X-rays and invisible to our eyes.
www.nasa.gov/vision/univ...su_0205.html




2005
The Year of Cork City, Ireland as European Capital of Culture.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euro...of_Culture www.cork2005.ie/
1/5 - Michael Brown discovered Eris
1/12 – Deep Impact is launched from Cape Canaveral by a Delta 2 rocket.
1/14 – The Huygens probe lands on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.
1/20 – George W. Bush is inaugurated in Washington, D.C.
2/2 - Max Schmeling died
2/13 – Lucia dos Santos died, Visionary to the Marian apparitions at Fátima
2/20 – Hunter S. Thompson suicide
2/22 – More than 500 people are killed and over 1,000 injured, after entire villages are flattened in an earthquake (6.4 on the Richter scale) in the Zarand region of Kerman province in southern Iran
www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/m...ke/index.html
3/6 - earthquake, Gaspe Peninsula neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_dep..._vhan_d.html
3/28 - The 2005 Sumatran earthquake rocks Indonesia, and at magnitude 8.7 is the third strongest earthquake since 1965. earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Natur...ew.php earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...world.php
6/5 - Rich Franklin becomes UFC middleweight champ
6/30 - Haumea's moon Namaka discovered by Mike Brown
7/2 - Comet Giacobini-Zinner perihelion
7/3 - Kristin Kreuk dream
7/4 – NASA's "Copper bullet" from the Deep Impact spacecraft hits Comet Tempel 1, creating a crater for scientific studies
7/28 – The Provisional IRA issues a statement formally ordering an end to the armed campaign it has pursued since 1969, and ordering all its units to dump their arms
8/12 – The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is launched.
8/16 – West Caribbean Airways Flight 708 crashes into a mountain in Venezuela, killing 152 passengers.
8/22 – A 4.1 kilograms (9.0 lb) meteorite crashes into the Dotito area of Zambezi Escarpment inZimbabwe, leaving a 150 millimeters (5.9 in) crater.
8/29 - Hurricane Katrina hits New Orleans
10/8 - Pakistan earthquake; 86,000 dead
10/15 – The Qinghai-Tibet Railway is completed. *Today, 4/14/2010 - earthquake 6.9, Qinghai province, China; 500 dead (early estimate)
10/16 - Steve Arnold discovered 1,400-lb. meteorite in Kiowa County, KN
www.mrstevearnold.com/Photo_Gallery.html
10/24 - 238P/Read (P/2005 U1), a Main-belt comet discovered
11/13 – Andrew Stimpson, a 25-year old British man, is reported as the first person proven to have been 'cured' of HIV.
12/6 – An Iranian C-130 Hercules airplane crashes into a ten-story building in a civilian area of Tehran, the capital of Iran, killing all 94 people aboard and 34 residents of the building (128 total).
12/12 – Scientists announce that they have created mice with small amounts of human brain cells in an effort to make realistic models of neurological disorders.
12/28 - Asteroid 2005 YU55 was discovered by Spacewatch at the University of Arizona, Tucson’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. Close approach 11/8/11.
www.space.com/11310-huge-...ovember.html



2006
1/1 - Charles Steen died; American geologist; The Uranium King
January 8 – A magnitude 6.9 earthquake, centered off the coast of the Greek island of Kythera, shakes much of Greece and is felt throughout the eastern Mediterranean basin.
January 11 – The Augustine Volcano in Alaska erupts twice, marking its first major eruption since 1986.
January 15 – NASA's Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet.
February 3 – An Egyptian passenger ferry carrying more than 1,400 people, sinks in the Red Sea off the Saudi coast
February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines; the official death toll is set at 1,126
March 9 – NASA's Cassini-Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturn's moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water.
March 10 – NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters Mars orbit.
March 14 - Penumbral lunar eclipse
March 29 - Total solar eclipse
April 11 – The European Space Agency's Venus Express spaceprobe enters Venus' orbit
April 16 – Ireland commemorates the 90th anniversary of the 1916 Rising for the first time since 1971
May 11 – Floyd Patterson died, American boxer
May 26 – A 6.3 magnitude earthquake strikes central Java in Indonesia, killing more than 6,000, injuring at least 36,000 and leaving some 1.5 million people homeless. Deadliest quake of 2006.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/2006/
June 13 – Charles Haughey died, Prime Minister of Ireland
7/3 (Monday) - Asteroid 2004 XP14, an Apollo asteroid, a class that cross Earth's orbit, passed near Earth at 268,624 miles (432,308 km), or just 1.1 times the Moon's average distance from Earth.
www.space.com/spacewatch/...ght_sky.html www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13556129/
7/7 - Syd Barrett died
John Money died, sexologist
July 9 – S7 Airlines Flight 778 crashes into a concrete barrier shortly after landing in Russia, killing at least 122 people and leaving many injured
July 22 – Body of José Antonio Delgado found; Venezuelan mountain climber; the first Venezuelan mountaineer to reach the summit of five eight-thousanders. Died on Pakistan's Nanga Parbat, Earth's ninth highest mountain
8/7 - Robert McNaught discovered Comet McNaught
August 9 – James van Allen died, American physicist
August 22 – Pulkovo Airlines Flight 612 crashes near the Russian border in Ukraine, killing 171 people, including 45 children
August 24 – The International Astronomical Union defines 'planet' at its 26th General Assembly, demoting Pluto to the status of 'dwarf planet' more than 70 years after its discovery.
August 27 – Comair Flight 5191, carrying 50 people, crashes shortly after take off from Blue Grass Airport in Lexington, Kentucky.
September 7 - Partial lunar eclipse
September 13 – The solar system's largest dwarf planet, designated until now as 2003 UB313, is officially named "Eris"; its satellite is now known as Dysnomia
9/18 - Robert Quimby detected SN 2006gy in Perseus. On May 7, 2007, NASA and several of the astronomers announced the first detailed analyses of the supernova, describing it as the "brightest stellar explosion ever recorded". In October 2007 Quimby announced that SN 2005ap had broken SN 2006gy's record as the brightest ever recorded supernova. Time magazine listed the discovery of SN 2006gy as third in its Top 10 Scientific Discoveries for 2007. *Perseus is where Comet Holmes flared a half million times brighter on 10/23-24/2007.
September 22 - Annular solar eclipse
September 29 – Gol Flight 1907 (Boeing 737-800) collides with a business jet over the Amazon Rainforest, killing all 155 onboard
10/9 - SN 2006jc, a hypernova, was detected by Japanese amateur astronomer Koichi Itagaki in the galaxy UGC 4904. The star produced a high energy outburst that did not lead to stellar collapse.
October 15 – A magnitude 6.7 earthquake rocks Hawaii, causing property damage, injuries,landslides, power outages, and the closure of Honolulu International Airport. see 2006 Hawaii Earthquake.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...6/ustwbh/
October 24 – NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft makes its first flyby of Venus (it will be captured into Mercury's orbit on March 18, 2011).
October 28 – Trevor Berbick murdered, Jamaican boxer; heavyweight champ
October 29 – Aviation Development Company Flight 53 crashes shortly after takeoff in Nigeria killing 96 people
11/4 - occultation of the star TYC 0587-00209-1U by the asteroid 76 Freia
www.springerlink.com/content...5422063/
11/8 - transit of Mercury
11/15 - mag. 8.3 quake, Kuril Islands. Most powerful quake of 2006.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...stats.php
November 23 – Willie Pep died, American boxer
November 30 – Typhoon Durian triggers a massive mudslide and kills at least 720 people in Albay province on the island of Luzon in the Philippines
December 7 – Jeane Kirkpatrick died, first female U.S. ambassador to the United Nations
12/14 - Ahmet Ertegun died; founder of Atlantic Records, writer of classic blues songs, and chairman of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and museum, described as "one of the most significant figures in the modern recording industry."
12/26 – President Gerald Ford died
The magnitude 7.2 Hengchun earthquake in Taiwan kills 2 people, and damages about 15 historical buildings and several undersea cables, disrupting Internet and IDD telecommunication services in Asia
An oil pipeline explodes in Nigeria's commercial capital, Lagos, killing at least 200 people
December 30 – The M/V Senopati Nusantara sinks in Indonesia, causing several hundred casualties




2007
1/12 - Comet McNaught perhelion; the brightest comet since Comet Ikeya-Seki
1/15 - Comet McNaught perigee
February 15 – Robert Adler died, Austrian-born inventor; wireless remote control for televisions.
February 28 – The New Horizons space probe makes a gravitational slingshot against Jupiter, which changes its trajectory towards Pluto.
April 2 – Henry Lee Giclas died, American astronomer; discovered comets and asteroids
April 5 – Thomas Stoltz Harvey died; Pathologist who conducted Albert Einstein's autopsy
4/6 - Detection of SN 2007bi
www.newscientist.com/article...ast.html
www.weizmann.ac.il/home/gal...-008.html
jcconwell.wordpress.com/2009/1...2007bi/
April 16 – Frank Bateson died, New Zealand astronomer
April 24 – Gliese 581 c, a potentially habitable Earth-like extrasolar planet, is discovered in the constellation Libra.
May 3 – Wally Schirra died, American astronaut; only person to fly in all of America's first three space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo). He logged a total of 295 hours and 15 minutes in space. Schirra was the 5th American and the 9th human to ride a rocket into space.
5/4 - Comet Holmes perihelion
May 20 – Stanley Miller died, American chemist and biologist
June 1 – A 2,100-year-old melon is discovered by archaeologists in western Japan
June 5 – NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft makes its second fly-by of Venus en route to Mercury.
6/30 - 7/1 – Venus and Saturn are in conjunction, less than a degree apart
astrocamera.net/2007/0630/17-26m.htm www.alsonwongastro.com/20071.htm
www.seasky.org/astronomy/...r_2007.html apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap070704.html
fleetingperusal.blogspot.com/200...html
7/11 - Astronomer Lin Chi-Sheng with a 16-inch (410 mm) telescope at the Lulin Observatory in Nantou, Taiwan, shot discovery photographs of Comet Lulin on July 11, 2007. However, it was the 19-year old Ye Quanzhi from Sun Yat-sen University in China who identified the new object from three of the photographs taken by Lin.
7/17 - Mike Brown discovered 2007 OR10
July 23 – Benjamin Libet died, American pioneering scientist in the field of human consciousness
July 27 – James Oyebola murdered, British heavyweight boxing champ (not world champ)
August 1 – Tommy Makem died, Irish folk musician
August 4 – The Phoenix spacecraft launches toward the Martian north pole.
August 15 – An 8.0 earthquake strikes Peru, killing 512 people, injuring more than 1,500, and causing tsunami warnings in the Pacific Ocean. Deadliest quake of 2007.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...2007gbcv/
9/12 - mag. 8.5 earthquake, Sumatra; Largest earthquake in 2007. Twenty-five people killed
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...stats.php
September 14 – The SELENE spacecraft launches. JAXA has called the mission, "the largest lunar mission since the Apollo program."
October 2 – Dan Keating died, Irish republican
October 24 – Comet Holmes flares up to half a million times its former brightness, becoming visible to the naked eye in Perseus. Its coma later becomes larger in volume than the Sun, making it the second comet to do so in 2007 after Comet McNaught.
www.space.com/spacewatch/...es-size.html
www.newscientist.com/blog/sp...sun.html
www.universetoday.com/12060/c...the-sun/
web.archive.org/web/200710...775326.html
November 1 – Paul Tibbets died, American general, pilot of the Enola Gay
November 3 – Martin Meehan died, Irish republican
November 15 – Over 3,000 people are believed to have died after Cyclone Sidr hits Bangladesh, with the death toll expected to rise.
December 6 – Katy French died, Irish model
December 7 – Uranus' orbit is positioned such that the sun shines directly above its equator (i.e. an equinox).




2008
January 3 – Yo-Sam Choi died, Korean boxer
1/10 - Detection of Supernova 2008am - brightest supernova yet discovered
www.discoveryon.info/2011/03...red.html
www.astrosurf.com/snweb2/20...amHome.htm
1/11 – Edmund Hillary died
1/14 – At 19:04:39 UTC, the MESSENGER space probe is at its closest approach during its first flyby of the planet Mercury
1/29 - Margaret Truman died, American writer
February 4 – Iran opens its first space center and launches a rocket into space
February 5–6 – A tornado outbreak, the deadliest in 23 years, kills 58 in the Southern United States
February 5 – Maharishi Mahesh Yogi died; founder of the Transcendental Meditation technique and leader or "guru" of the TM movement, a "Neo-Hindu" new religious movement. Varma's given name was Mahesh, while Maharishi and yogi are honorifics. Varma began to be known as "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi" around the year 1960. His devotees referred to him as "His Holiness", and he became known as the "giggling guru"
February 7 – STS-122: Space Shuttle Atlantis launches to deliver the European-built Columbus science laboratory to the International Space Station
2/20 – A total lunar eclipse crosses North and South America, Europe, Africa, and Southwest Asia
March 9 – The first European Space Agency Automated Transfer Vehicle, a cargo spacecraft for the International Space Station, launches from Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana.
3/19 – GRB 080319B detected in the constellation Bootes by the Swift X-ray Telescope became the farthest known object ever visible to the naked eye en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GRB_080319B
news.nationalgeographic.com/news....html
www.nasa.gov/mission_pag...est_grb.html
March 25 – A 414 square kilometer (160 sq. mi.2) chunk of Antarctica's Wilkins Ice Shelf disintegrates, leaving the entire shelf at risk.
4/12 – Patrick Hillery died, 6th President of Ireland
4/13 – John Archibald Wheeler died; "black hole"
April 22 – Surgeons at London's Moorfields Eye Hospital perform the first operations using bionic eyes, implanting them into 2 blind patients.
4/29 – Albert Hofmann died
5/3 – Over 133,000 in Burma/Myanmar are killed by Cyclone Nargis, the deadliest natural disaster since the Boxing Day Tsunami in 2004.
5/12 – Over 69,000 are killed in central south-west China by the Wenchuan quake, an earthquake measuring 7.9 Moment magnitude scale. The epicenter is 90 kilometers (55 miles) west-northwest of the provincial capital Chengdu, Sichuan province. Most powerful and deadliest quake of 2008.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...stats.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/2008/
May 13 – A series of bomb blasts kills at least 63 and injures 216 in Jaipur, India.
5/14 – NASA announces the discovery of Supernova remnant G1.9+0.3, the youngest known supernova remnant (SNR) in the Milky Way Galaxy. The remnant's young age was established by combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the VLA radio observatory, and is believed to have exploded about 25,000 years ago, and the signal began reaching us 140 years ago. Prior to this discovery, the youngest-known Milky Way supernova remnant was Cassiopeia A, at about 330 years. The remnant has a radius of over 1.3 light years.
May 23 – The Union of South American Nations, a supranational union, is created by a union between the Andean Community and Mercosur.
5/25 – NASA's Phoenix spacecraft becomes the first to land on the northern polar region of Mars
5/29 - Cerro Azul volcano erupted on Isabela Island, Galapagos
www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm
www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm
June 11 – The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope is launched.
June 14 – A 6.9 magnitude earthquake in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, kills 12
June 22 – Typhoon Fengshen hits the Philippines and capsizes the ferry MV Princess of the Stars, leaving hundreds dead or missing.
July 7 – A suicide-bomber drives an explosives-laden automobile into the front gates of the Indian embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan, killing 58
July 11 – Michael E. DeBakey died, American surgeon and inventor
7/19 - Sarah Conlon died, lung cancer at 82
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_Conlon
July 28 – At least 48 are dead and over 287 injured after bombs explode in Baghdad and Kirkuk, Iraq
July 29 – Mate Parlov died, Croatian boxer WBC light heavyweight champ
8/1 – A total eclipse of the Sun is visible from Canada and extends across northern Greenland, the Arctic, central Russia, Mongolia, and China
August 3 – A stampede at a Hindu temple at Naina Devi in Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India kills 162
August 16 – Ronnie Drew died, Irish singer
August 19 – A suicide bomber rams a car into an Algerian military academy, killing 43
August 20 – Spanair Flight 5022, from Madrid to Gran Canaria, skids off the runway and crashes at Barajas Airport with 172 on board. Of them, 154 die
August 21 – Kati delivered Cooper
At least 60 die following twin suicide bombings outside the Pakistan Ordnance Factories in Wah, Pakistan
August 26 – September 1 – Hurricane Gustav makes landfall on Louisiana as Category 2 and kills seven in the United States, after making landfall on western Cuba as Category 4, and killing 66 in Haiti, eight in the Dominican Republic, and 11 in Jamaica
August 28 – September 7 – Hurricane Hanna kills seven in the United States, and 529 in Haiti, mostly due to floods and mudslides. Passed near New England on 9/6.
September 1–14 – Hurricane Ike makes landfall on Texas as Category 2 and kills 27 in the United States, after killing four in Cuba, one in the Dominican Republic, and 75 in Haiti.
September 6 – At least eight boulders dislodge from a cliff near Cairo, Egypt, killing at least 90
September 10 – The proton beam is circulated for the first time in the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, located at CERN, near Geneva, under the Franco-Swiss border
September 10 – The 2008 Bandar Abbas earthquake strikes southern Iran, killing 7
September 14 – Aeroflot Flight 821 crashes near the city of Perm, Russia, killing all 88
September 15 – Richard Wright died; Pink Floyd
9/17 – The International Astronomical Union classifies Haumea as the 5th dwarf planet in the Solar System
September 20 – A suicide truck bomb explosion destroys the Marriott Hotel in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing at least 60
September 25 – Shenzhou 7, the third manned Chinese spaceflight and the first with three crew members, is successfully launched. China becomes the third country ever to conduct a spacewalk
September 28 – SpaceX Falcon 1 becomes the world's first privately developed space launch vehicle to successfully make orbit
September 30 – A Jodhpur temple stampede in western India kills over 224 people
10/6 – NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft makes its second of three flybys of Mercury, decreasing the velocity for orbital insertion on March 18, 2011
An earthquake measuring 6.6 magnitude kills at least 65 in Kyrgyzstan
10/7 – The meteoroid 2008 TC3 impacts Earth, becoming the first such object to be discovered prior to impact
www.space.com/scienceastr...-101215.html
www.centauri-dreams.org/
October 21 – The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is officially inaugurated. It is a collaboration of over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.
October 22 – The Indian Space Research Organisation successfully launches the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft on a lunar exploration mission
11/4 – United States presidential election, 2008: Barack Obama is elected the 44th President of the United States
November 7 – The 2008 Pétionville school collapse kills at least 92 in Pétionville, Haiti.
11/9 - The asteroid 4179 Toutatis passes Earth.
November 14 – STS-126: The Space Shuttle Endeavour uses the MPLM Leonardo to deliver experiment and storage racks to the International Space Station. There will be only three more launches of Space Shuttle Endeavour after this mission
November 19 – Claudia Castillo of Spain becomes the first person to have a successful trachea transplant using a tissue-engineered organ
11/20 – The 2008 Buzzard Coulee meteoroid falls over Canada. The fireball was first spotted at around 17:30 MST (00:30 UTC) and was reported by people living in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and even North Dakota. It was five times as bright as a full moon. Over 400 people reported seeing it. There are several videos of the meteoroid on YouTube. The object split into multiple pieces before widespread impact. The meteoroid entered the atmosphere at approximately 14 kilometres per second and is estimated to have been about the size of a desk and have had a mass of approximately 10 tonnes
November 24 – The 2008 Santa Catarina floods in Santa Catarina, Brazil kill 126
11/26 - Edwin Ernest Salpeter died; Austrian-Australian-American astrophysicist. In 1964 Salpeter and independently Yakov B. Zel'dovich were the first to suggest that accretion discs around massive black holes are responsible for the huge amounts of energy radiated by quasars (which are the brightest active galactic nuclei). This is currently the most accepted explanation for the physical origin of active galactic nuclei and the associated extragalactic relativistic jets.
www.news.cornell.edu/stories....ed.html
November 26 – November 29 – A series of terrorist attacks in Mumbai, India by Pakistan-based Islamic militants kills 195
November 29 – Riots in Jos, Nigeria kill 381
December 1 – A triangular conjunction formed by a new Moon, Venus and Jupiter is a prominent object in the evening sky
12/12 – The Moon moves into its nearest point to Earth, called perigee, at the same time as its fullest phase of the Lunar Cycle. The Moon appears to be 14% bigger and 30% brighter than the year's other full moons. The next time these two events coincide will be in 2016
December 25 – Eartha Kitt died
December 31 – An extra leap second (23:59:60) is added to end the year. The last time this occurred was in 2005.




2009
1/10 - Comet Lulin perihelion
1/16 - Asteroid 2009 BD discovered. Will pass Earth within lunar orbit on 6/2/2011.
lunarscience.arc.nasa.gov/artic...d-pass
1/20 – Barack Obama is inaugurated as the 44th, and first African American, President of the United States
1/30 - Ingemar Johansson died, Swedish boxer; heavyweight champion of the world
2/7 – The deadliest bushfires in Australian history begin; they kill 173, injure 500 more, and leave 7,500 homeless. The fires come after Melbourne records the highest-ever temperature (46.4°C, 115°F) of any capital city in Australia. The majority of the fires are ignited by either fallen or clashing power lines or deliberately lit.
2/10 – A Russian and an American satellite collide over Siberia, creating a large amount of space debris
2/19 - Gas explosion killed Rosemarie Rebello in her New York Ave, Somerset home
2/24 - Comet Lulin perigee
2/25 - Ceres at opposition
3/7 – NASA's Kepler Mission, a space photometer which will search for extrasolar planets in the Milky Way galaxy, is launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida
4/6 – A 6.3 magnitude earthquake strikes near L'Aquila, Italy, killing nearly 300 and injuring more than 1,500
4/23 - Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 090423 observed by the Swift satellite. 10 sec burst at redshift z=8.2, which makes GRB 090423 the second most distant object detected as of October 2010.
4/24 – The World Health Organization expresses concern at the spread of influenza from Mexico and the United States to other countries. International cases and resulting deaths are confirmed.
4/29 - Detection of Gamma Ray Burst GRB-090429B, 13.14 billion light years away and could be the most distant object ever seen.
www.cbc.ca/news/technol...-distant.html
4/30 - Venetia Burney died, Person who suggested Pluto's name for the planet
5/13 - Achille Compagnoni died; Italian mountaineer. Together with Lino Lacedelli, on 31 July 1954 he was the first man to reach the summit of K2.
6/1 – Air France Flight 447, en route from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to Paris, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 228 on board.
6/8 – Omar Bongo died, President of Gabon for 42 years
6/11 – The outbreak of the H1N1 influenza strain, commonly referred to as "swine flu", is deemed a global pandemic, becoming the first condition since the Hong Kong flu of 1967–1968 to receive this designation.
6/13 – Following the reelection of Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, supporters of defeated candidate Mir-Hossein Mousavi accuse the government of fraud, and launch a series of sustained protests
6/18 – NASA launches the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/LCROSS probes to the Moon, the first American lunar mission since Lunar Prospector in 1998.
6/20 – The death of Neda Agha-Soltan, an Iranian student shot during a protest, is captured on what soon becomes a viral video that helps to turn Neda into an international symbol of the civil unrest following the presidential election.
6/21 – As a step toward total independence from the Kingdom of Denmark, Greenland assumes control over its law enforcement, judicial affairs, and natural resources. Greenlandic becomes the official language
6/25 - Michael Jackson died
6/30 – Yemenia Flight 626 crashes off the coast of Moroni, Comoros, killing all but one of the 153 passengers and crew
7/1 – Alexis Argüello died, suspicious "suicide"; Nicaraguan boxer and politician; won world titles in 3 divisions: featherweight, junior lightweight and lightweight.
7/5 – Over 150 are killed when a few thousand ethnic Uyghurs target local Han Chinese during major rioting in Ürümqi, Xinjiang.
7/15 – Caspian Airlines Flight 7908 crashes near Qazvin, Iran, killing all 168 on board.
7/19 - Anthony Wesley spotted Jupiter impact
7/22 – The longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century, lasting up to 6 minutes and 38.8 seconds, occurs over parts of Asia and the Pacific Ocean.
8/3-4 - Jupiter occultation of 45 Cap
www.skyandtelescope.com/commun...27.html
www.universetoday.com/2009/08...ltation/
8/7 – Typhoon Morakot hits Taiwan, killing 500 and stranding more than 1,000 via the worst flooding on the island in half a century
8/11 – Eunice Kennedy Shriver died
8/13 - Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd discovered
8/25 – Ted Kennedy died
9/9 - Robert H. McNaught discovered Comet C/2009 R1 (McNaught)
9/12 – Norman Borlaug died, American agronomist and Nobel Prize laureate
9/14 – Patrick Swayze died
9/26 – Typhoon Ketsana begins to cause record amounts of rainfall in Manila, Philippines, leading to the declaration of a "state of calamity" in 25 provinces
9/28 – At least 157 demonstrators are killed in a clash with the Guinean military.
9/29 – An 8.1-magnitude earthquake triggers a tsunami near the Samoan Islands. Many communities and harbors in Samoa and American Samoa are destroyed, and at least 189 are killed. Most powerful quake of 2009.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...p#summary
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/2009/
Pavel Popovich died; Soviet cosmonaut of Ukrainian descent, and the first ethnic Ukrainian to fly in space. He was the 4th Cosmonaut in space, the 6th person in orbit, and the 8th person in space
9/30 – A 7.6-magnitude earthquake strikes just off the coast of Sumatra, killing around 1,100 in Indonesia. Deadliest quake of 2009.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...p#details
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/2009/
10/8 - Asteroid exploded in Earth's atmosphere near the city of Bone, South Sulawesi
neo.pl.nasa.gov/news/news165.html en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watampone neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news165.html
10/9 - NASA spacecraft impacted lunar crater seeking water; 41 gallons found; 1 billion gallons suspected to be in same crater.
10/20 – European astronomers discover 32 exoplanets
11/13 – Having analyzed the data from the LCROSS lunar impact, NASA announces that it has found a "significant" quantity of water in the Moon's Cabeus crater
11/20 - Lino Lacedelli died, Italian mountaineer; With Achille Compagnoni, first to reach summit of K2
11/23 – In the Philippines, at least 57 are abducted and killed in an election-related massacre in the province of Maguindanao. This appears to be the deadliest attack on journalists in recent history
12/16 – Astronomers discover GJ1214b, the first-known exoplanet on which water could exist
12/19 – Kim Peek died, American savant



2010
1/12 - Haiti earthquake. Deadliest quake of 2010. earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/2010/
1/14 - Phoebe Prince, an Irish immigrant, committed suicide in her South Hadley, MA, home after bullying.
www.boston.com/news/educa...t_bullying/
1/29 - Mars at opposition & largest + brightest full moon of 2010.
1/31 - Howard Lotsof died, liver cancer; champion of Iboga bush
www.nytimes.com/2010/02/17...lotsof.html
2/10 - earthquake, IL *another earthquake occurred in IL on 4/18/2008.
The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is launched.
possible meteorite impact, central Mexico
2/14 - Received Fijian Kava (heart-shaped leaves)
2/17 + 18 - Vesta at opposition dawn-aop.astro.umd.edu/calendar.shtml
www.astronomy.com/en/News-O...ruary.aspx
2/27 - magnitude 8.8 earthquake Chile's coast. equal magnitude with 1/31/1906 Ecuador quake. Most powerful quake of 2010.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/2010/
Asteroid 532 Herculina Occults HIP 60599 (6.2 Magnitude Star) in constellation Coma Berenices
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/....html#1002 asteroidoccultation.com/2010_0...651.htm
2/28 - Astrophysicist Chushiro Hayashi died. Created models for stars of mass between 0.01 & 100x the Sun.
3/8 - earthquake, Okcular, Turkey; 50 dead
3/9 - Justin Charron, 15, of Somerset, struck by car and bus on Bark St, Swansea. Boy listening to iPod; serious head and leg injuries.
www.wpri.com/dpp/news/po...stin-charron
www.heraldnews.com/news/x31...n-Swansea
www.tauntongazette.com/news/x...tigated
3/11 - astronomers Koichi Nishiyama and Fujio Kabashima imaged a dramatic change in the brightness of a star in the constellation Cygnus. They realized that the star, known as V407 Cyg, was 10 times brighter than in an image they had taken three days earlier. It was a nova.
www.nasa.gov/mission_pag...ng-nova.html
3/18 - Fess Parker died
3/20 - First day of Spring and Eyjafjallajokull (AYA-feeyapla-yurkul) volcano erupted in Iceland
earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Natur...ew.php
3/21 - Saturn at opposition. Takes 29.46 years to orbit the Sun.
sites.google.com/site/larr...man/saturn
www.telescopes.net/doc/3020 astroplanet.info/ www.space.com/spacewatch/...-100319.html
astronomyworld.net/planetary_events.html homepage.ntlworld.com/mjpowel...Path.htm
www.spacestationinfo.com/satur...ns.htm
3/24 - Jim Marshall died (yesterday); rock music photog… grateful dead… iris
3/25 - Ginger Lucianno and her son Andrew (autistic) found murdered in their Sunset Hill, FR home *See Krista Lucianno 1/14/2006
3/28 - William Thurber prompts a Silver Alert in Barrington, RI, disappeared, disoriented with Alzheimer's. Thurber, member of the local family behind the Tilden-Thurber and Thurber-Roach jewelry firms, was found at Hope and Waterman streets in Providence okay. According to current tenants of the famed Tilden-Thurber building -- the Stanley Weiss company -- the jewelry firm has been a Providence landmark since 1895. *McKenna magic silver key / '71 Camaro. For some good reason, I went to Carey Durfee's myspace page before reading details about Thurber and saw Carey living in Barrington. AND I'd thought of McKenna's silver key and silver Camaro before discovering Silver Alert.
www.foxprovidence.com/dpps/ne..._3292520
Santa Catalina is where Jodie Nelson departed on her Paddlesurf for Cancer and was accompanied by minke whale. www.mercurynews.com/breaking..._14830158
4/4 - earthquake, 7.2, north mexico/s. california (easter sunday)
4/5 - Earth struck by most powerful space storm in 3 years, the result an enormous coronal mass ejection (CME) on April 3rd (CME filmed by SOHO)
www.newscientist.com/article...ars.html
Vinnie Huntington gored by his bull in Durham, ME. Dislocated shoulders/puncture wounds. Bull was shot and will be eaten by the family. *See Huntington Beach Ufo below. www.google.com/hostednews...pAD9EUFSP80
4/6 - Asteroid 824 Anastasia occultation of Zeta Ophiuchi, the third brightest star in the constellation of Ophiuchus. Viewable is Western North America. "The projected path of this stellar eclipse — just 25 miles wide — will run from Southern California (encompassing a part of the Los Angeles metro area)… where the Easter earthquake hit!!!!!!! www.asteroidoccultation.com/obse...asia/
astroguyz.com/2010/04/05/...bright-star/
Huntington Beach, CA ufo www.realufos.net/2010/04/f...ic-hb.html
4/7 (local time) - Earthquake, 7.7, Sumatra earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...2010utc5/
earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...stats.php
Two teenage girls took their horses for a walk when one of them took a tumble in Hanover, MA. That horse tripped off of a bridge and fell into a creek. The rider’s nanny, Sara Reynolds, came running when she heard the commotion. “He could get up on all three legs, but his back leg, his back left leg, he couldn’t get it up. His head was in the branches but he was fully alert, he was staying calm. I was telling the girl that was riding him to stay calm too,” Reynolds said. The Plymouth Tech Team wrapped a sturdy belt behind the big animal’s haunches and pulled him out. www1.whdh.com/news/articl...al/BO139486/
4/8 - Near-Earth asteroid, 2010 GA6, flew by Earth within lunar orbit. It was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey. Santa Catalina is where Jodie Nelson departed on her Paddlesurf for Cancer on 3/28.
4/10 - A pulsar system known as Swift J1749.4-2807 -- J1749 for short -- erupted with an X-ray outburst. The pulsar is a rapidly spinning neutron star -- the crushed core of a massive star that long ago exploded as a supernova. Neutron stars pack more than the sun's mass into a ball nearly 60,000 times smaller. With estimated sizes between 10 and 15 miles across, a neutron star would just span across Manhattan.
www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblo...ior-.html
4/14 (local) - earthquake 6.9, Qinghai province, China; 2,700 dead
Calls came in from Madison, WS, and all over south central Wisconsin, and from as far away as St. Louis, reporting probably meteorite. Sharon Wisniewski, spokesperson for the Dane County Regional Airport, confirms pilots on two aircrafts witnessed what looked like a bright meteor in the sky. They believe it burned out. One pilot was flying a helicopter, the other a plane. Ken in Madison said the sky "Lit up just like daylight" and then it was gone.
www.wkowtv.com/Global/story.asp
www.nytimes.com/2010/04/17...eorite.html
www.universetoday.com/2010/04...ireball/
www.msnbc.msn.com/id/370187...nce-space/
Eyjafjallajokull volcano erupted in Iceland. The ash caused stoppage of flights in Ireland & Scotland & UK; first time flights down there since 9/11.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Natur...ew.php
4/15 - Jack Herer died
4/16 - Fire at Tecumseh St, Fall River, killed Kayara Graham, 4, and injured her mother, Denisha Golden.
www.heraldnews.com/topstori...ouse-fire
4/18 - Ufo, Methuen, MA
ufoclearinghouse.webs.com/apps/...-light
4/19 - ufo, geelong, victoria, australia www.youtube.com/watch
4/20 - earthquake, 3.3, Tennessee. *Near birthplace of Leslie Jordan…Pink Carpet
4/22 - Deepwater Horizon, an oil rig owned by BP and Transocean, sinks to the bottom of the Gulf Of Mexico after having a blowout two days earlier.
4/24 - tornado, yazoo and choctaw counties, ms; at least 10 dead. "…all that remained of Sullivan's Crossroads Grocery in Choctaw County was a pile of cinderblocks and some jars of pickled eggs and pigs' feet. Owner Ron Sullivan, his wife and four other people were inside when the storm tore the wooden roof off. They came away with cuts and bruises. Sullivan had been on the phone, describing the weather conditions to a meteorologist, when the line went dead and the twister hit, hurling Sullivan into a cinderblock wall."I was levitated and flew 15 feet over there to the back wall," he said. "The only reason I wasn't killed was the wall was still there. After I hit it, it collapsed."A steel fuel storage tank, about 10 feet long, was uprooted by the twister and rolled into the store, coming to rest against a freezer. Hiding on the other side of the freezer was Sullivan's wife." news.yahoo.com/s/ap/us_tornado_hero_mom (Nikki Bradsahaw Carpenter)
ufos, london, look like orange eggs www.youtube.com/user/jjiiz...tTgQ_DeP7MY
4/28 - Lauren Failla of NJ killed by crocodile at Andaman Islands, north of Sumatra
www.nj.com/morristown-g...5/post_3.html
www.aolnews.com/nation/art...an/19467474
5/4 - ufo, murrysville, pa www.youtube.com/watch
5/5 - my first of four straight days of sun gazing
5/7 - ufo, brighton, ma www.youtube.com/watch
5/9 - mag. 7.4 quake off North Sumatra near 2004, 2005, and 4/6/10 epicenter
5/10 - deadly tornado, Oklahoma City
5/16 - Lunar occultation of Venus www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...x.htm
theskyabove22.wordpress.com/2010...enus/
Orcus and its satellite Vanth occultation of star *Mike Brown announced on his Twitter he was waiting for the occultation at Palomar early 5/16,
www.lesia.obspm.fr/perso/br...ndex.html
www.lesia.obspm.fr/perso/th..._pre.html
5/22 - magnitude 5.3 earthquake, baja california, mexico, near epicenter of powerful 4/4/10 quake.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...18756.php
plane crash, India, 158 dead
5/23 - Asteroid 2010 KO10 passed Earth at .5 lunar distances
5/26 - asteroid 2010 KV39 passed Earth at .65 lunar distances
5/27 - helicopter crash in Boxborough, MA, left federal aviation inspector Michael Wheeler dead and his student injured www.boston.com/news/local...cras_3.html
Guatemala's Pacaya volcano started erupting lava and rocks in the afternoon, blanketing the country's capital with ash and forcing the closure of the international airport. A television reporter was killed by a shower of burning rocks when he got too close to the volcano, about 15 miles (25 kilometers) south of Guatemala City.
Strong explosions rocked Ecuador's Tungurahua volcano, prompting evacuations of hundreds of people from nearby villages. Ecuador's National Geophysics Institute said hot volcanic material blasted down the slopes and ash plumes soared 6 miles (10 kilometers) above a crater that is already 16,479 feet (5,023 meters) above sea level. Winds blew the ash over the country's most populous city, Guayaquil, and led aviation officials to halt flights out of the Pacific port and from Quito to Lima, Peru.
5/29 - Lunar occultation of Ceres www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...x.htm
6/3 - Anthony Wesley recorded the impact of an asteroid hitting Jupiter
www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm
www.planetary.org/blog/article/00002521/ www.iceinspace.com.au/70-592-...1-0.html
arstechnica.com/science/ne...mpactor.ars
astronomy.fm/skylogs/bri...nations/585/ spacefellowship.com/news/art...bris.html
6/5 - tornado Streator, IL www.chicagobreakingnews.com/2010....html
www.youtube.com/watch
6/12 - magnitude 7.7 quake, nicobar islands, india
6/14 - 5.7 earthquake, San Diego County, CA; said to be aftershock of the 4/4 quake.
6/16 - 7.0 earthquake, Papau; 3 dead
5.3 quake, Sulawesi; 1 dead
6/18 - Ceres at opposition
www.space.com/spacewatch/...-100616.html
6/19 - A ~600 gram meteorite fell about 15 meters from a ranch hand in Varre-Sai, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
lunarmeteoritehunters.blogspot.com/2010/06/brazil-meteor-fireball-produces.html
6/21 - summer solstice
brightest gamma ray burst GRB 100621A detected by Swift
www.universetoday.com/2010/07...y-blast/
6/22 - bright fireball reported over Maghera, North of Ireland
6/23 - magnitude 5.5 earthquake Ontario-Quebec border. FB friend Marge G. felt it in Toronto. Quake felt in Brookline, MA, and several more US states, as far south as Tennessee.
Dylan Adams found shot dead and his girlfriend wounded in their Washington Street, Attleboro home. Served jail time for possession of 22 lbs. of pot.
www.boston.com/news/local...ad_in_home/
6/24 - fireball in sky, PA, MD, CT, NJ articles.lancasteronline.com/loc...1647
tornado, Bridgeport, CT
6/25 - Pluto at opposition
www.space.com/spacewatch/...-100616.html
6/26 - partial lunar eclipse
6/27 - asteroid Eunomia at opposition
www.rasnz.org.nz/MinorP/2010Eunomia.htm
www.eaas.co.uk/cms/index.php
www.redshift-live.com/gb/up/u...0000.htm
www.groupsrv.com/science/a...37121.html
webcache.googleusercontent.com/search
7/2 - Comet C/2009 R1 (McNaught) perihelion
www.heavens-above.com/comet.aspx
7/3 - Asteroid Amphitrite is at opposition, 7 a.m. EDT
7/6 - Earth at aphelion
7/7 - mag. 5.9 quake, southern cal. felt by some fb friends
asteroid (904) Rockefellia will occult a 3.9 mag star in the constellation Aquila for observers along a path across
India, Africa.
asteroidoccultation.com/2010_0...ary.txt
cosmos4u.blogspot.com/2010/07...tar.html
7/8 - lunar occultation of Iris www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
Asteroid (472) Roma occults 2.7 mag star delta Ophiuchi
www.iota-es.de/roma2010/roma_eng.html astrosurf.com/eaon/Cartes...IP_79593.htm
www.youtube.com/watch
Asteroid Juno is in conjunction with the Sun
7/11 - total solar eclipse eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEmono/...010.html
7/13 - Moon at perigee
7/16 - earthquake, mag 3.6, centered in the Rockville, Md., felt in Washington DC. It was the strongest earthquake in Washington since record keeping began in 1974. It was also the anniversary of the passage of the Residence Act - the law which made the District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.) the capital of the United States. news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100..._earthquake earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...2010yua6/
7/19 - James Gallant of Westport, MA, struck by lightning while working at Sylvan Nursery in Dartmouth. Revived by CPR.
www.heraldnews.com/topstori...lightning
7/30 - saw England/Scotland-shaped cloud in vicinity, just east of the "US cloud" I saw last year on 7/6. Also going to Tedeschi's for food.
7/31 - A meteor exploded in the atmosphere near Santa Fe, New Mexico creating a brilliant fireball just before 5 a.m. Local amateur radio astronomer Thomas Ashcraft captured the event from his personal observatory using an all-sky optical video camera developed by Sandia National Laboratories that is specifically sensitive to the near infrared flashes that meteors create. www.wired.com/wiredscienc...eball-video/
www.livescience.com/space/an...0809.html
8/1 - almost the entire side of the Sun that faces the Earth erupted in a blaze of activity known as a "coronal mass ejection". These storms throw up to 10 billion tons of plasma - superheated gas - off the surface of the star and hurtling into space at around a million miles an hour. It covered the 93 million mile journey from the Sun to the Earth in just three and a half days.
www.telegraph.co.uk/science/...lays.html
8/3 - solar storm - cme - reached earth
www.csmonitor.com/Science/C...ward-Earth
meteor fireball captured on film above Alabama
www.livescience.com/space/pe...0809.html
8/6 - lunar occultation of Iris www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
8/7 - shots fired at parked, unoccupied cars near 255 Danforth St, F.R.
www.heraldnews.com/newsnow/...-shooting
8/20 - Neptune at opposition
www.telescopes.net/doc/3020 www.msnbc.msn.com/id/387602...d_science/
meteor impact Jupiter caught on video by Masayuki Tashikawa
www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm
cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/...jupiter
www.space.com/scienceastr...-100823.html
8/23 - Family of Jan Keller report her missing. Dismembered body found.
jacksonville.com/news/crim...ff-reveals
8/27 - Mount Sinabung in North Sumatra erupted. It sent sand and ash up to 1.5 kilometers high but lava only moved near the crater. It caused no major damage "but only dust covered plants and trees" Mount Sinabung last erupted in 1600.
9/2 - Pizza delivery man, Richel Nova, lured to Hyde Park, Boston house, stabbed to death and robbed. Two high schoolers and 20-year old charged.
www.boston.com/news/local..._100_pizza/
9/4 - mag 7.4 earthquake Christchurch, New Zealand
9/8 - 2 small asteroids will safely pass Earth: 2010 RX30 at .6 lunar distance (248,000km) & 2010 RF12 at .2 LD or 79,000km (source: JPL)
www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm
9/11 - lunar occultation of Venus
www.spaceweather.com/swpod20...der1.jpg
9/16 - two tornadoes hit NYC. The tornadoes were the ninth and 10th to hit New York City since 1950, according to the weather service. One struck Brooklyn at 5:33 p.m. Thursday, with winds up to 80 mph, and carved its way northeast from the Park Slope section, Struckmann said. The second hit Queens at 5:42 p.m., with winds up to 100 mph, traveling 4 miles from the Flushing section to a mile north of Bayside.
9/17 - Dave Grennan discovered SN 2010 IK. It is the Irish Republic's first supernova discovery.
www.independent.ie/breaking...6096.html
Near-Earth asteroid 2010 SO16 discovered by Christou Apostolos and David Asher at the Armagh Observatory in Ireland. It is a companion to Earth which has a horseshoe-shaped orbit. www.technologyreview.com/blog/...26608/
9/19 - The Crab’s gamma-ray radiation suddenly became two to three times stronger for three days beginning September 19, scientists with the Italian Space Agency’s AGILE telescope reported in a September 22 Astronomical Telegram, an e-mail communication.
www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblo...urst.html
9/20 - continuous earthquake swarm Arkansas www.redorbit.com/news/scie..._arkansas/
9/21 - Jupiter and Uranus at opposition
www.telescopes.net/doc/3020 earthsky.org/astronomy-e...t-since-1951
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/#1009 www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx
apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap100918.html
asteroid 1541 Estonia closest approach to Earth
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/#1009
bright, loud fireball over New Mexico and West Texas recorded by Thomas Ashcraft, observed by many.
www.space.com/spacewatch/...-100924.html
9/29 - Extrasolar planet Gliese 581 g discovered by astronomers in the Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey, led by principal investigator Steven S. Vogt.
10/8 - Provincial governor Mohammad Omar and 19 more were killed by a bomb in northeast Afghanistan
www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn...96.html
10/12 - Small NEO, 2010 TD54, passed within 60,000 km of Earth. At closest approach will be over SE Asia, vicinity of Singapore. *It was discovered on 10/9/2010 (Belva Plain's birthday)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_TD54
10/13 - ufos over Chelsea, NYC www.youtube.com/watch turned out to be large bunches of party balloons
10/16 - Mercury is in superior conjuncton, 9 p.m. EDT. Exact opposite side of the Sun
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supe...d_inferior
10/17 - asteroid 2010 TE55 passed Earth at .95 LD ("lunar distances")
www.hohmanntransfer.com/#2010TE55
10/18 - moon at apogee
10/20 - Comet 103P/Hartley 2 perigee. This will be its closest approach since its 1986 discovery and one of the closest approaches of any comet in the last few centuries. www.skyandtelescope.com/observ...69.html
x-ray nova, named MAXI J1409-619, inside our Milky Way Galaxy in the constellation Centaurus.
www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx
10/24 - mag. 4.6 earthquake, Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming, triggered landslide on a hiking trail. No injuried reported.
10/25 - mag. 7.7 earthquake, West Sumatra; tsunami killed 400
Mount Merapi volcano began erupting in Java
www.thejakartapost.com/news/2...al.html
10/26 - Mount Merapi volcano erupted for a second day in Java; 30 killed
10/28 - Comet 103P/Hartley 2 perihelion
10/29 - Mount Merapi volcano most powerful eruption since it began erupting on 10/26; 1 killed
10/30 - near approach of NEA 2003 UV11 hea-www.harvard.edu/~fine/As...lybys.cgi
www.slas.us/gallery2/main.php
lunar occultation of Iris www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
11/1 - lunar occultation of Juno www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
Mount Merapi volcano erupted again in Java
Asteroid 2010 UJ7 will safely pass Earth today at 7:56 pm PDT (Nov 2, 2:56 UTC) at .74 lunar distance (286,000 km/178,000 mi)
11/2 - Kaoru Ikeya discovered a new visitor from deep space: Comet C/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami). Shigeki Murakami found it the next night. Ikeya is most famous for co-discovering the 20th century’s brightest comet, C/1965 S1 (Ikeya-Seki).
www.astronomy.com/News-Obse...akami.aspx
remanzacco.blogspot.com/2010/1...10.html
11/3 - moon at perigee
largest blast yet of Mount Merapi volcano
11/5 - lunar occultation of Venus www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
Yet another eruption of Mount Merapi in Java; This explosion — said by volcanologists to be the biggest since the 1870s — hit hardest in Bronggang, a village nine miles (15 kilometers) from the crater. Soldiers joined the rescue operations, pulling at least 78 bodies from homes and streets blanketed by ash up to one foot (30 centimeters) deep.
11/6 - star occultation by distant dwarf planet Eris - discovered by @plutokiller - sets a new distance record for the occulting body: 96 AU or 14 billion km. Previous record was Varuna at 42 AU. In Chile's San Pedro de Atacama the star vanished for 76 seconds!
www.lesia.obspm.fr/perso/br...ndex.html
www.mikebrownsplanets.com/2010/...s.html
Active sunspot 1121 has unleashed one of the brightest x-ray solar flares in years, an M5.4-class eruption at 15:36 UT on Nov. 6th.
www.nasa.gov/topics/sola...-Mflare.html
11/7 - asteroid (2010 VR21) missed earth by 0.9 lunar distances: diameter ~6.8 m, velocity 14.05 km/s, energy ~11 kilotons.
11/16 - Very small space rock - 2010 WA will safety pass Earth at 1/10 lunar distance, about 38,000km/24,000mi at 10:44pm EST.
11/22 - Stampede at festival in Cambodia's capital, Phnom Penh, killed 350. The three-day water festival marks the end of the rainy season and the main attraction is traditional boat races along the river.
11/23 - mag. 4.7 earthquake, Maui, HI, 6:34pm local time
11/26 - lunar occultation of Iris www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
11/30 - moon at perigee 18h56m UT (1:56 p.m. EST)
12/3 - 11 - asteroid Sheila undergoes outburst and becomes comet-like
www.universetoday.com/81576/a...nd-coma/
palomarskies.blogspot.com/2010/...t.html
12/4 - Venus at its brightest (occurred in early morn)
Bano, Ecuador evacuated as activity of Tungurahua volcano increased to spewing out incandescent material and ash. Tungurahua, a 5,029-meter (16,500-foot) volcano, name means "throat of fire" in the local Quechua language.
12/6 - lunar occultation of Mars www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
12/8 & 9 & 10 - enormous white storm photographed on Saturn
www.pvol.ehu.es/image.jsp
acquerra.com.au/astro/gall.../index.live
www.cloudynights.com/ubbthre...2utc.jpg
alpo-j.asahikawa-med.ac.jp/kk10...1.jpg
alpo-j.asahikawa-med.ac.jp/kk10...1.jpg
12/10 - Leonid Elenin discovered Comet Elenin
12/11 - car exploded near Drottninggatan, a busy shopping street in the center of Stockholm, Sweden. Shortly afterward, a second explosion was heard higher up on the same street, and a man was found injured on the ground. He was later pronounced dead. According to the news agency, the e-mail referred to Sweden's silence surrounding artist Lars Vilk's drawing of Muhammad as a dog and its soldiers in Afghanistan.
12/21 - total lunar eclipse
Magnitude 7.4 - BONIN ISLANDS, JAPAN REGION
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...00rxc.php
12/26 - 7.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the western Pacific nation of Vanuatu, triggering a small tsunami
12/31 - tornado killed 3 in Cincinnati, Arkansas






SEPTEMBER

9/1 ast usgs 2010
1804 - Karl Harding discovered Juno
1859 - Solar physicist Richard Carrington (who originally assigned sunspot rotation numbers) observed the first solar flare ever recorded. Naturally enough, an intense aurora followed the next day.
A solar superstorm affects electrical telegraph service.
1864 - Roger Casement born; Irish nationalist and British consular official, whose attempt to secure aid from Germany in the struggle for Irish independence led to his execution by the British for the crime of high treason.
www.facebook.com/notes/car...2728520309
1866 – James J. Corbett born, American heavyweight boxer
1886 (UTC) - earthquake in South Carolina, magnitude 7.3
1892 – Leverett Saltonstall born, 55th Governor of Massachusetts
1894 – Great Hinckley Fire: A forest fire in Hinckley, Minnesota, kills more than 400 people.
1895 – Engelbert Zaschka born, German helicopter pioneer
1902 - Dirk Brouwer born; astronomer; In 1951, he became one of the first to use electronic computers for astronomical computations. With this innovation, he calculated the orbits of the first artificial satellites, and from them, obtained increased knowledge of the shape of the earth, and re-determined astronomical constants. While still a student he determined the mass of Titan from its influence on other Saturnian moons.
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
1913 - Yellow Bear died; Oglala leader
1923 - Great Kanto earthquake, Japan; 140,000 dead. 5th deadliest of the last 450 years.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ctive.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
Rocky Marciano born
1950 - Phil McGraw born (Dr Phil)
1962 - earthquake in Iran; 12,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1974 – The SR-71 Blackbird sets (and holds) the record for flying from New York to London: 1 hour 54 minutes and 56.4 seconds.
1976 - Jada Fire born; porn star
1979 – The American space probe Pioneer 11 becomes the first spacecraft to visit Saturn when it passes the planet at a distance of 21,000 km.
1988 - Luis Alvarez died, American physicist, Nobel laureate, who proposed the asteroid-impact theory to explain the iridium anomaly of the K-T extinction boundary.




9/2 usgs ast 2010
1666 – The Great Fire of London breaks out and burns for three days, destroying 10,000 buildings including St Paul's Cathedral.
1786 - A hurricane strikes Barbados.
1847 – Roger Wolcott born, 39th Governor of Massachusetts
1859 – A solar super storm affects electrical telegraph service.
1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Sedan – Prussian forces take Napoleon III of France and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner.
1901 – Vice President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt utters the famous phrase, "Speak softly and carry a big stick" at the Minnesota State Fair.
1935 – Labor Day Hurricane of 1935: a large hurricane hits the Florida Keys killing 423.
1942 – Tom Williams hanged, Irish republican
1948 - Christa McAuliffe born, Boston. Died 1/28/86 on Challenger. *See 3/24 for Walter "Supernovae" Baade and Jack McAuliffe
1956 – Angelo Fusco born, Northern Irish Provisional Irish Republican Army member
1965 – Lennox Lewis born
1971 – Luna 19 begins orbiting the Moon.
Shauna Sand born, American actress and Playboy Playmate
1992 - An earthquake in Nicaragua kills at least 116 people
2001 - Christiaan Barnard died; South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first successful human-to-human heart transplant.
2005 - bears dream quaker fabric
Bob Denver died pneumonia and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Wife Dreama Peery
2010 - Pizza delivery man, Richel Nova, lured to Hyde Park, Boston house, stabbed to death and robbed. Two high schoolers and 20-year old charged.
www.boston.com/news/local..._100_pizza/



9/4
1827 - Finland: The Great Fire of Turku destroys 3/4 of the city, with many human casualties.



9/6 ast usgs 2010
1492 – Christopher Columbus sails from La Gomera in the Canary Islands, his final port of call before crossing the Atlantic for the first time.
1522 – The Victoria, the only surviving ship of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition, returns to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the world.
1620 – The Pilgrims sail from Plymouth, England, on the Mayflower to settle in North America. (Old Style date; September 16 per New Style date.)
1628 – Puritans settle Salem, which will later become part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1635 - Metius died, Dutch mathematician and astronomer. In 1585, his father had found for the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, later called pi, the approximate value 355/113. Metius later published his father's results, and the value 355/113 is traditionally referred to as Metius' number.
1766 – John Dalton born, British chemist and physicist
1782 – Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson died, wife of Thomas Jefferson
1847 – Henry David Thoreau leaves Walden Pond and moves in with Ralph Waldo Emerson and his family in Concord, Massachusetts.
1861 – American Civil War: Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant bloodlessly capture Paducah, Kentucky, which gives theUnion control of the mouth of the Tennessee River.
1888 – Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. born, American banker and diplomat (d. 1969)
1899 - The Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America was founded. It is now known as the American Astronomical Society.
1891 - Yrjo Vaisala born. He discovered asteroid 1541 Estonia. Asteroid 1541 Estonia made its closest approach to Earth on September 21, 2010, the same day Jupiter and Uranus were at opposition.
1901 – Anarchist Leon Czolgosz shoots and fatally wounds US President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.
1943 – Roger Waters born
1966 – Margaret Sanger died, American birth control activist
1975 - mag. 6.7 quake, Turkey. 2,000 dead.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1981 - Death of author Christy Brown *Just just randomly watched my recording of "My Left Foot"
www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi
2007 – Luciano Pavarotti died
2008 - Hurricane Hanna passed near New England, two weeks after Cooper Grishey's birth.



9/7 ast usgs ire
1818 – Thomas Talbot born, 31st Governor of Massachusetts
1819 – Thomas A. Hendricks born, 21st Vice President of the United States
1892 - Jim Corbett knocked out John L. Sullivan in New Orleans to become world champ
1908 – Michael DeBakey born, American cardiac surgeon
1914 – James Van Allen born, American space scientist
1921 - Frank Duff founded the Legion of Mary in Ireland.
1927 – The first fully electronic television system is achieved by Philo Taylor Farnsworth.
1948 - Taoiseach John A. Costello declares the Irish Free State a Republic
1964 – Andy Hug born; Swiss Seidokaikan and Kyokushin karateka and kickboxer from Wohlen, Switzerland. Hug was the K-1 World Grand Prix 1996
1978 – Keith Moon died
1996 – American Hip-Hop star Tupac Shakur is fatally shot four times on the Las Vegas strip after leaving the Tyson-Seldon boxing match.
1999 – A 5.9 magnitude earthquake rocks Athens, rupturing a previously unknown fault, killing 143, injuring more than 500



9/8
1841 – Charles J. Guiteau born, American assassin of James A. Garfield
1900 - Galveston Hurricane
1971 - Brooke Burke born



9/9
1798 - William Herschel discovered the Fireworks Galaxy, current home of the most supernovae observed in one galaxy
2009 - Robert H. McNaught discovered Comet C/2009 R1 (McNaught)



9/10
2003 - dream of spiral escalator/Anna Lindh stabbed
2005 - Mike Brown discovered Eris's moon, Dysnomia. *Mike Brown confirmed discovery anniversary on Twitter



9/11
2001 - 9/11
Christina Greene born; shot to death by Jared Loughner in Tuscon on 1/8/2010
globalgrind.com/channel/ne...101-photos/




9/12 ast ire usgs 2010
1725 - Guillaume Le Gentil born; He discovered what are now known as the Messier objects M32 (galaxy), M36 (cluster) and M38 (cluster), as well as the nebulosity in M8, and he was the first to catalogue the dark nebula sometimes known as Le Gentil 3 (in the constellation Cygnus). He was part of the international collaborative project to measure the distance to the Sun, by observing the transit of Venus at different points on the earth. Edmond Halley had suggested the idea, but it required careful measurements from different places on earth, and the project was launched with more than a hundred observers dispatched to different parts of the globe, for observing the transit coming up in 1761. The French expedition turned out to be particularly unlucky, and perhaps the most unfortunate was Guillaume le Gentil, who set out for Pondicherry, a French colony in India
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/195....45...37S page 39
1811 - perihelion of Great Comet of 1811. Comet visible to the naked eye for around 260 days, a record it held until the appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp in 1997. www.icq.eps.harvard.edu/bortle.html
1869 – Peter Mark Roget died, British lexicographer
1922 - Mark Rosenzweig born, American brain researcher; American research psychologist who found in animal studies on neuroplasticity that the brain continues developing anatomically, reshaping and repairing itself into adulthood based on life experiences, overturning the conventional wisdom that the brain reached full maturity in childhood.
1933 – Leó Szilárd, waiting for a red light on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, conceives the idea of the nuclear chain reaction.
1937 - Hira Ratan Manek born; sungazer who claims not to eat
solarhealing.com/
George Chuvalo born; Canadian heavyweight boxer who was never knocked down in ninety-three professional fights between 1956 and 1979. He is often considered to have had the greatest chin in the history of boxing. He was Canadian heavyweight champion as both an amateur and a professional, and twice fought for versions of the professional world's heavyweight title.
1940 - Linda Gray born, American actress (Dallas)
1951 – Bertie Ahern born, Irish politician; Taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland from 26 June 1997 to 7 May 2008
1952 – Strange occurrences, including a monster sighting, take place in Flatwoods, West Virginia.
1957 – Rachel Ward born
1958 – Jack Kilby demonstrates the first integrated circuit.
Wilfredo Benitez born, American boxer; won world championships in three separate weight divisions, and was the youngest world champion in boxing history.
1959 – Scott Brown born, United States senator from Massachusetts
1966 – Gemini 11, the penultimate mission of NASA's Gemini program, and the current human altitude record holder (except for theApollo lunar missions)
1979 – Indonesia is hit with an earthquake that measures 8.1 on the Richter scale.
1988 – Hurricane Gilbert devastates Jamaica
1994 – Frank Eugene Corder crashes a single-engine Cessna 150 into the White House's south lawn, striking the West wing and killing himself.
1999 - It is announced that every household in Ireland is to receive a millennium candle to light when the sun sets on New Year’s Eve
2003 – Johnny Cash died
2007 - mag. 8.5 earthquake, Sumatra; Largest earthquake in 2007. Twenty-five people killed
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...stats.php earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua.../#summary
2009 – Norman Borlaug died, American agronomist



9/13 ast usgs
1501 – Michelangelo begins work on his statue of David.
1609 – Henry Hudson reaches the river that would later be named after him – the Hudson River.
1788 – The Philadelphia Convention sets the date for the first presidential election in the United States, and New York City becomes the country's temporary capital.
1834 - Isaac Ward born, Belfast; discovered SN 1885 in Andromeda Galaxy (M31). first supernova discovered beyond our Milky Way galaxy
homepage.eircom.net/~irishas...ish.htm#8
www.irishastrosoc.123bemyhost.com/a...#8
www.mccarthyobservatory.org/astr...u.htm (SN 1885)
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/198....17...98B (pg. 100)
1848 – Vermont railroad worker Phineas Gage survives a 3-foot (0.91 m)-plus iron rod being driven through his head; the reported effects on his behavior and personality stimulate thinking about the nature of the brain and its functions.
1899 – Mackinder, Ollier and Brocherel make the first ascent of Batian (5,199 m – 17,058 ft), the highest peak of Mount Kenya.
1912 - Horace W. Babcock born; He invented and built a number of astronomical instruments, and in 1953 was the first to propose the idea of adaptive optics. He specialized in spectroscopy and the study of magnetic fields of stars. He proposed the Babcock Model, a theory for the magnetism of sunspots. Recipient of Bruce Medal.
1956 – IBM introduces the first computer disk storage unit, the RAMAC 305.
1981 – August born; porn star
1988 – Hurricane Gilbert is the strongest recorded hurricane in the Western Hemisphere, later replaced by Hurricane Wilma in 2005(based on barometric pressure).
1994 – Ulysses probe passes the Sun's south pole.
2004 – Luis E. Miramontes died, Mexican chemist, co-inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill
2008 – Hurricane Ike makes landfall on the Texas Gulf Coast of the United States, causing heavy damage to Galveston Island, Houstonand surrounding areas.



9/14 ast ire usgs
1638 - John Harvard died, Charlestown, MA; Harvard University
1712 - Giovanni Domenico Cassini died; astronomer discovered 4 of Saturn's moons. Found Jovian Red Spot.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giov...co_Cassini en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidera_Lodoicea www.nasa.gov/worldbook/c...rldbook.html
1814 – The poem Defence of Fort McHenry is written by Francis Scott Key. The poem is later used as the lyrics of The Star-Spangled Banner.
1846 - George Selden born, Clarkson, NY; granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile on 11/5/1895.
1847 – Mexican-American War: Winfield Scott captures Mexico City.
1849 - Ivan Pavlov born
1863 - James Craig Watson discovered asteroid 79 Eurynome ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi
William Lassell discovered galaxy NGC 7489 in Pegasus www.klima-luft.de/steinicke...assell.htm
1886 - Stanley Ketchel born; world middleweight and light heavyweight boxing champ
1899 - Hugo Benioff born; Caltech seismologist best remembered for his work in charting the location of deep earthquakes in the Pacific Ocean. a genius in the design of earthquake instruments. One of his first instruments, created in 1932, was the Benioff seismometer, which senses the movement of the earth - these instruments are now used in every country in the world. Equally famous is the Benioff strain instrument, which records the stretching of the Earth's surface. One of his most recent accomplishments was a refined version of the old Benioff seismometer which has given seismologists more knowledge about the cause of very deep earthquakes. Benioff noticed that earthquake sources get deeper under the overriding tectonic plate proceeding away from the trench at a subduction zone. He realized that this inclined array of earthquake sources indicate the position of the portion of the plate that has already been subducted. Thus, that pattern of earthquakes is known as a Wadati-Benioff zone.
docs.google.com/viewer
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...eople.php
1901 - President William McKinley died and Theodore Roosevelt became president
1914 - Robert S. Dietz born; geophysicist and oceanographer who conducted pioneering research along with Harry Hammond Hess concerning seafloor spreading as early as 1960–1961. While at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography he observed the nature of the Emperor chain of seamounts that extended from the northwest end of the Hawaiian Island–Midway chain and speculated over lunch with Robert Fisher in 1953 that something must be carrying these old volcanic mountains northward like a conveyor belt. In later work he became interested in meteorite impacts, was the first to recognize the Sudbury Basin as an ancient impact event, and discovered a number of other impact craters. He received the Barringer Medal in 1985.
1923 - Jack Dempsey vs. Luis Angel Firpo (died 8/7/60)
1948 – Groundbreaking for the United Nations headquarters in New York City.
1951 - Joe McDonnell born, Belfast; Volunteer of Óglaigh na hÉireann (PIRA), Hunger striker, Hero of Ireland.
1955 - Kathleen Florence Lynn died; Sinn Féin politician, activist and medical doctor. Lynn was a member of the Irish Citizen Army and chief medical officer during the 1916 Easter Rising. For her part in the rising she was imprisoned in Kilmainham Gaol.
1958 – The first two German post-war rockets, designed by the German engineer Ernst Mohr, reach the upper atmosphere. *On Jay Mohr's show a week or two ago I saw the recreation of my Redford dream.
1959 – The Soviet probe Luna 2 crashes onto the Moon, becoming the first man-made object to reach it.
1974 - Charles Kowal discovered Jovian moon, Leda, member of the Himalia group, using Palomar's 48-inch Schmidt (now called the Samuel Oschin Telescope)
solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm
palomarskies.blogspot.com/2009_...e.html
2001 - perihelion of Comet Borrelly
http://74.6.238.254/search/srpcache?ei=UTF-8&p=19P/Borrelly+perihelion+september+14,+2001&fr=ush-maps&u=cc.bingj.com/cache.aspx
www.aerith.net/comet/cata...P/2001.html
2009 - Darren Sutherland found dead; Irish boxer; hung himself



9/15
1857 - President William Howard Taft born



9/16 ast ire usgs
827 – Pope Valentine died
1494 - Francesco Maurolico born; Maurolico published a Cosmographia in which he described a methodology for measuring the earth, which was later employed by Jean Picard in measuring the meridian in 1670.
1736 – Gabriel Fahrenheit died, German physicist
1845 - Death of Thomas Davis; revolutionary Irish writer who was the chief organizer and poet of the Young Ireland movement.
1925 – Charles Haughey, Fianna Fáil leader and Taoiseach, is born in Castlebar, Co. Mayo
1928 - The 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane kills at least 2,500 people in Florida.
www.sun-sentinel.com/news/na...60.story
www.palmbeachpost.com/storm/c...ane.html
1934 – Singer, guitarist and founder of the Dubliners, Ronnie Drew, is born in Dublin
1947 – Typhoon Kathleen hit Saitama, Tokyo and Tone River area, at least 1,930 killed.
1956 – David Copperfield born, American magician
1971 - Amy Poehler born, Newton, MA
1978 – An earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale hits the city of Tabas, Iran killing about 20,000 people. news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/...4613135.stm
docs.google.com/viewer
www.agu.org/pubs/crossre...9p00689.shtml
2005 – Gordon Gould died, inventor of the laser
2010 - two tornadoes hit NYC. The tornadoes were the ninth and 10th to hit New York City since 1950, according to the weather service. One struck Brooklyn at 5:33 p.m. Thursday, with winds up to 80 mph, and carved its way northeast from the Park Slope section, Struckmann said. The second hit Queens at 5:42 p.m., with winds up to 100 mph, traveling 4 miles from the Flushing section to a mile north of Bayside.
2011 (or 9/17) - Ceres at opposition
homepage.mac.com/andjames/...res000.htm
dawn-aop.astro.umd.edu/calendar.shtml
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/#1109



9/17
2010 - Dave Grennan discovered SN 2010 IK. It is the Irish Republic's first supernova discovery.
www.independent.ie/breaking...6096.html
Near-Earth asteroid 2010 SO16 discovered by Christou Apostolos and David Asher at the Armagh Observatory in Ireland. It is a companion to Earth which has a horseshoe-shaped orbit. www.technologyreview.com/blog/...26608/



9/18 ast usgs 2010
1502 – Christopher Columbus lands at Costa Rica on his fourth, and final, voyage.
1679 – New Hampshire becomes a county of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1793 – The first cornerstone of the Capitol building is laid by George Washington.
1806 – Patrick Cotter O'Brien died, first known eight-foot-tall person
1810 – First Government Junta in Chile. Though supposed to rule only in the absence of the king, it is in fact the first step towards independence from Spain, and is commemorated as such.
1812 – The 1812 Fire of Moscow dies down after destroying more than three quarters of the city.Napoleon returns from the Petrovsky Palace to the Moscow Kremlin, spared from the fire.
1819 - Leon Foucault born; Early measurement of the speed of light
1859 – John L. Bates born, 41st Governor of Massachusetts
1851 – First publication of The New-York Daily Times, which later becomes The New York Times.
1870 – Old Faithful Geyser is observed and named by Henry D. Washburn during the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition toYellowstone.
1879 – The Blackpool Illuminations are switched on for the first time.
1888 – Toni Wolff born, Swiss student and lover of Carl Jung
1906 – A typhoon with tsunami kills an estimated 10,000 people in Hong Kong.
1914 – The Irish Home Rule Act becomes law, but is delayed until after World War I.
1926 - Great Miami Hurricane: A strong hurricane devastates Miami, Florida, leaving over 100 dead and causing several hundred million dollars in damage (equal to nearly $100 billion dollars today).
1932 – Actress Peg Entwistle commits suicide by jumping from the letter "H" in the Hollywood sign.
1945 – General Douglas MacArthur moves his command headquarters to Tokyo. *Huge earthquake mag. 8.9 struck 200 miles from Tokyo today.
1961 – Dag Hammarskjöld died in plane crash, Swedish United Nations Secretary-General and distinguished economist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
1965 - Comet Ikeya-Seki discovered by Kaoru Ikeya and Tsutomu Seki, the brightest comet of the last 75 years
1968 - Zond 5 flew around Moon
1974 – Hurricane Fifi strikes Honduras with 110 mph winds, killing 5,000 people.
1977 - Voyager 1 took first ever spacecraft photo of Earth & Moon together
photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catal...A00013
1980 – Soyuz 38 carries 2 cosmonauts (including 1 Cuban) to Salyut 6 space station.
2006 - Robert Quimby detected SN 2006gy in Perseus. On May 7, 2007, NASA and several of the astronomers announced the first detailed analyses of the supernova, describing it as the "brightest stellar explosion ever recorded". In October 2007 Quimby announced that SN 2005ap had broken SN 2006gy's record as the brightest ever recorded supernova. Time magazine listed the discovery of SN 2006gy as third in its Top 10 Scientific Discoveries for 2007. *Perseus is where Comet Holmes flared a half million times brighter on 10/23-24/2007.
Edward J. King died, 66th Governor of Massachusetts



9/19 usgs ast 2010
1710 – Ole Rømer died, Danish astronomer. speed of light.
1848 - Hyperion, Saturn's moon, discovered by William Lassell and William and George Bond.
books.google.com/books
1881 - President James Garfield died and Chester Arthur became pres.
1934 – Brian Epstein born, English musical group manager (The Beatles)
1957 – First American underground nuclear bomb test.
1960 – Mario Batali born, American chef
1961 – Betty and Barney Hill claim that they saw a mysterious craft in the sky and that it tried to abduct them.
1970 – Kostas Georgakis, a Greek student of Geology, sets himself ablaze in Matteotti Square in Genoa, Italy as a protest against the dictatorial regime of Georgios Papadopoulos.
1974 – Jimmy Fallon born
1976 – Turkish Airlines Boeing 727 hits the Taurus Mountains, outskirt of Karatepe, Osmaniye, Turkey, killing all 155 passengers and crew.
Alison Sweeney born, American actress
1979 - earthquake, Italy. 5 dead.
1982 – Scott Fahlman posts the first documented emoticons :-) and :-( on the Carnegie Mellon University Bulletin Board System.
1985 - earthquake, Mexico, 10,000 dead. Deadliest of year. Tied for most powerful at 8.0 with Chilean quake on 3/3/85.
earthquake.usgs.gov/regional...09_19.php
1991 – Ötzi the Iceman is discovered by German tourists.
2000 – Anthony Robert Klitz died in Dublin. British artist who specialised in cityscapes, notably London.
2010 - The Crab’s gamma-ray radiation suddenly became two to three times stronger for three days beginning September 19, scientists with the Italian Space Agency’s AGILE telescope reported in a September 22 Astronomical Telegram, an e-mail communication.
www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblo...urst.html



9/20 ast usgs 2010
1519 - Ferdinand Magellan sets sail from Sanlúcar de Barrameda with about 270 men on his expedition to circumnavigate the globe.
1633 – Galileo Galilei is tried before the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith for teaching that theEarth orbits the Sun.
1803 - Robert Emmet, one of Ireland's most famous revolutionaries, is executed by the Brits
1804 - Pierre Mechain died; discovered several galaxies; see Comet Encke perihelion 8/6/2010
messier.obspm.fr/xtra/hist...chain.html list of discoveries by date
1848 – The American Association for the Advancement of Science is created.
1873 - Giovanni Battista Donati died; Discovered 6 comets, pioneered spectroscopy. Discovered Comet Donati on 6/2/1858. Perihelion 9/30/1858. After the Great Comet of 1811, it was the most brilliant comet that appeared in the 19th century. It was also the first comet to be photographed. It was nearest the Earth on October 10, 1858.
1881 – Chester A. Arthur is inaugurated as the 21st President of the United States following the assassination of James Garfield.
1891 – The first gasoline-powered car debuts in Springfield, Massachusetts, United States.
1899 - mag. 6.9 quake, Turkey, 1,100 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1942 – Holocaust in Letychiv, Ukraine. In the course of two days the German SS murders at least 3,000 Jews.
1943 - Ted Neeley born; "Jesus Christ Superstar"
1975 - Moon Bloodgood born
Asia Argento born, Italian actress
1999 - mag. 7.6 quake, Taiwan. 2,400 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
2002 – The Kolka-Karmadon rock/ice slide.
2010 - Kenny McKinley suicide; nfl player
continuous earthquake swarm arkansas www.redorbit.com/news/scie..._arkansas/



9/21 ast ire usgs
1170 - MacMurrough and the Normans march on the Norse kingdom of Dublin, avoiding an Irish force that awaits them to the south of it. Dublin falls to them on this date. Some Norsemen, including the king of Dublin, Askulv, flee to the Hebrides or the Isle of Man
1758 – Christopher Gore born, 8th Governor of Massachusetts
1792 – The National Convention declares France a republic and abolishes the monarchy.
1795 - 'Battle of the Diamond' between (Protestant) Peep o' Day Boys and (Catholic) Defenders near Loughgall, Co. Armagh leaves 30 Defenders dead and leads to the foundation of the Loyal Orange Institution (later the Orange Order) '...to defend the King and his heirs as long as they shall maintain the Protestant ascendancy'
1827 – Joseph Smith, Jr. is reportedly visited by the angel Moroni, who gave him a record of gold plates, one-third of which Smith has translated into The Book of Mormon.
1881- Revolutionary Éamonn Ceannt, is born in Glenamaddy, County Galway; important in the planning of the Easter Rising of 1916, being one of the original members of the Military Committee and thus one of the seven signatories of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic. He was made commandant of the 4th Battalion of the Volunteers, and during the Rising was stationed at the South Dublin Union and the Marrowbone Lane Distillery, with more than 100 men under his command, notably his second-in-command Cathal Brugha, and W. T. Cosgrave. His unit saw intense fighting at times during the week, but surrendered when ordered to do so by his superior officer Padraig Pearse. Ceannt's position was one of only two that was not taken in the rising, along with Éamon de Valera's at Boland's Mill. Master of the uilleann pipes, even putting on a performance for Pope Pius X, who was on that occasion accompanied by a group of elderly Irish priests that had been long living in exile.
1903 - total solar eclipse
eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEgoogl...901.html
1906 - Henry Beachell born; American plant breeder. His research led to the development of "miracle rice" - hybrid rice cultivars that saved millions of people around the world from starvation. "Hank" Beachell has been called the most important person in rice improvement in the world.
1907 - Edward Bullard born; geophysicist, known for “dynamo” theory of geomagnetism, according to which the Earth’s magnetic field results from convective movements of molten material within the Earth’s core. Made the first satisfactory measurements of geothermal heat-flow through the oceanic crust. Bullard was also one of the first to develop the theory of continental drift. Studying the rifted continental borders along the two sides of the Atlantic Ocean, he tested their precise fitting by computer-based analyses and presented his results to the Royal Society of London: The fit was perfect. Instead of using the shorelines, like other geophysicists had done, he used a depth of 2000 meters (6560 ft) below sea level. This depth corresponds to about halfway between the shoreline and the ocean basins and represents the true edge of the continents. By doing this he discovered a near perfect fit among the continents put together. With this discovery he helped further the idea of a supercontinent that earlier geophysicist, Alfred Wegener, had suggested calling Pangaea.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
www.ldeo.columbia.edu/vetlese...bio.html
1913 - Arthur Covington born; Canadian physicist who made the first radio astronomy measurements in Canada. Through these he made the valuable discovery that sunspots generate large amounts of microwaves at the 10.7 cm wavelength, offering a simple all-weather method to measure and predict sunspot activity, and their associated effects on communications. On November 23, 1946 a partial solar eclipse passed over the Ottawa area, and Covington was able to conclusively demonstrate that microwave emissions dropped off precipitously when the Moon covered a particularly large sunspot. This also demonstrated that magnetic fields were instrumental in sunspot activity.
1924 – Hermann Buhl born, Austrian mountaineer
1931 – Larry Hagman born
1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit is published.
1938 – The Great Hurricane of 1938 makes landfall on Long Island in New York. The death toll is estimated at 500-700 people. *Long Island - where T. Roosevelt died
1948 - Marcel Cerdan became world middleweight champion by beating Tony Zale. Marcel…Mars/Marsh - Dublin Street
Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah died, Founder of Pakistan
1985 - mag 7.6 quake, Guerrero, Mexico. (Main shock on September 19, 1985 was mag 8.0 and killed 10,000.)
1989 – Hurricane Hugo makes landfall in the U.S. state of South Carolina.
forest.mtu.edu/classes/fw...urrhugo.htm
1999 – (9/20 UTC) Chi-Chi earthquake occurs in central Taiwan, leaving about 2,400 people dead. It was the second-deadliest quake in recorded history in Taiwan, after the 1935 Hsinchu-Taichung earthquake.
neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_dep...9/eq_990920/
2001 – Deep Space 1 flies within 2,200 km of Comet Borrelly. It managed to send back to Earth what were, at the time, the best images and other science data from a comet.
2003 – Galileo mission is terminated by sending the probe into Jupiter's atmosphere, where it is crushed by the pressure at the lower altitudes.
2010 - Jupiter and Uranus at opposition
www.telescopes.net/doc/3020 earthsky.org/astronomy-e...t-since-1951
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/#1009 www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx
apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap100918.html science.nasa.gov/science-n...p_jupiter/
asteroid 1541 Estonia closest approach to Earth
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/#1009



9/22
1939 - Mike Sullivan born; WY governor




9/23 ast ire usgs
1791 - Johann Franz Encke born; He determined a definitive orbit for Comet 12P/Pons-Brooks with a period of 70.68 years. In 1837, Encke described a broad variation in the brightness of the A Ring of Saturn. The Encke Division was later named in honor of his observations of Saturn's rings. Comet Encke is named for him.
adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/199....85..316B
1846 - Neptune is discovered by French astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier and British
astronomer John Couch Adams; the discovery is verified by German astronomer Johann Gottfried
Galle.
1877 - Urbain Le Verrier died; discovered Neptune
1878 - Mike and Jack Sullivan born, Cambridge, MA; world boxing champs.
books.google.com/books
www.cyberboxingzone.com/boxing...n-m.htm boxrec.com/list_bouts.php
1926 - Gene Tunney beats Jack Dempsey for the world heavyweight championship
1952 - Rocky Marciano beat Jersey Joe Walcott to become world heavyweight champ
1961 - Willie McCool born; astronaut
1976 – Wladimir Sidorenko born, Ukrainian boxer; WBA world bantamweight champion
1983 – Gerrie Coetzee of South Africa becomes the first African boxing world heavyweight champion.
1992 – A large Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb destroys the forensic laboratories in Belfast.
1995 - Albrecht Unsöld died; German astrophysicist known for his contributions to spectroscopic analysis of stellar atmospheres. His analysis of the B0 star Tau Scorpii, obtained on his 1939 visit to Yerkes and McDonald Observatories, provided the first detailed analysis of a star other than the Sun, and he was able to determine the physics and composition of the star’s atmosphere. He was also the author of many books, and his book Physik der Sternatmosphären mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Sonne was a bible for quantitative stellar spectroscopy and related fields, with special emphasis on the Sun.
2004 – Hurricane Jeanne: At least 1,070 in Haiti are reported killed by floods.
2007 - Autumnal equinox in the Northern hemisphere, Vernal equinox in the Southern hemisphere.
2010 - Autumnal equinox in the Northern hemisphere, Vernal equinox in the Southern hemisphere.
2011 - Autumnal equinox in the Northern hemisphere, Vernal equinox in the Southern hemisphere.
2014 - Autumnal equinox in the Northern hemisphere, Vernal equinox in the Southern hemisphere.
www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astr...th-seasons



9/24
1852 - final perihelion of Comet Biela
2182 - asteroid 1999 RQ36 predicted to pass very close, or even strike Earth
www.universetoday.com/2010/07...in-2182/



9/25 ast usgs 2010
1644 - Ole Rømer born. Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.
1789 – The U.S. Congress passes the Bill of Rights
1843 - Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin born. American geologist and educator. In 1893 he founded the Journal of Geology, of which he was editor for many years. He developed the planetesimal theory, which states that Earth was made from smaller objects that gradually built the planets by accretion. From this theory and other geological evidence he concluded that Earth was much older than assumed by Lord Kelvin (ca 100 million years) at the time.
1906 – In the presence of the king and before a great crowd, Leonardo Torres Quevedo successfully demonstrates the invention of theTelekino in the port of Bilbao, guiding a boat from the shore, in what is considered the birth of the remote control.
1917 – Thomas Ashe murdered by Brits. Founding member of Irish Volunteers.
1968 - mag. 5.7 quake, Mexico. 20 dead.
1983 – Maze Prison escape: 38 republican prisoners, armed with 6 handguns, hijack a prison meals lorry and smash their way out of the Maze prison. It is the largest prison escape since WWII and in British history.
1990 - the first automatic discovery of a near-Earth asteroid using computer software. Jim Scotti was observing with the 0.9-meter telescope on Kitt Peak when MODP flagged an object for him to analyze. Because main-belt asteroids move relatively slowly, speed is one indication of a near-Earth asteroid, or NEA, which helped to recognize the discovery. It became 1990 SS.
uanews.org/node/34336
2002 - The Vitim event, a possible bolide impact, occurs in Siberia, Russia, destroyed 40 square miles of forest and caused earth tremors felt 60 miles away.
www.meteorites.com.au/odds&en...sia.html abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/cc060703.html
2003 – Mag. 8.3 earthquake strikes just offshore Hokkaidō, Japan. No deaths. Most powerful quake of 2003.



9/28
1860 - Paul Villard born; discovered gamma rays
1905 - Max Schmeling born
1953 - Edwin Hubble died
1969 - Murchison Meteorite impacted the outskirts of the village of Murchison in Victoria, Australia. Tests showed it was laced with amino acids and some of the chemicals found in our genetic material.
www.newscientist.com/article...als.html



9/29 ast usgs 2010
1717 – An earthquake strikes Antigua Guatemala, destroying much of the city's architecture and making authorities consider moving the capital to a different city.
1895 – J.B. Rhine born, American parapsychologist
1954 – The convention establishing CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) is signed.
1960 – Nikita Khrushchev, leader of Soviet Union, disrupts a meeting of the United Nations General Assembly with a number of angry outbursts.
1966 – The Chevrolet Camaro, originally named Panther, is introduced.
1969 - mag. 6.3 quake, South Africa. This damaging earthquake was centered northeast of Cape Town, South Africa. The shock took 11 lives and left many homes and businesses in ruins. Worst hit by the unexpected event were the towns of Tulbagh, Wolseley, and Ceres, located about 55 miles northeast of Cape Town.
1979 – Pope John Paul II becomes the first pope to set foot on Irish soil with his pastoral visit to the Republic of Ireland.
1985 - B. E. Markarian died. Markarian's Chain is a stretch of galaxies that forms part of the Virgo Cluster. It's called a "chain" because, when viewed from Earth, the galaxies lie along a smoothly curved line.
1993 (9/30 local) - Magnitude 6.2 earthquake hits India's Latur and Osmanabad district of Marathwada (Aurangabad division) in Maharashtra state leaving ten thousand people dead and many more homeless. Deadliest of year.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...php#india
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ear/1993/
docs.google.com/viewer
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
latur.nic.in/html/earthquake.htm
2004 – The asteroid 4179 Toutatis passes within four lunar distances of Earth.
newton.dm.unipi.it/neodys/index.php www.space.com/382-video-h...h-today.html
impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm
The Burt Rutan Ansari X Prize entry SpaceShipOne performs a successful spaceflight, the first of two required to win the prize.
2006 – Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collides in mid-air with an Embraer Legacy business jet near Peixoto de Azevedo, Mato Grosso, Brazil, killing 154 total people
2009 - mag. 8.1 earthquake, Samoa. 200 dead. Most powerful quake of 2009.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
2010 - Extrasolar planet Gliese 581 g discovered by astronomers in the Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey, led by principal investigator Steven S. Vogt.



9/30 ast usgs 2010
1550 - Michael Maestlin born; Among his students was Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Although he primarily taught the traditional geocentric Ptolemaic view of the solar system, Maestlin was also one of the first to accept and teach the heliocentric Copernican view. Maestlin corresponded with Kepler frequently and played a sizable part in his adoption of the Copernican system. Galileo Galilei's adoption of heliocentrism was also attributed to Maestlin. The first known calculation of the (inverse) golden ratio as a decimal of "about 0.6180340" was written in 1597 by Maestlin in a letter to Kepler. Maestlin catalogued the Pleiades cluster on December 24, 1579. Eleven stars in the cluster were recorded by Maestlin, and possibly as many as fourteen were observed. He also observed the occultation of Mars by Venus on October 3, 1590, at Heidelberg. Asteroid 11771 Maestlin (4136 T-2), named for him, is a Main-belt Asteroid discovered on September 29, 1973 by C. J. van Houten.
www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Bio...html
1765 – José María Morelos born, Mexican revolutionary; Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811.
1846 - Dr. William Morton used ether for the 1st time on one of his patients at Mass General Hospital for tooth extraction
1870 – Jean Baptiste Perrin born, French physicist, Nobel laureate; After Albert Einstein published (1905) his theoretical explanation of Brownian motion in terms of atoms, Perrin did the experimental work to test and verify Einstein's predictions, thereby settling the century-long dispute about John Dalton's atomic theory.
1880 - Henry Draper took the first photo of the Great Orion Nebula (M42) with an 11-inch Clark Brothers photographic refractor www.spacetelescope.org/images/heic0601a/ (info on orion nebula, not draper's pict)
1882 – Hans Geiger born, German physicist
1905 – Nevill Francis Mott born, English physicist; Nobel Prize for Physics in 1977 for his work on the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.
1917 – Buddy Rich born, American big band drummer
1929 – Vassilis Papazachos born in the village of Smokovo, Greek seismologist (No major contributions according to wiki)
1943 – Johann Deisenhofer born; German biochemist who, along with Hartmut Michel and Robert Huber, received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1988 for their determination of the structure of a membrane-bound complex of proteins and co-factors that is essential to photosynthesis
1946 – Claude Vorilhon born, founder of Raelism, a UFO religion; Vorilhon claimed he had an alien visitation in December 13, 1973.
1957 – Fran Drescher born
1960 – Blanche Lincoln born, American politician
1964 – Trey Anastasio born, Fort Worth
1965 – General Suharto rises to power after an alleged coup by the Communist Party of Indonesia. In response, Suharto and his armymassacre over a million Indonesians suspected of being communists.
1971 – Jenna Elfman born
1982 – Tory Lane born; pornstar
Cyanide-laced Tylenol kills six people in the Chicago area. Seven are killed in all.
1985 - Charles Richter died
1990 – The Dalai Lama unveils the Canadian Tribute to Human Rights in Canada's capital city of Ottawa.
1999 – magnitude 7.5 quake, Oaxaca, Mexico; 35 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_dep...9/eq_990930/
Japan's worst nuclear accident at a uranium reprocessing facility in Tōkai-mura, northeast of Tokyo.
2002 – Göran Kropp, Swedish adventurer and mountaineer, died when he fell 60 feet while ascending the Air Guitar route near Frenchman Coulee in Vantage, Washington. Kropp's most famous for his May 23, 1996 solo ascent of Mount Everest without bottled oxygen or Sherpa support.
2004 – The first images of a live giant squid in its natural habitat are taken 600 miles south of Tokyo.
2005 – The controversial drawings of Muhammad are printed in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten.
2009 - earthquake, Sumatra, 1,117 dead. Deadliest of year.
neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_dep..._mebz_l.html








AUGUST

8/1 ast usgs 2010
1498 – Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to visit what is now Venezuela.
1555 – Edward Kelley born, English spirit medium
1779 – Francis Scott Key born
1818 – Maria Mitchell born, Nantucket, American astronomer. Discovered Miss Mitchell's Comet on 10/1/1847.
1843 – Robert Todd Lincoln born, son of Abraham Lincoln; 35th United States Secretary of War
1876 – Colorado is admitted as the 38th U.S. state.
1931 - Seán Ó Riada born; perhaps the single most influential figure in the renaissance of traditional Irish music from the 1960s, through his participation in Ceoltóirí Chualann, his compositions, his writings and his broadcasts on the topic.
1942 - Jerry Garcia born
1981 – MTV begins broadcasting in the United States and airs its first video, "Video Killed the Radio Star" by the Buggles.
1993 - The Great Flood of 1993 comes to a peak. Worst such U.S. disaster since the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927.
2008 - A total eclipse of the Sun is visible from Canada and extends across northern Greenland, the Arctic, central Russia, Mongolia, and China
2010 - almost the entire side of the Sun that faces the Earth erupted in a blaze of activity known as a "coronal mass ejection". These storms throw up to 10 billion tons of plasma - superheated gas - off the surface of the star and hurtling into space at around a million miles an hour. It covered the 93 million mile journey from the Sun to the Earth in just three and a half days. The flare which caused the eruption was relatively small, described as a class C3 by astronomers. Other flares, known as X or M class, are much larger, and capable of doing damage on Earth.
www.telegraph.co.uk/science/...lays.html


8/2
1969 - "Welcome back Uranus to the north celestial hemisphere - first time this has happened since 1969 August 2, almost 42 years ago!" Richard Miles on Twitter 4/11/11.
1971 - The world witnessed its first launch from the moon as Apollo 15's Lunar Module, Falcon, left the surface at 1:11 p.m. EDT. Video of the launch: upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped...Moon.ogg
www.astronautix.com/flights/apollo15.htm



8/3 ast usgs 2010
1527 - The first known letter from North America is sent by John Rut while at St. John's, Newfoundland.
1596 - David Fabricius discovered the first known periodic variable star (as opposed to cataclysmic variables, such as novas and supernovas), Mira, beginning with observations on August 3, 1596. Observing the planet Mercury, he needed a reference star for comparing positions and picked a previously unremarked third-magnitude star nearby. By August 21, however, it had increased in brightness by one magnitude, then by October had faded from view. Fabricius assumed it was a nova, but then saw it again on February 16, 1609.
1783 (or 8/4 or 8/5) – Mount Asama erupts in Japan, killing 35,000 people.
1916 – Roger Casement executed
1923 – Calvin Coolidge is sworn in as the 30th President of the United States in the early morning following the death of Warren G. Harding the previous day. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calv...Presidency
1934 – Adolf Hitler becomes the supreme leader of Germany by joining the offices of President and Chancellor into Führer.
1977 – The United States Senate begins its hearing about Project MKULTRA.
2001 – The Real IRA detonates a car bomb in Ealing, London, UK injuring seven people.
2010 - solar storm - cme - reached earth
www.csmonitor.com/Science/C...ward-Earth
meteor fireball captured on film above Alabama
www.livescience.com/space/pe...0809.html



8/4 ast
1834 – John Venn born, English mathematician
1892 – The family of Lizzie Borden is found murdered in their Fall River, Massachusetts home.
1946 – 1946 Dominican Republic earthquake: an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 hits northern Dominican Republic. 100 killed, mostly by tsunami. A major aftershock (M 7.6) occurred on Aug 08, causing additional damage and also generating a slight tsunami.
1952 - Moya Brennan born; widely regarded today as the "First Lady of Celtic Music"
1955 – Gerrie Coetzee born, South African boxer *Unclear if his birthday is 8/4 or 4/8.
1956 – Gerry Cooney born, Huntington, NY (near Oyster Bay); heavyweight boxer
1959 - John Gormley born; Irish politician and current leader of the Irish Green Party.
1961 - Barack Obama born
1965 – Dennis Lehane born, Dorchester, MA; American crime writer; "Mystic River"
Fredrik Reinfeldt born, current Prime Minister of Sweden
1977 – US President Jimmy Carter signs legislation creating the United States Department of Energy.
2007 – NASA's Phoenix spaceship is launched.




8/6 ast usgs
1775 – Daniel O'Connell born; known as The Liberator, or The Emancipator. He campaigned for Catholic Emancipation—the right for Catholics to sit in the Westminster Parliament, denied for over 100 years—and repeal of the Act of Union which combined Ireland and Great Britain.
1809 – Alfred Lord Tennyson born, English poet
1861 – Edith Roosevelt born, American First Lady of the United States
1866 – Matthew Henson born, American Arctic explorer
1914 – Ellen Louise Wilson died, first lady and first wife of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
1926 – Harry Houdini performs his greatest feat, spending 91 minutes underwater in a sealed tank before escaping.
1934 – Chris Bonington born, British mountaineer; career has included nineteen expeditions to the Himalayas, including four to Mount Everest and the first ascent of the south face of Annapurna.
1942 – George Jung born, American convicted drug felon
1945 - "Little Boy" atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima
1976 – Soleil Moon Frye born
1978 – Pope Paul VI died
1996 – NASA announces that the ALH 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, contains evidence of primitive life-forms.
2009 – Riccardo Cassin died, Italian mountaineer; In 1961, Cassin was both leader and a successful ascentionist on the expedition that made the first ascent of the eponymous Cassin Ridge on Mount McKinley in Alaska, at that date the most technical route on the mountain.
2010 - Comet 2P/Encke perihelion
www.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/Ephe...002P.html
lunar occultation of Iris www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...s.htm
2011 - Vesta at opposition dawn-aop.astro.umd.edu/calendar.shtml



8/7 ast usgs 2010
1782 – George Washington orders the creation of the Badge of Military Merit to honor soldiers wounded in battle. It is later renamed to the more poetic Purple Heart.
1848 - Jons Berzelius died; Swedish chemist
1903 - Louis Leakey born; archeologist
1942 - Carlos Monzon born; Argentine boxer who held the world middleweight title for 7 years
1960 - Jacquie O'Sullivan born, British singer (Bananarama)
Luis Angel Firpo died; Argentine heavyweight boxer; Firpo challenged world heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey at New York on September 14, becoming the first Latin American in history to challenge for the title. Firpo was floored seven times in the first round of the bout, before he trapped Dempsey against the ropes and launched a combination that sent the champion out of the ring. Dempsey hit his head against a writer's typing machine, and for a moment, it looked as if Firpo would become world Heavyweight champion. But Dempsey was helped into the ring at the count of nine (in spite of having been 17 seconds outside the ring) and he eventually knocked out Firpo in the second round. This fight has been regarded by critics and experts as one of the greatest fights in history.
www.britannica.com/EBchecke...gel-Firpo
1963 - Patrick Bouvier Kennedy born; son of U.S. President JFK and Jackie (d. 9 August 1963)
1964 – Prometheus, a bristlecone pine and the world's oldest tree, is cut down.
1965 – The infamous first party between Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters and motorcycle gang the Hells Angels takes place at Kesey's estate in La Honda, California introducing psychedelics to the gang world and forever linking the hippie movement to the Hell's Angels.
1966 – Jimmy Wales born, American internet entrepreneur
1976 - Viking 2 enters orbit around Mars
2003 - Kyle Dubois shot, Plain Street
findarticles.com/p/article...n15862439/
2006 - Robert McNaught discovered Comet McNaught, which became the brightest comet in 40 yrs.
www.space.com/scienceastr...-100412.html
2010 - shots fired at parked, unoccupied cars near 255 Danforth St, F.R.
www.heraldnews.com/newsnow/...-shooting



8/8 ast usgs 2010
1576 – The cornerstone for Tycho Brahe's Uraniborg observatory is laid on Hven.
1709 – Bartolomeu de Gusmão demonstrates the lifting power of hot air in an audience before the King of Portugal in Lisbon
1930 - Terry Nation born, Welsh novelist and screenwriter. He is probably best known for creating the villainous Daleks in the long-running science fiction television series Doctor Who.
1933 – Serena Wilson born, American belly dancer
1944 – John Holmes born, American pornographic actor
1961 – The Edge born
1983 - mag. 5.9 quake, Japan. 1 dead.
1987 - mag. 6.9 quake, Chile. 5 dead.
1988 - first fuck
1991 – James Irwin died, astronaut
1993 - mag. 7.8 quake, South of Mariana Islands. Most powerful of 1993.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...stats.php
2007 – An EF2 tornado touches down in Kings County and Richmond County, New York State, the most powerful tornado in New York to date and the first in Brooklyn since 1889.
2009 – Typhoon Morakot makes landfall in Taiwan, and almost the entire southern region of Taiwan is flooded by record-breaking rainfall.




8/9
1861 - Ernest von Rebeur-Paschwitz born. Rebeur-Paschwitz made the first known recordings of a distant earthquake.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
journals.cambridge.org/action...ulltext obit



8/10 ast usgs 2010
610 – Laylat al-Qadr: Muhammad begins to receive the Qur'an (traditional date).
1519 – Ferdinand Magellan's five ships set sail from Seville to circumnavigate the globe. The Basquesecond in command Sebastian Elcano will complete the expedition after Magellan's death in the Philippines.
1773 - Charles Messier discovered M110 (NGC 205), a dwarf elliptical galaxy and the second companion of the Andromeda Galaxy. Caroline Herschel discovered it independently 10 years later, on August 27, 1783.
1809 – John Kirk Townsend born; American naturalist, ornithologist
1821 – Missouri is admitted as the 24th U.S. state.
1874 – US President Herbert Hoover born
1884 - mag. 5.5 earthquake, New York. Felt strongly in NYC.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1905 – Russo-Japanese War: peace negotiations begin in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
1909 – Leo Fender born, American luthier, founder of Fender Musical Instruments Corporation
1932 – A 5.1 kilograms (11 lb) chondrite-type meteorite breaks into at least seven pieces and lands near the town of Archie in Cass County, Missouri. adsabs.harvard.edu/full/193....44...93N
1945 – Robert H. Goddard died, American rocket scientist
1947 - mag. 4.6 earthquake, Michigan; largest historical earthquake in Michigan
1967 – Riddick Bowe born; world heavyweight boxing champ
1971 – Kevin Randleman born; UFC heavyweight champion
1972 - A brilliant, daytime meteor skips off the Earth's atmosphere due to an Apollo asteroid streaking over the western US, from Utah into Alberta, Canada. www.phys.ncku.edu.tw/~astrol...302.html
1975 - Comet West was discovered in photographs by Richard West
www.universetoday.com/40814/comet-west/ cometography.com/lcomets/1975v1.html
1986 – Alan Rouse died, British mountaineer; first British climber to reach the summit of the second highest mountain in the world, K2, but died on the descent.
1990 – The Magellan space probe reaches Venus.


8/11 ast usgs
3114 BC – The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, used by several pre-Columbian Mesoamericancivilizations, notably the Mayans, begins.
1772 - Eruption and collapse of Mount Papandayan in West Java; 3,000 dead
docs.google.com/viewer
www.indotravelers.com/ENGLISH...our.html
1786 – Captain Francis Light establishes the British colony of Penang in Malaysia
1857 - English physiologist Marshall Hall died; the 1st to advance a scientific explanation of reflex action
1858 – The Eiger in the Bernese Alps is ascended for the first time by Charles Barrington accompanied by Christian Almer and Peter Bohren.
1904 - earthquake, Greece; 4 dead
1912 – Eva Ahnert-Rohlfs born, German astronomer. Died on day Bobby Sands was born.
1914 - José Silva born, American parapsychologist and author of the Silva Method and the Silva UltraMind ESP System, intended to help people increase their IQ, develop psychic skills, and to develop the ability to heal both themselves and others remotely, using forces unknown to science.
1942 – Actress Hedy Lamarr (11/9/13 - 1/19/00) and composer George Antheil receive a patent for a frequency hopping, spread spectrum communication system that later became the basis for modern technologies in wireless telephones and Wi-Fi. This early version of frequency hopping used a piano roll to change between 88 frequencies and was intended to make radio-guided torpedoes harder for enemies to detect or jam. The idea was not implemented in the USA until 1962, when it was used by U.S. military ships during a blockade of Cuba after the patent had expired. Perhaps owing to this lag in development, the patent was little-known until 1997, when the Electronic Frontier Foundation (JP BARLOW) gave Lamarr an award for this contribution. www.google.com/patents
1972 – Vietnam War: the last United States ground combat unit departs South Vietnam.
1996 – Baba Vanga died, Macedonian-born Bulgarian prophet, mystic, clairvoyant and herbalist
1999 – A total solar eclipse
The Salt Lake City Tornado tears through the downtown district of the city, killing one.
2003 - Kyle Dubois ***1/28/1858 - Dutch anatomist & geologist Eugène Dubois, who discovered the remains of Java man, the 1st known Homo erectus fossil, is born. ***See 8/11/1772 for Java eruption



8/13 ast usgs 2010
3114 BC – According to the Lounsbury correlation, the start of the Maya calendar.
1814 – Anders Jonas Ångström born
1831 – Nat Turner sees a solar eclipse, which he believes is a sign from God. Eight days later he and 70 other slaves kill approximately 55 whites in Southampton County, Virginia.
1847 - John Russell Hind discovered asteroid 7 Iris
adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
1860 - Annie Oakley born Phoebe Ann Mosey, Darke County, OH; sharp-shooter. Darke Co. is three counties away from Clermont Co. where Ulysses Grant was born.
1868 - mag 9.0 earthquake, Arica, Peru; 25,000 dead. Arica is site of observatory where discovery photos of Phoebe were shot.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...08_13.php
1888 – John Logie Baird born, Scottish television pioneer
1898 - Carl Gustav Witt discovered the first Near-Earth asteroid, 433 Eros
1910 – Florence Nightingale died
1995 – Rob Slater and Alison Hargreaves died on K2; Hargreaves scaled Mount Everest solo without supplementary oxygen in 1995. She also soloed all the great north faces of the Alps in a single season—a first for any climber.
2004 – Hurricane Charley, a Category 4 storm, strikes Punta Gorda, Florida and devastates the surrounding area.
Julia Child died
2006 - Payao Poontarat died, Thai boxer; WBC superflyweight world champion
2008 – Sandy Allen died, American tallest woman in the world
2009 - Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd discovered
2050 - Uranus at perihelion



8/15 ast usgs
1540 – Arequipa, Peru, is founded. discovery photo of Phoebe shot at Boyden Observatory in Arequipa. www.arequipatravel.com/
1599 – Nine Years War: Battle of Curlew Pass – Irish forces led by Hugh Roe O'Donnell successfully ambush English forces, led by Sir Conyers Clifford, sent to relieve Collooney Castle.
1769 – Napoleon Bonaparte born
1860 – Florence Harding born, American First Lady
1912 – Julia Child born
1914 – A male servant of American architect Frank Lloyd Wright sets fire to the living quarters of the architect's Wisconsin home,Taliesin, murders seven people with an axe and burns the living quarters to the ground.
1917 - Jack Lynch born; Taoiseach of Ireland
1945 – World War II: Victory over Japan Day – Japan surrenders.
1950 - The mag. 8.6 Assam-Tibet Earthquake 1,526 deaths.
1966 - The National Earthquake Information Center established, in Maryland.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1977 – The Big Ear, a radio telescope operated by Ohio State University as part of the SETI project, receives a radio signal from deep space; the event is named the "Wow! signal" from the notation made by a volunteer on the project. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wow!_signal
1998 – Omagh bomb in Northern Ireland, the worst terrorist incident of The Troubles
2001 - Astronomers announced the discovery of a planetary system similar to our own.
exoplanets.org/esp/47uma/...nounce.html
2006 - Voyager 1 reached 100 astronomical units from the sun.
2007 - An 8.0 earthquake strikes Peru, killing 512 people, injuring more than 1,500, and causing tsunami warnings in the Pacific Ocean. Deadliest quake of 2007.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...2007gbcv/
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...eaths.php
2008 - Vic Toweel died; South African boxer and former undisputed world bantamweight boxing champion



8/16 ast ire usgs 2010
1680 - John Flamsteed catalogued a new star in the location of supernova remnant, Cassiopeia A. Modern astronomers found that the supernova which occurred there in the constellation Cassiopeia at the same time and place as Flamsteed's new stellar discovery. The star, which Flamsteed named 3 Cassiopeiae, does not exist today. Thus, he may very well have unwittingly observed the supernova, the last supernova to occur within our Milky Way. The remnant of the supernova, Cassiopeia A, is the brightest extrasolar radio source in our sky. *Same year as the first confirmed tornado in U.S., at Cambridge, MA.
chandra.harvard.edu/edu/form...aper.html
www.skyandtelescope.com/news/1...59.html
1744 - Pierre Mechain born; discovered several galaxies; see Comet Encke perihelion 8/6/2010
messier.obspm.fr/xtra/hist...chain.html list of discoveries by date
1893 – Jean-Martin Charcot died, pioneering French neurologist
1898 - First discovery photo of Phoebe shot. WH Pickering, the discoverer, suggests name Phoebe, sister of Saturn
adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html (p. 275 & 276)
1906 - A magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Valparaíso, Chile leaves 3,000 - 20,000 dead. *Data inconsistent re: deaths
ssn.dgf.uchile.cl/home/terrem.html www.britannica.com/facts/10...hquake-in www.iris.edu/seismo/quak...6valparaiso/
1920 – Ray Chapman of the Cleveland Indians is hit in the head by a fastball thrown by Carl Mays of the New York Yankees, and dies early the next day. To date, Chapman is the second player to die from injuries sustained in a Major League Baseball game, the first being Doc Powers in 1909.
1921 - The first Dáil Éireann is dissolved and the second Dáil convenes
1924 - Fess Parker born; actor played Davey Crockett and Daniel Boone. Died last week, on Keith Finnerty's birthday.
1931 - Mag 5.8 earthquake, Texas. The largest historical earthquake in Texas. The most severe damage was reported at Valentine, where all buildings except wood-frame houses were damaged severely and all brick chimneys toppled or were damaged.
1933 – Stuart Roosa born, NASA astronaut, who was the command module pilot for the Apollo 14 mission. The mission lasted from January 31 to February 9, 1971 and was the third mission to land astronauts (Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell) on the Moon.
1957 – Irving Langmuir died, American chemist, Nobel Prize Laureate. His most noted publication was the famous 1919 article "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules" in which, building on Gilbert N. Lewis's cubical atom theory and Walther Kossel's chemical bonding theory, he outlined his "concentric theory of atomic structure". Born 1/31.
1960 – Joseph Kittinger parachutes from a balloon over New Mexico at 102,800 feet (31,330 m), setting three records that still stand today: High-altitude jump, free-fall, and highest speed by a human without an aircraft.
1973 – Selman Waksman died, Ukrainian-born American biochemist, Nobel Prize Laureate; American biochemist and microbiologist whose research into organic substances—largely into organisms that live in soil—and their decomposition promoted the discovery of Streptomycin, and several other antibiotics.
1976 - mag 7.9 earthquake and tsunami, Philippines, 5,000 - 8,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ilippines
1977 - Elvis died
1981 - U2 plays its first show ever at Slane Castle outside Dublin, and its only Irish show of the year
1989 – A solar flare from the Sun creates a geomagnetic storm that affects micro chips, leading to a halt of all trading on Toronto's stock market. discovermagazine.com/2003/oc...urst1031
www.spaceref.com/news/viewnews.html sci.esa.int/science-e/ww...ect/index.cfm
sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/X17/
1991 - Shamu died
2004 - Robert Quiroga died, American boxer; International Boxing Federation super flyweight champion from 1990 to 1993.
2005 – West Caribbean Airways Flight 708 crashes near Machiques, Venezuela, killing the 160 aboard.
2008 – Ronnie Drew died, Irish singer (The Dubliners)




8/17 ast usgs
1865 - mag. 5.0 earthquake, Tennessee; largest historic quake in TN
1877 - Asaph Hall knows he had discovered the Martian moons
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/197.....1..109G (pg. 111)
solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm
1933 – Eugene F. Kranz born, American NASA executive
1943 – World War II: The U.S. Seventh Army under General George S. Patton arrives in Messina, Italy, followed several hours later by the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, thus completing the Allied conquest of Sicily.
1947 – The Radcliffe Line, the border between Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan is revealed.
1951 – Alan Minter born, British middleweight world champion boxer.
1959 – Quake Lake: Quake Lake is formed by the magnitude 7.5 1959 Yellowstone earthquake near Hebgen Lake in Montana. 28 dead.
Kind of Blue by Miles Davis, the much acclaimed and highly influential best selling jazz recording of all time, is released.
1969 – Category 5 Hurricane Camille hits the Mississippi coast, killing 248 people. The second of three catastrophic Category 5 hurricanes to make landfall in the United States during the 20th century (the others being 1935's Labor Day hurricane and 1992's Hurricane Andrew), which it did near the mouth of the Mississippi River on the night of August 17, Camille was the only Atlantic hurricane to exhibit officially recorded sustained wind speeds of at least 200 miles per hour (320 km/h) until Allen equaled that number in 1980, and remains the only Atlantic hurricane in recorded history to make landfall with wind speeds at or above such level. By central pressure, in turn, Camille was the second strongest U.S. landfalling hurricane in recorded history, second only to the Labor Day Hurricane in 1935.
1970 – Venera Program: Venera 7 launched. It will later become the first spacecraft to successfully transmit data from the surface of another planet (Venus).
1994 – Jack Sharkey died, Beverly, MA; world heavyweight boxing champ
1999 – A 7.4-magnitude earthquake strikes İzmit, Turkey, killing more than 17,000 and injuring 44,000.
2005 – John Bahcall died, American astrophysicist; Bahcall developed and implemented of the Hubble Telescope, alongside Lyman Spitzer, Jr from the 1970s through to the period after the telescope was launched in 1990. In 1992, he received NASA's Distinguished Public Service Medal for this work. He also worked in many other areas: the standard model of a galaxy, with a massive black hole surrounded by stars, is known as the Bahcall-Wolf model; the Bahcall-Soneira model was for many years the standard model for the structure of the Milky Way; and he contributed to accurate models of stellar interiors.



8/19 ast ire usgs
1504 - After Ulick Burke of Clanricard seizes Galway city, Edward Fitzgerald, the Earl of Kildare, goes to Connacht and defeats Burke at Knockdoe. This is the largest battle ever fought between Irishmen, with 10,000 participants and 2,000 fatalities; however, most of the fighting is done by gall óglach - foreign warriors - or gallowglas.
1646 - John Flamsteed born; He catalogued a new star in the location of supernova remnant, Cassiopeia A. Modern astronomers found that the supernova which occurred there in the constellation Cassiopeia at the same time and place as Flamsteed's new stellar discovery. The star, which Flamsteed named 3 Cassiopeiae, does not exist today. Thus, he may very well have unwittingly observed the supernova, the last supernova to occur within our Milky Way. The remnant of the supernova, Cassiopeia A, is the brightest extrasolar radio source in our sky. *Same year as the first confirmed tornado in U.S., at Cambridge, MA.
chandra.harvard.edu/edu/form...aper.html
1692 – Salem witch trials: in Salem, Massachusetts, Province of Massachusetts Bay five people, one woman and four men, including a clergyman, are executed after being convicted of witchcraft.
1792 - Edward Hincks, orientalist, is born in Cork
1812 – War of 1812: American frigate USS Constitution defeats the British frigate HMS Guerriere off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada earning her nickname "Old Ironsides".
1871 – Orville Wright born
1876 - The ship Catalpa arrives in U.S. with Irish Fenian prisoners rescued from Australia
1885 - Isaac Ward discovered SN 1885 in Andromeda Galaxy (M31). first supernova discovered beyond our Milky Way galaxy dsc.discovery.com/space/sli...ex-05.html
www.irishastrosoc.123bemyhost.com/a...#8
www.mccarthyobservatory.org/astr...u.htm (SN 1885)
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/198....17...98B (pg. 100)
1887 - Alvan Clark died
1906 – Philo Farnsworth born
1921 – Gene Roddenberry born
1930 – Frank McCourt born, Irish-American author
1935 - Story Musgrave born, Stockbridge, MA; astronaut; stalked by Margaret Mary Ray who also stalked David Letterman
www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/html...grave.html
www.storymusgrave.com/biograp...ge01.htm
1946 - Bill Clinton born
1955 – In the Northeast United States, severe flooding caused by Hurricane Diane, claims 200 lives.
1968 – George Gamow died, Ukrainian-born physicist
1991 – Hurricane Bob hits the Northeast, United States.
1994 – Linus Pauling died, American chemist; He was one of the most influential chemists in history and ranks among the most important scientists in any field of the 20th century



8/20 ast ire usgs
1778 – Bernardo O'Higgins born, South American revolutionary; first Chilean head of state
1779 – Jöns Jakob Berzelius born, Swedish chemist
1833 – President Benjamin Harrison born
1885 - Ernst Hartwig discovered SN 1885 in Andromeda Galaxy (M31), one day after Isaac Ward discovered it in Belfast. first supernova discovered beyond our Milky Way galaxy seds.org/messier/more/m031_sAnd.html seds.org/messier/more/mw_sn.html
1919 - The Irish Republican Army is established by the Dail Eireann
1935 – Ron Paul born, US Congressman, 1988 and 2008 presidential candidate
1948 – Robert Plant born
1949 – Phil Lynott born, Irish musician (d. 1986)
1975 – Viking Program: NASA launches the Viking 1 planetary probe toward Mars.
1977 – Voyager Program: NASA launches the Voyager 2 spacecraft.
1981 - Twenty-seven-year-old Michael "Mickey" Devine, from the Creggan in Derry dies on the 60th day of his hunger strike. He was the third INLA Volunteer to join the H-Block hunger strikers and he was the last of the group to give their lives in order to retain their status as political prisoners.
1986 – In Edmond, Oklahoma, U.S. Postal employee Patrick Sherrill guns down 14 of his co-workers and then commits suicide.
2001 – Fred Hoyle died, English astronomer; noted primarily for his contribution to the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis and his often controversial stance on other cosmological and scientific matters—in particular his rejection of the "Big Bang" theory, a term originally coined by him as a jocular, perhaps disparaging, name for the theory which was the main rival to his own.
2010 - Neptune at opposition
meteor impact Jupiter caught on video by Masayuki Tashikawa
www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm
cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/...jupiter
www.space.com/scienceastr...-100823.html



8/21 ast usgs 2010
1665 - Giacomo F. Maraldi born, French-Italian astronomer. His most famous astronomical discovery was that the ice caps on Mars are not exactly on the rotational poles of that body. He also recognized that the corona visible during a solar eclipse belongs to the Sun not to the Moon, and he discovered R Hydrae as a variable star. R Hydrae is a Mira-type variable star in the constellation Hydra. He is also credited for the first observation (1723) of what is usually referred to as Poisson's spot, an observation that was unrecognized until its rediscovery in the early 19th century by Dominique Arago. At the time of Arago's discovery, Poisson's spot gave convincing evidence for the contested wave nature of light.
1770 – James Cook formally claims eastern Australia for Great Britain, naming it New South Wales.
1821 – Jarvis Island is discovered by the crew of the ship, Eliza Frances.
1951 – Char Margolis born
1954 – Chip Coffey born, American psychic
1959 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order proclaiming Hawaii the 50th state of the union. Hawaii's admission is currently commemorated by Hawaii Admission Day
1973 – Sergey Brin born, Co-founder of Google
1981 – Michael Devine died, 1981 Irish hunger strike figure
1986 – Carbon dioxide gas erupts from volcanic Lake Nyos in Cameroon, killing up to 1,800 people within a 20-kilometer range.
2007 – Hurricane Dean makes its first landfall in Costa Maya, Mexico with winds at 165 mph (266 km/h). Dean is the first storm since Hurricane Andrew to make landfall as a Category 5.
2008 - Kati delivered Cooper



8/23
2010 - Family of Jan Keller report her missing. Dismembered body found.
jacksonville.com/news/crim...ff-reveals



8/24
1617 - Saint Rose of Lima died, Peruvian saint; When she was admired, Rose cut off her hair against the objections of her friends and her family. Upon the censure of her parents, Rose disfigured her face with pepper and lye. She was very upset that she was so beautiful, and hurt herself to help others.



8/25
1764 - Charles Messier discovered M33, the Triangulum Galaxy. The light from M33 takes 2.9 million years to reach Earth.
2.9 million years - www.google.com/search
1796 - James Lick born, California land baron. In 1888, Lick Observatory was completed and given to the University of California as the Lick Astronomical Department. The Observatory was the first permanently staffed mountain top observatory in the world and housed the largest refracting telescope in the world at that time.
1822 - William Herschel died
1987 - Blake Lively born
1989 - Voyager 2 makes its closest encounter with Neptune, passing just 3,000 miles above the cloud tops
www.wired.com/thisdayinte...er2-neptune/



8/27 ast usgs 2010
1783 - Caroline Herschel discovered M110 (NGC 205), a dwarf elliptical galaxy and the second companion of the Andromeda Galaxy. Messier discovered it independently 10 years earlier on 8/10/1783.
www.universetoday.com/50215/messier-110/
www.skyandtelescope.com/observ...ts.html
1798 – Wolfe Tone's United Irish and French forces clash with the British Army in the Battle of Castlebar, part of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, resulting in the creation of the French puppet Republic of Connaught.
1809 – Hannibal Hamlin born, Vice President of the United States of America
1841 - Edmund Neison born Edmund Neville Nevill; wrote a key text in selenography called The Moon and the condition and configuration of its surface
1859 - Edwin Drake discovered oil at Titusville, PA
1865 – Charles G. Dawes born, 30th Vice President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate
1883 - Krakatoa in Indonesia erupted
1893 - Sea Islands Hurricane reached Savannah, GA/Beaufort, South Carolina.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List...death_toll
beaufortthreecentury.org/histo...e-1893
docs.google.com/viewer
books.google.com/books
georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh...7.htm
1906 - Ed Gein born; killer; He lived in Plainfield, Wisconsin, where he dug up graves and made stuff from the parts, and killed people. D. 7/26/84.
1908 - President Lyndon Johnson born
1929 - Herman Potočnik Noordung died; Slovene rocket engineer and pioneer of cosmonautics (astronautics). He is chiefly remembered for his work addressing the long-term human habitation of space.
1931 - Edward Flinn born; expert particularly in the fields of seismology and geodesy.
www.agu.org/about/honors...inn_bio.shtml
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flin...hl_regions
1958 - Sergei Krikalev born, Russian cosmonaut; veteran of six space flights and currently has spent more time in space than any other human being.
1962 – The Mariner 2 unmanned space mission is launched to Venus by NASA.
1963 - W. E. B. Du Bois died, American civil rights activist and scholar
Garret Morgan died; African American inventor who originated a respiratory protective hood (similar to the modern gas masks), credited with being the inventor of a type of traffic signal, and invented a hair-straightening preparation. He is renowned for a heroic rescue in which he used his hood to save workers trapped in a tunnel system filled with fumes. He is credited as the first African-American in Cleveland to own an automobile.
1971 - Margaret Bourke-White died, American photo-journalist
1979 – An IRA bomb kills British World War II admiral Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma and 3 others while they are boating on holiday in Sligo, Republic of Ireland. Another bomb near Warrenpoint, Northern Ireland kills 18 British soldiers.
1984 - mag. 5.2 earthquake, Indonesia; 125 dead
1998 - An intense gamma-ray burst from SGR 1900+14 was detected. SGR 1900+14 is located in the constellation of Aquila about 45,000 light-years away. It is an example of an intensely magnetic star, known as a magnetar, which is thought to arise from a fairly recent supernova explosion; only four are known to exist for certain within our Milky Way Galaxy.
2003 - Earth-Mars closest encounter in 60,000 years
www.nasa.gov/vision/univ...ingmars.html
2006 – Comair Flight 5191 crashes on takeoff from Blue Grass Airport in Lexington, Kentucky bound for Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia. Of the passengers and crew, 49 of 50 are confirmed dead in the hours following the crash.
María Capovilla died in Ecuador, oldest living person from 2004–2006
2007 – Bluegrass Army Depot Sarin(GB) leak in Lexington, Kentucky. Officials reported the Sarin levels 85 times above the safe limit.
2010 - Mount Sinabung in North Sumatra erupted. It sent sand and ash up to 1.5 kilometers high but lava only moved near the crater. It caused no major damage "but only dust covered plants and trees" Mount Sinabung last erupted in 1600.



8/28
1789 - William Herschel discovered Saturn's moon, Enceladus.
1859 – A geomagnetic storm causes the Aurora Borealis to shine so brightly that it is seen clearly over parts of USA, Europe, and even as far away as Japan.
1912 - George Alcock born; English astronomer; He was one of the most successful visual discoverers of novae and comets. Initially, his interest in astronomy involved observation of meteors and meteor showers, but in 1953 he decided to start searching for comets and in 1955 began searching for novae. His technique was to memorize the patterns of thousands of stars, so that he would visually recognize any intruder. In 1959 he discovered comet C/1959 Q1 (Alcock), the first comet discovered in Britain since 1894, and only five days later discovered another, C/1959 Q2 (Alcock). He discovered two more comets in 1963 and 1965.
1919 - Godfrey Hounsfield born, English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan McLeod Cormack for his part in developing the diagnostic technique of X-ray computed tomography (CT). His name is immortalised in the Hounsfield scale, a quantitative measure of radiodensity used in evaluating CT scans. The scale is defined in Hounsfield units (symbol HU), running from air at −1000 HU, through water at 0 HU, and up to bone at +1000 HU.
1979 – An IRA bomb explodes on the Grand Place in Brussels.
1990 – The Plainfield Tornado: an F5 tornado hits in Plainfield, Illinois, and Joliet, Illinois, killing 28 people.



8/31
1834 - Karl Harding died
1949 - Richard Gere born; ancestors were Mayflower Pilgrims. *earthquake in Plymouth on day Dalai Lama was in Newport.
1969 - Rocky Marciano died







journal / interesting words

On 8/9/10, found that the next Mercury occultation by Venus will occur on the anniversary of Mary (Bourke) Robinson's inauguration as Irish president. Bourque of course, involved on 8/7/03 in shooting here.

8/13/10 - watched orange cat on neighbor's garage roof and a jet transit bright Venus. awesome

triplett
dahm triplets & "triplett" cam gal
david triplett cannabis skin cancer


We all wana get away from the dead. No matter how close or great they were. Yes, we each have our memories and words of the greats, but we know the people are never coming back.
We may never hold the qualities of our dead heroes but maybe we don't need to, maybe we make our way and make our own world while we fly through the Universe. Why are we keeping the dead alive by talking about them? Is there not enough life?


5/1/11, Sunday - dreamed of an assault, several men looking like Al Qaida I guess, and I unarmed trying to slip through near the corner of Reed and Brayton Point roads in Somerset. In the mayhem, a woman and her son separated and I took the kid with me. Some point, I gave either him or a little dog the name You Are My Son. Few hours after dream, neighbor Suzanne had a boy I guess about the age of that in my dream over. First time visit, far as I know. Possibly the son of her new guy friend.

it's 5/25/11 and I just realized that RI is Right I also. My left eye, I need to work on weakness here. O, yesterday was anniv. of my F dream!
left eye hot

penis porn left eye
electromagnetic say goodbye
breath in the eir, in the eir
remember laughing
nothing else

sending your soul away to get something… and it returns with it. yes. you saw the star.

ah so this is sadness with the rain, but it tastes good. and I can still see the sun.

be wanted, not missed.











skank
feign






1909 1960 1970 1955 1905 1900 1908 1985 1951 1952

1909
2/11 - Max Baer born, American boxer
3/4 – William Howard Taft succeeds Theodore Roosevelt as the 27th President of the United States
3/23 – Theodore Roosevelt leaves New York for a post-presidency safari in Africa. The trip is sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society
4/6 – Robert Peary, Matthew Henson, and four Eskimo explorers come within a few miles of the North Pole.
4/22 – Rita Levi-Montalcini born, Italian neurologist, Nobel Prize laureate for discovery of Nerve growth factor (NGF), is a small secreted protein which is important for the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain target neurons (nerve cells). It also functions as a signaling molecule
4/26 - Doc Powers died; first baseball player to die of on-field injury. Second was Ray Chapman.
5/7 – Edwin H. Land born; Polaroid
6/22 – Construction begins on the Cape Cod Canal, which would separate Cape Cod from mainland Massachusetts.
6/26 – Colonel Tom Parker born; Elvis's Dutch-born manager. *Fess Parker
8/10 – Leo Fender born, American guitar inventor
8/14 – William Stanley died, inventor and engineer. B. 2/2/1829
9/7 – Eugene Lefebvre died, pioneer French aviator
10/8 - An earthquake in the Zagreb area leads Andrija Mohorovičić to identify the Mohorovičić discontinuity. The Mohorovičić discontinuity, usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle. The Moho separates both oceanic crust and continental crust from underlying mantle. The Moho mostly lies entirely within the lithosphere; only beneath mid-ocean ridges does it define the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary. The Mohorovičić discontinuity was first identified in 1909 by Andrija Mohorovičić a Croatian seismologist, when he observed that seismograms from shallow-focus earthquakes had two sets of P-waves and S-waves, one that followed a direct path near the Earth's surface and the other refracted by a high velocity medium
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...vicic.php
10/15 - Jesse Greenstein born
10/31 - Frank Bateson born, New Zealand astronomer
12/10 – Red Cloud died, Sioux warrior




1960
1/25 - Beno Gutenberg died; colleague and mentor of Charles Francis Richter at the California Institute of Technology and Richter's collaborator in developing the Richter magnitude scale for measuring an earthquake's magnitude. Used an extensive data set of earthquake wave travel times to compute the average distance to the top of the core at about 2,900 km.
1/28 - 1st wire photograph transmitted by radio waves bounced off the moon was sent between Hawaii and Washington, D.C.
4/1 - The 1st weather observation satellite, Tiros I, was launched & made the 1st television picture from space
Seamus McElwaine born; He and another IRA member, Séan Lynch, were preparing to ambush an army patrol near Roslea in County Fermanagh on 4/26/86 when they were ambushed themselves by the SAS. Both were wounded but Lynch managed to crawl away. McElwaine was interrogated for several minutes and then killed.
5/18 - Michael Ryan born; Hungerford massacre in Britain www.jeremyjosephs.com/hunger.htm
5/22 - Chilean quake
6/25 - Walter Baade died, German astronomer. Coined 'supernovae' with Fritz Zwicky.
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
8/16 - Joseph Kittinger stepped off balloon at 102,800 feet (31,300 m)
10/25 - Harry Ferguson died, farm equipment manufacturer; Irish engineer and inventor who is noted for his role in the development of the modern agricultural tractor, for becoming the first Irishman to build and fly his own aeroplane, and for developing the first four-wheel drive Formula One car, the Ferguson P99. Today his name lives on in the name of the Massey Ferguson company.
11/8 - John Kennedy elected
12/22 - Jean-Michel Basquiat born
12/26 - Michael Candy discovered Comet Candy. It was the first time an astronomer discovered & calculated the orbit of a comet.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/199...105...56.
www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~jds/history.htm
books.google.com/books
books.google.com/books
www.eoas.info/biogs/P001984b.htm
12/28 - Raymond Bourque born




1970
1/4 – An earthquake in China kills 10,000.
1/12 - Zack de la Rocha born
1/29 – Basil Liddell Hart died, British military historian
2/16 - Joe Frazier became world champ
2/18 - Louis Henyey died. The Henyey track is a path taken by pre–main sequence stars.
2/26 – Terence Patrick O'Sullivan died, engineer
2/27 - Chilli born?
4/22 – The first Earth Day is celebrated in the U.S.
4/26 - T-Boz born
5/6 – Arms Crisis in the Republic of Ireland: Charles Haughey and Neil Blaney are dismissed as members of the Irish Government, for accusations of their involvement in a plot to import arms for use by the Provisional IRA in Northern Ireland.
5/11 – Lubbock Tornado: An F5 tornado hits downtown Lubbock, Texas, the first to hit a downtown district of a major city since Topeka, Kansas in 1966; 28 are killed.
5/31 – The 1970 Ancash earthquake causes a landslide that buries the town of Yungay, Peru; 70,000 people killed. 16th deadliest in history. earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...ctive.php
6/8 - Gabrielle Giffords born; US Congresswoman shot in head 1/8/2010 by Jared Loughner in Tuscon AZ. An old friend of Loughner's, Caitie Parker, said on her twitter that he was "oddly obsessed with the 2012 prophecy."
8/17 – Venera program: Venera 7 is launched. It later becomes the first spacecraft to successfully transmit data from another planet.
9/20 - Luna 16 lands on the Moon and lifts off the next day with samples.
11/12 – 1970 Bhola cyclone: A 120-mph (193 km/h) tropical cyclone hits the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), killing an estimated 500,000 people (considered the 20th century's worst cyclone disaster). ams.allenpress.com/archive/...6-438.pdf
11/17 – Luna program: The Soviet Union lands Lunokhod 1 on Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains) on the Moon. This is the first roving remote-controlled robot to land on another world, and is released by the orbiting Luna 17 spacecraft.
12/15 – The USSR's Venera 7 becomes the first spacecraft to land successfully on Venus and transmit data back to Earth.
12/30 - Sonny Liston estimated time of death




1955
4/18 - Albert Einstein died
4/29 - Leslie Jordan born, Chattanooga, TN; "My Trip Down the Pink Carpet" *There was a 3.3 earthquake in Eastern TN this morning 4/20/10.



1905
1/2 - Charles Dillon Perrine shot first discovery photo of Jovian moon, Elara, member of the Himalia group.
adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
1/5 - William Claflin died; MA governor
1/14 – Ernst Abbe died; German physicist,optometrist, entrepreneur, and social reformer. Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modern optics. Abbe developed numerous optical instruments. He was a co-owner of Carl Zeiss AG, a German manufacturer of research microscopes and other optical systems.
2/27 - George S. Boutwell died, 20th Governor of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Treasury under President Ulysses S. Grant, Senator and Representative from Massachusetts and the first Commissioner of Internal Revenue under President Abraham Lincoln. In 1868, as a congressman, he served as one of the special prosecutors in the impeachment trials of President Andrew Johnson. He opposed the acquisition by the United States of the Philippines, became president of the American Anti-Imperialist League. bioguide.congress.gov/scripts...splay.pl
3/4 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt begins a full term.
3/17 – Albert Einstein publishes his paper On a heuristic viewpoint concerning the production and transformation of light, in which he explains the photoelectric effect using the notion of light quanta.
3/20 – Grover Shoe Factory disaster: A boiler explosion, building collapse and fire in Brockton, Massachusetts kills 58.
April – Albert Einstein works on the special theory of relativity as well as the theory of Brownian motion.
4/4 - Kangra earthquake in India; 20,000 dead
5/11 – Albert Einstein submits his doctoral dissertation On the Motion of Small Particles..., in which he explains Brownian motion. In the course of the year, Einstein publishes 4 papers, formulates the theory of special relativity and explains the photoelectric effect by quantization. 1905 is regarded as his "miracle year".
5/15 – Las Vegas, Nevada is founded when 110 acres (0.4 km²), in what later becomes downtown, are auctioned off.
6/30 – Albert Einstein publishes the article On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies where he reveals his theory of special relativity.
9/1 – The Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan are established from the southwestern part of the Northwest Territories.
9/5 – Russo-Japanese War – Treaty of Portsmouth: In New Hampshire, a treaty mediated by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt is signed by victor Japan and Russia. Russia cedes the island of Sakhalin and port and rail rights in Manchuria to Japan.
Touch the Clouds died, Minneconjou chief
9/28 – Max Schmeling born
9/30 - Nevill Francis Mott born, English physicist; Nobel Prize for Physics in 1977 for his work on the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.
10/5 – The Wright Brothers' third aeroplane (Wright Flyer III) stays in the air for 39 minutes with Wilbur piloting. This is the first aeroplane flight lasting over 1/2 an hour.
11/28 – Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Féin in Dublin, as a political party whose goal is independence for all of Ireland.



1900
Emil Weichert's seismometer
1/5 - Irish leader John Edward Redmond calls for a revolt against British rule.
In Baltimore, Physicist Dr. Henry A. Rowland of Johns Hopkins University announced his theory that the cause of the Earth's magnetism was its own rotation, based on experiments to produce magnetism by the rotation of a motor
1/19 - In North Brookfield, Massachusetts, Boston catcher Marty Bergen murdered his wife, his six year old daughter and his three year old son, with an axe, then killed himself by slitting his throat
2/22 - Sean O'Faolain born; he is best known for his short stories, collected in such volumes as Midsummer Night Madness, The Man Who Invented Sin, The Heat of the Sun, and The Talking Trees (1971). Among his novels are A Nest of Simple Folk and Come Back to Erin
3/8 - Howard Aiken born; pioneer in computing, being the original conceptual designer behind IBM's Harvard Mark I computer
3/10 - In Springfield, Illinois, the remains of Abraham Lincoln and his family were removed so that renovations could be made of his tomb. Held in a vault for more than a year, the remains were returned to the tomb, without public ceremony, on April 24, 1901.
4/26 - Charles Richter born
4/28 - Jan Oort born
4/30 – Hawaii becomes an official U.S. territory.
6/29 - Antoine de Saint Exupery born
7/8 - George Antheil born. Actress Hedy Lamarr (11/9/13 - 1/19/00) and composer George Antheil receive a patent for a frequency hopping, spread spectrum communication system that later became the basis for modern technologies in wireless telephones and Wi-Fi. This early version of frequency hopping used a piano roll to change between 88 frequencies and was intended to make radio-guided torpedoes harder for enemies to detect or jam. The idea was not implemented in the USA until 1962, when it was used by U.S. military ships during a blockade of Cuba after the patent had expired. Perhaps owing to this lag in development, the patent was little-known until 1997, when the Electronic Frontier Foundation (JP BARLOW) gave Lamarr an award for this contribution. www.google.com/patents
9/8 - Galveston Hurricane
9/23 - William Marsh Rice died
10/30 – Ragnar Granit born
11/6 – President William McKinley is reelected
11/22 - Arthur Sullivan died
12/7 – Max Planck announces his discovery of the law of black body emission, marking the birth of quantum physics.



1908
1/15 – Edward Teller born, Hungarian-born physicist
3/4 – The Collinwood School Fire, near Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A., kills 174.
5/9 - Stanley Ketchel beat Jack Sullivan to win the vacant world middleweight championship. Jack and twin brother Mike were born on 9/23/1878 in Cambridge, MA.
books.google.com/books
6/14 – Frederick Stanley died, Governor-General of Canada and founder of the Stanley Cup
6/24 - Grover Cleveland died
6/30 - The Tunguska event occurs in remote Siberia.
www.planetary.org/programs/...guska.html
www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm
8/25 – Henri Becquerel died
8/27 - Lyndon Johnson born, Stonewall, TX
12/8 - John A. Volpe born, 61st and 63rd Governor of Massachusetts, 2nd United States Secretary of Transportation
12/25 - Percy Molesworth died
12/26 - Jack Johnson became world heavyweight champ
12/28 – An earthquake and tsunami destroys Messina, Sicily and Calabria, killing over 70,000 people.



1985
January 20 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan is privately sworn in for a second term in office (publicly sworn in, January 21).
January 28 – In Hollywood, California, the charity single "We Are the World" is recorded by USA for Africa.
February 20 – Minolta releases world's first autofocus single-lens reflex camera.
2/27 - Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. died. Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts and a U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, South Vietnam, West Germany, and the Holy See (as Representative). He was the Republican nominee for Vice President in the 1960 Presidential election.
February 28 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army carries out a mortar attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary police station at Newry, killing 9 officers in the highest loss of life for the RUC on a single day.
March 3 – An 8.0 on the Richter magnitude scale earthquake hits Santiago and Valparaíso leaving 177 dead
Iosif Shklovsky died. He specialized in theoretical astrophysics and radio astronomy, as well as the Sun's corona, supernovae, and cosmic rays and their origins. He showed, in 1946, that the radio-wave radiation from the Sun emanates from the ionized layers of its corona, and he developed a mathematical method for discriminating between thermal and nonthermal radio waves in the Milky Way. He is noted especially for his suggestion that the radiation from the Crab Nebula is due to synchrotron radiation, in which unusually energetic electrons twist through magnetic fields at speeds close to that of light. In 1967, before the discovery of pulsars, Shklovsky examined the X-ray and optical observations of Scorpius X-1 and correctly concluded that the radiation comes from an accreting neutron star.
April 19 – The U.S.S.R performs a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan.
May 25 – Bangladesh is hit by a tropical cyclone and storm surge, which kills approximately 10,000 people.
May 31 – Forty-one tornadoes hit in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and Ontario, killing 76.
June 17 – John Hendricks launches the Discovery Channel in the United States.
June 23 – Air India Flight 182, a Boeing 747, blows up 31,000 feet (9,500 m) above the Atlantic Ocean, south of Ireland, killing all 329 aboard.
U.S. Vice President George H.W. Bush serves as Acting President for 8 hours, while President Ronald W. Reagan undergoes colon cancer surgery.
August 2 – Delta Air Lines Flight 191 crashes near Dallas, Texas, killing 137 people.
9/10 - Ernst Öpik died, Estonian astronomer and astrophysicist. Postulated a theory concerning the origins of comets in our solar system. He believed that they originated in a cloud orbiting far beyond the orbit of Pluto. This cloud is now known as the Oort cloud or alternatively the Öpik-Oort Cloud in his honour. He also invented a rocking camera for the study of meteors. In 1951 he published a paper concerning the triple-alpha process, describing the burning of helium-4 into carbon-12 in the cores of red giant stars. In 1922, Ernst Öpik published a paper where he estimated the distance of the Andromeda Galaxy.
9/19 - earthquake, Mexico, 10,000 dead. Deadliest of year. Tied for most powerful at 8.0 with Chilean quake on 3/3/85.
earthquake.usgs.gov/regional...09_19.php
9/29 - B. E. Markarian died. Markarian's Chain is a stretch of galaxies that forms part of the Virgo Cluster. It's called a "chain" because, when viewed from Earth, the galaxies lie along a smoothly curved line.
9/30 - Charles Richter died
10/8 - Malcolm Ross died; Captain in the United States Naval Reserve (USNR), an atmospheric scientist, and a balloonist who set several records for altitude and scientific inquiry, with more than 100 hours flight time in gas balloons by 1961. Along with Lieutenant Commander Victor A. Prather (USN), he set the current altitude record for a manned balloon flight, which has not been broken since 1961.
11/4 - Cus D'Amato died; trained Mike Tyson; "discovered" Rocky Graziano who went on to become champ with different trainer
11/12 – A total solar eclipse occurs over Antarctica at 14:11:22 UTC.
11/13 - Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia erupted; 23,000 dead in Armero
11/22 - Maria Sabina Gutierrez Tibon died
www.stainblue.com/maria.html www.erowid.org/culture/ch...maria.shtml
www.entheology.org/edoto/anmviewer.asp
oaxaca-travel.com/guide/cultural.php
11/27 - Halley at perigee
er.jsc.nasa.gov/SEH/halley.html
12/30 - Stephen Synnott discovered Uranus's moon, Puck



1951
6/21 - Charles Dillon Perrine died
7/18 - Jersey Joe Walcott beat Ezzard Charles for the world heavyweight championship



1952
2/2 – A tropical storm forms just north of Cuba moving northeast. The storm makes landfall in southern Florida the next day. It is the earliest reported landfall from a tropical storm, and the earliest formation of a tropical storm on record in the Atlantic basin.
3/7 - Paramahansa Yogananda died; Indian yogi and guru who introduced many westerners to the teachings of meditation and Kriya Yoga through his book, Autobiography of a Yogi
3/21 - 22 - Tornadoes ravage the lower Mississippi River Valley, leaving 208 dead.
3/22 – Wernher von Braun publishes the first in his series of articles entitled Man Will Conquer Space Soon!, including ideas for manned flights to Mars and the Moon.
3/29 – U.S. President Harry S. Truman announces that he will not seek reelection.
5/3 – U.S. lieutenant colonels Joseph O. Fletcher and William P. Benedict land a plane at the geographic North Pole.
4/19 – Alexis Arguello born, Nicaraguan boxer and politician; three-time world boxing champion.
7/19–26 – Washington D.C. is "buzzed" by several alleged UFOs tracked on multiple radars. Jets scramble on several occasions and the objects take evasive action, only to return after the jets leave the area. www.ufologie.net/htm/usa1952.htm
7/21 – A magnitude 7.5 earthquake (Richter scale) strikes Tehachapi, California, destroying unreinforced brick buildings.
8/11 - Dave Sands died; held the Australian Light-Heavyweight and Heavyweight Championship titles at the same time.
9/2 - Walton Lillehei completed, at age 35, the first successful surgical repair of the heart.
9/23 - Rocky Marciano became world champ, beat Jersey Joe Walcott.
11/1 – Nuclear testing: Operation Ivy: The United States successfully detonates the first hydrogen bomb, codenamed "Mike", at Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands in the central Pacific Ocean, with a yield of 10.4 megatons.
11/4 - United States presidential election, 1952: Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower defeats Democrat Adlai Stevenson
magnitude 9.0 Richter scale earthquake hits the Kamchatka Peninsula. 4th most powerful since 1900.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...world.php earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...11_04.php
11/20 - A fireball crashes in a backyard in Havelock North, New Zealand.[citation needed]
12/17 - Archie Moore beat Joey Maxim for world light heavyweight championship
www.theboxinghistorian.com/Ring....html www.boxing-memorabilia.com/Arch...m.htm





FEBRUARY

2/1
1905: U.S. physicist Lloyd Berkner, who 1st measured the extent of the ionosphere & helped develop radar systems, is born
1951: The TV station KTLA broadcast of an atomic explosion was the 1st to be seen publicly on television
2019 - asteroid 2002 NT7 could strike Earth
www.independent.co.uk/news/sc...383.html
neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news132.html



2/2 ast usgs ire
1882 - James Joyce born
1886 - Ernst Zinner born; On October 23, 1913 he rediscovered the Comet Giacobini-Zinner, which had been previously discovered by Michel Giacobini in 1900. His main work during this time was on variable stars.
1907 - Dmitri Mendeleev died, Russian chemist; He is credited as being the creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements.
1918 - John L. Sullivan died. Ground was opened with TNT, apparently, for his burial.
1929 - George Band born, British mountaineer; youngest person on the 1953 Everest expedition where Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay made the first successful ascent of the peak. Two years later, in 1955, he and Joe Brown became the first climbers to ascend Kangchenjunga. Out of respect for the religious feelings of the people of Nepal and Sikkim, they stopped about ten feet below the actual summit.
1941 (or 2/8) - DeLisle Stewart died; shot discovery photo of Phoebe which WH Pickering used to fing Phoebe
1972 – The British embassy in Dublin is destroyed in protest at Bloody Sunday.
1976 – The Groundhog Day gale hits the north-eastern United States and south-eastern Canada.
1979 - Sid Vicious died, heroin od.
1990 - Joe Erskine died, Wales; heavyweight boxing champ (in Britain only)
2002 - Spring tides after a full moon, driving rain, gale force southerly winds and low pressure all contribute to the highest water levels on the River Liffey in Dublin since 1924
2005 – Max Schmeling died; world heavyweight champ
2007 – Three tornadoes hit Central Florida, killing 42 people.
2011 - Quaoar occulted star 2UCAC 26029329. Seen in Europe.
www.iota-es.de/prediction...110202.html



2/3 ast ire usgs 2010 2011
1488 – Bartolomeu Dias of Portugal lands in Mossel Bay after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, becoming the first known European to travel so far south.
1534 or 1537 –Thomas "Silken Thomas" Fitzgerald is executed by the order of Henry VIII in London, England. Thomas FitzGerald, Lord of Offaly and five of his uncles are executed in London. This is the end of the FitzGeralds as a major power
1809 – The Illinois Territory is created.
1834 – Wake Forest University is established on land purchased from Calvin Jones, who died 3 days before Neptune's discovery in the year of Edward Pickering's birth.
1862 - Jean-Baptiste Biot died; French physicist, astronomer, and mathematician who established the reality of meteorites, made an early balloon flight, and studied the polarization of light. The Biot-Savart Law in magnetism is named after Biot and his colleague Felix Savart for their work in 1820. In their experiment they showed a connection between electricity and magnetism by "starting with a long vertical wire and a magnetic needle some horizontal distance apart [and showing] that running a current through the wire caused the needle to move" (Parsley). In 1803 Biot was sent by the French Academy to report back on 3000 meteorites that fell on L’aigle, France. He found that the meteorites, or stones at the time, were from outer space. With his report, Biot helped support Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni's argument that meteorites were debris from space, which he had published in 1794. Biot also helped further the field of optics in 1815 with a study in polarized light. In his experiment Biot studied the effects of polarized light as it penetrated organic substances and determined that light "could be rotated clockwise or counterclockwise, dependent upon the optical axis of the material" (Molecular).
1894 – Norman Percevel Rockwell born. D. 11/8/78, MA.
1910 - Louis Henyey born. The Henyey track is a path taken by pre–main sequence stars.
1919 - Edward Pickering died
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
Harry Boland and Michael Collins engineer Eamon de Valera's escape from Lincoln Jail in England. He is dressed as a woman
1922 – John Butler Yeats died, Northern Irish artist
1923 - mag. 8.5 earthquake, Kamchatka, Russia. 14th most powerful
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...world.php
tsun.sscc.ru/TTT_rep.htm
www.guardian.co.uk/environm...isasters1
books.google.com/books
1924 - Woodrow Wilson died
1925 - A report of the first "missing link" fossil, found by Raymond Dart, was published in a Johannesburg newspaper
1929 - Agner Krarup Erlang died; Danish mathematician ,statistician and engineer, who invented the fields of traffic engineering and queueing theory. Erlang created the field of telephone networks analysis. His early work in scrutinizing the use of local, exchange and trunk telephone line usage in a small community, to understand the theoretical requirements of an efficient network led to the creation of the Erlang formula, which became a foundational element of present day telecommunication network studies.
1931 – The Hawke's Bay earthquake, New Zealand's worst natural disaster, kills 258.
1938 – Emile Griffith born, US Virgin Islands boxer. World welterweight and middleweight champ
1966 – The unmanned Soviet Luna 9 spacecraft makes the first controlled rocket-assisted landing on the Moon.
1967 – Ronald Ryan, the last person to be executed in Australia, is hanged in Pentridge Prison, Melbourne.
1975 - William D. Coolidge died; American physicist, who made major contributions to X-ray machines. He was the director of theGeneral Electric Research Laboratory and a vice-president of the corporation. He was also famous for the invention of "ductile tungsten", which is important for the incandescent light bulb.
2009 – Sheng-yen died, Buddhist monk and founder of Dharma Drum Mountain.



2/4 ast ire usgs 2010
1775 - Birth of Robert Emmett, Irish patriot
1783 - earthquake, Italy; 50,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...php#italy
1789 – George Washington is unanimously elected as the first President of the United States by the U.S. Electoral College.
1831 – Oliver Ames born, 35th Governor of Massachusetts
1868 - Birth of Irish patriot and revolutionary, Countess Constance Markievicz, née Gore-Booth
1906 - Clyde Tombaugh born
1928 – Hendrik Lorentz died, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize Laureate
1943 - Wanda Rutkiewicz born, Polish mountaineer; On October 16, 1978, she became the third woman, the first Pole and the first European woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest. In 1986 she became the first woman to successfully climb and descend K2 (without supplemental oxygen) as part of a small expedition led by Lilliane and Maurice Barrard.
1965 (UTC) - Rat Islands, AK earthquake, 8.7 earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...world.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...02_04.php
1967 – Lunar Orbiter program: Lunar Orbiter 3 lifts off from Cape Canaveral's Launch Complex 13 on its mission to identify possible landing sites for the Surveyor and Apollo spacecraft.
1968 – Neal Cassady died; Merry Prankster, Jack Kerouac's friend
1973 – Oscar de la Hoya born, Mexican-American boxer
1974 - Satyendra Nath Bose died; He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for Bose-Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose-Einstein condensate. He is honored as the namesake of the boson.
1976 – In Guatemala and Honduras an earthquake kills more than 22,000. 19th deadliest quake since 1900.
1979 - Andrei Arlovski born; Belarusian kickboxer, mixed martial artist and a former Ultimate Fighting Championship heavyweight champion.
1998 - An earthquake measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale in northeast Afghanistan kills 3,500 people.
news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/...2534279.stm
2004 – Facebook, a mainstream online social network is founded by Mark Zuckerberg.



2/5
1971 - Apollo 14, the 3rd US manned Moon expedition, landed Alan Shepard & Edgar Mitchell near the crater Fra Mauro.
1974: Mariner 10 provides the first close-up images of Venus.
2008 - (2/5–6) – A tornado outbreak, the deadliest in 23 years, kills 58 in the Southern United States
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi died; founder of the Transcendental Meditation technique and leader or "guru" of the TM movement, a "Neo-Hindu" new religious movement. Varma's given name was Mahesh, while Maharishi and yogi are honorifics. Varma began to be known as "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi" around the year 1960. His devotees referred to him as "His Holiness", and he became known as the "giggling guru"



2/7 ast ire usgs 2010 2011
1736 - Stephen Gray died; English dyer and amateur astronomer, who was the first to systematically experiment with electrical conduction, rather than simple generation of static charges and investigations of the static phenomena.
1812 – The strongest in a series of earthquakes strikes New Madrid, Missouri.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...-1812.php earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...st_us.php
1837 – James Murray born; Scottish lexicographer and philologist. He was the primary editor of the Oxford English Dictionary from 1879 until his death.
1873 - Sheridan Le Fanu died; Irish writer; premier ghost story writer of the nineteenth century
1877 - John O'Mahony, founder of the Fenian Brotherhood in US, dies in New York
docs.google.com/viewer
1882 - John L. Sullivan became world heavyweight champ defeating Paddy Ryan
www.cyberboxingzone.com/boxing/sully.htm city.passchristian.net/great_fight.htm
The Erie Canal story is often told through the lives of those who found fame or fortune as a result of events in their lives which occurred along the canal. One such man was boxing great Paddy Ryan, “King of the Erie Canal and Champion of the World.” Ryan worked as a lock tender in his youth and received his athletic training in the canal town of Troy. He became his sport’s heavyweight champion from May 30, 1880, when he won the title from Joe Goss, until losing his title to John L. Sullivan on Feb. 7, 1882. (From the Lockport Union-Sun & Journal on 2/27/2010) www.lockportjournal.com/opinio...16.html
1884 - Johann Schmidt died; German astronomer; his map of the Moon was the first map of the Moon to surpass the celebrated map of Beer and Mädler. He also discovered Nova Cygni 1876, also known as Q Cygni, on November 24, 1876.
1888 - Discovery photograph of Horsehead Nebula shot
tdc-www.harvard.edu/plates/gallery/ hea-www.harvard.edu/DASCH/gallery.php
1904 – A fire in Baltimore, Maryland destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours.
1905 – Ulf von Euler born; Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist. He won a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970 for his work on neurotransmitters. found that noradrenaline was produced and stored in nerve synaptic terminals in intracellular vesicles
1932 – Al Worden born; American astronaut who was the command module pilot for the Apollo 15 moon mission in July-August 1971.
The "neutron" was described in an article in the journal Nature by its discoverer, James Chadwick
1965 - Nance O'Neil died, stage & film actress, friend of Lizzie Borden
1979 – Pluto moves inside Neptune's orbit for the first time since either was discovered.
starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/S...n5.html (Another NASA page said it happened 1/23/1979. It may be that the planets were equidistant on 1/23 and it wasn't until 2/7 that Pluto moved closer to the Sun.)
www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasc...112.htm
www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/...90209.html
1984 – Space Shuttle program: STS-41-B Mission – Astronauts Bruce McCandless II and Robert L. Stewart make the first untetheredspace walk using the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU).
1991 - The IRA fires at least three mortar bombs at 10 Downing Street; they fail to detonate
1999 – José Silva died, author of Silva Method and the Silva UltraMind ESP System
2000 – Doug Henning died, Canadian magician



2/8
1672: Sir Isaac Newton read his 1st optics paper before Royal Society in London
1906: Chester Carlson, U.S. physicist who invented xerography, an electrostatic dry-copying process, is born
1926 – Neal Cassady born
1928: John Baird's transmission of a TV image was received across the Atlantic ocean using short wave radio
1969: The Allende Meteorite falls in Chihuahua, Mexico. Largest carbonaceous chondrite ever found on Earth. Study of meteorite by NASA yielded info. re: solar system
1974: Fritz Zwicky died, Swiss-born American physicist and astronomer. In 1934 he and Baade coined the term "supernova" and hypothesized that they were the transition of normal stars into neutron stars, as well as the origin of cosmic rays. It was a prescient insight that had tremendous impact in determining the size and age of the universe in subsequent decades. In support of this hypothesis, Zwicky started hunting for supernovae, and found a total of 120 by himself (and one more, SN 1963J, in concert with Paul Wild) over a stretch of 52 years (SN 1921B through SN 1973K), a record which still stands as of 2006 (the current runner-up is Jean Mueller, with 98 discoveries and 9 co-discoveries).
Skylab Mission Ends.
1980 - Karen Marsden bludgeoned to death in Westport, MA woods by Carl Drew and Robin Murphy
archive.southcoasttoday.com/dail...4.htm
2010 - Comet 203P/Korlevic perihelion
2011 - Jupiter & Uranus are 4.9° apart and won't fit together in a 5° field again until March 2024. (Abrams) *Louis Suarato on twitter



2/9
1854: Dutch physician Aletta Jacobs, who pioneered family planning with the world's first birth control clinic, is born
1865: Geographer & glaciologist Erich Dagobert von Drygalski, who discovered am ice-free volcano on the Antarctic continent, is born
1870: The U.S. Weather Bureau (later named the Weather Service) was authorized by Congress
1923: American surgeon and pioneer in heart transplant surgery Norman E. Shumway is born
1997 – Matthew Spellman Eappen of Newton Massachusetts died
www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi
2011 - 9 & 10: Venus is farthest south of the celestial equator and rises farthest south. (Abrams)



2/10 ast
1857 – David Thompson died; English-Canadian fur trader, surveyor, and map-maker, known to some native peoples as "Koo-Koo-Sint" or "the Stargazer". Over his career he mapped over 3.9 million square kilometers of North America and for this has been described as the "greatest land geographer who ever lived."
1865 – Heinrich Lenz died; Russian-German-Estonian physicist most noted for formulating Lenz's law in electrodynamics
1923 – Wilhelm Röntgen died, German physicist, Nobel Prize Laureate
1929 – Jim and Lou Whittaker born, American mountaineers; Jim, as a member of the American Mount Everest Expedition 1963 led by Norman Dyhrenfurth, was the first American to reach the summit of Mount Everest. He summited on May 1 (TODAY'S DATE), 1963 with the Sherpa Nawang Gombu (a nephew of Tenzing Norgay). They ran out of oxygen but managed to reach the summit. Once there, Whittaker planted a US flag at the top. In 1965 he guided Robert Kennedy up the newly-named Mount Kennedy. He led the Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb that brought together climbers from the United States, USSR and China to summit Mount Everest. Lou Whittaker became the most experienced guide for climbing Mount Rainier with over 250 summits, developed a group of successful climbing-related businesses at the Rainier Base Camp in Ashford, Washington, adjacent to Mount Rainier National Park, and led the training of several generations of Rainier guides, many of whom continue to guide and climb elsewhere. He also led the first American ascent of the North Col of Mount Everest in 1984. www.historylink.org/index.cfm
www.thenewstribune.com/2007/1...er.html
books.google.com/books (pg 18 for birthdate)
1933 – In round 13 of a boxing match at New York City's Madison Square Garden, Primo Carnera knocks out Ernie Schaaf. Schaaf died on Valentine's Day, injured from the fight.
1944 – Eugène Michel Antoniadi died, Greek astronomer; Antoniadi became a highly reputed observer of Mars, and at first supported the notion of Martian canals, but after using the 83 centimeter telescope at Meudon Observatory during the 1909 opposition of Mars, he came to the conclusion that canals were an optical illusion. He also observed Venus and Mercury. The first standard nomenclature for Martian albedo features was introduced by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) when they adopted 128 names from the 1929 map of Antoniadi named La Planète Mars. A crater on Mars and the crater Antoniadi on the Moon were named in his honor, as well asAntoniadi Dorsum on Mercury itself. He is also famed for creating the Antoniadi scale of seeing, which is commonly used by amateur astronomers. The scale is on a 5 point system, with one being the best seeing conditions and 5 being worst. The actual definitions are as follows:
I. Perfect seeing, without a quiver.
II. Slight quivering of the image with moments of calm lasting several seconds.
III. Moderate seeing with larger air tremors that blur the image.
IV. Poor seeing, constant troublesome undulations of the image.
V. Very bad seeing, hardly stable enough to allow a rough sketch to be made.
1950 – Mark Spitz born, Modesto, CA; American swimmer
1954 – President Dwight Eisenhower warns against United States intervention in Vietnam.
1961 - George Stephanopoulos born, Fall River.
abcnews.go.com/GMA/george...raphy/story
1962 – Bobby Czyz born, Orange, NJ; American boxer; world light heavyweight and cruiserweight champion. Czyz was a member of the United States amateur boxing team whose other members died in the LOT Polish Airlines plane crash in Poland in 1980. Because of an auto accident one week before the fatal trip, Czyz was not on the plane.
1964 – Glenn Beck born, American radio and television host
Eugen Sänger died, Austrian aerospace engineerAustrian-German aerospace engineer best known for his contributions to lifting body and ramjet technology.
1967 – The 25th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified. It deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
1981 – A fire at the Las Vegas Hilton hotel-casino kills eight and injures 198.
2010 - earthquake, IL *another earthquake occurred in IL on 4/18/2008.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...0snay.php www.cnn.com/2010/US/02/1...ke/index.html
docs.google.com/viewer
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...#illinois
possible meteorite impact, central Mexico
The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is launched.




2/11
1847 - Thomas Edison born
1868 - Léon Foucault died, French physicist best known for the invention of the Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earth's rotation. He also made an early measurement of the speed of light
1990 - Buster Douglas beat Mike Tyson to become world champ
2010 - Soufriere Hills volcano, partial collapse of the lava dome sent large ash clouds over sections of several nearby islands including Guadeloupe and Antigua. Inhabited areas of Montserrat itself received very little ash accumulation through either event
2012 - Comet Giacobini-Zinner perihelion



2/12 ast ire usgs
1541 – Santiago, Chile is founded by Pedro de Valdivia.
1612 – Christopher Clavius died, German astronomer; main architect of the modern Gregorian calendar.
1700 – The Great Northern War begins in Northern Europe. Lasted 21 years.
1733 – Englishman James Oglethorpe founds Georgia, the 13th colony of the Thirteen Colonies, and its first city at Savannah (known as Georgia Day).
1775 – Louisa Adams born, First Lady of the United States, wife of John Quincy Adams
1809 - Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin born
1818 – Bernardo O'Higgins formally approved the Chilean Declaration of Independence near Concepción, Chile.
1832 – Ecuador annexes the Galápagos Islands.
1848 - John Mitchel publishes first United Irishmen
1875 - Homestead Meteorite: L5 Chondrite, Amana, Co., Iowa.
www.meteorite-times.com/meteor...eorite/
1876 – Thubten Gyatso born, 13th Dalai Lama
1879 – The first artificial ice rink in North America opens at Gilmore's Park in New York City.
1884 – Alice Roosevelt Longworth born, daughter of Theodore Roosevelt
1911 - Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh (Carroll Daly) born, 5th President of Ireland
1939 - Yrjö Väisälä discovered asteroid 1541 Estonia. *Closest approach to Earth on 9/21/10 (same day as Jupiter and Uranus same-day opposition
ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/#1009
1948 – Raymond Kurzweil born, American inventor
1951 – Steven Parent born, Manson murder victim
1959 - George Antheil died. Actress Hedy Lamarr (11/9/13 - 1/19/00) and composer George Antheil receive a patent for a frequency hopping, spread spectrum communication system that later became the basis for modern technologies in wireless telephones and Wi-Fi. This early version of frequency hopping used a piano roll to change between 88 frequencies and was intended to make radio-guided torpedoes harder for enemies to detect or jam. The idea was not implemented in the USA until 1962, when it was used by U.S. military ships during a blockade of Cuba after the patent had expired. Perhaps owing to this lag in development, the patent was little-known until 1997, when the Electronic Frontier Foundation (JP BARLOW) gave Lamarr an award for this contribution. www.google.com/patents
1961 – U.S.S.R. launches Venera 1 towards Venus.
1968 – Christopher McCandless born, American nomad, subject of biography Into the Wild
Chynna Phillips born
1971 – James C. Penney, American department store founder (b. 9/16/1875 -- Ceres opposition 9/16/2011)
1976 - Frank Stagg, Irish political prisoner, dies on hunger strike in English prison
1989 - Patrick Finucane is murdered by Unionist assassins; Finucane, who acted as solicitor for republican hunger striker Bobby Sands was shot dead at his north Belfast home in front of his wife and children
1999 - A new political storm rages after Sinn Féin president Gerry Adams predicts that the North would be moving toward a united Ireland in 15 years time
2001 – NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touchdown in the "saddle" region of 433 Eros becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid.
2002 – An Iran Air Tours Tupolev Tu-154 crashes in the mountains outside Khorramabad, Iran while descending for a landing at Khorramabad Airport, killing 119.
2003 - Mystery surrounds the identity of an artist as 24 of his paintings are launched at the Irish Museum of Modern Art (IMMA). Known only as “John the Painter”, he has been in psychiatric care in Cork city for more than 30 years
2009 – Colgan Air Flight 3407 crashes into a house in Clarence Center, New York while on approach to Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, killing all on board and one on the ground.



2/14 ast usgs 2010
270 – St. Valentine died; marking Valentines Day
1747 - A paper on the discovery of Earth's wobbling motion on its axis by astronomer James Bradley was read at the Royal Society
1779 - James Cook is killed by Native Hawaiians near Kealakekua on the Island of Hawaii.
1827 - George Bassett Clark born, Lowell
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/189.....6..136W
www.jstor.org/pss/20020485
books.google.com/books
1848 - Benjamin Baillaud born, French astronomer. He worked in celestial mechanics, especially on the motions of the satellites of Saturn. He directed measurements of positions of stars and the moon as well as planets and satellites.
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
1849 – In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first serving President of the United States to have his photograph taken.
1859 – Oregon is admitted as the 33rd U.S. state.
1876 – Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone, as does Elisha Gray.
1896 - English astrophysicist & cosmologist Edward Arthur Milne, best known for his development of kinematic relativity, is born
1898 – Fritz Zwicky born, Swiss-born American physicist and astronomer. In 1934 he and Baade coined the term "supernova" and hypothesized that they were the transition of normal stars into neutron stars, as well as the origin of cosmic rays. It was a prescient insight that had tremendous impact in determining the size and age of the universe in subsequent decades. In support of this hypothesis, Zwicky started hunting for supernovae, and found a total of 120 by himself (and one more, SN 1963J, in concert with Paul Wild) over a stretch of 52 years (SN 1921B through SN 1973K), a record which still stands as of 2006 (the current runner-up is Jean Mueller, with 98 discoveries and 9 co-discoveries).
1911 - Biomedical engineer Willem J. Kolff, who invented the artificial kidney machine & pioneered artificial organs, is born
1912 – Arizona is admitted as the 48th U.S. state.
1934 – Florence Henderson born, American actress
1941 - Paul Tsongas born
1950 – Karl Guthe Jansky died, American Discoverer of cosmic radio waves
1961 - Element 103, lawrencium, was first produced in Berkeley California
1972 – Rob Thomas born, American musician (Matchbox Twenty)
1978 - The 1st "micro on a chip" was patented by Texas Instruments
1980 - The Solar Maximum Mission Observatory is launched to study solar flares.
1984 - 6-year-old Stormie Jones from Texas became the world's 1st heart-liver double transplant recipient
2000 – The spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker enters orbit around asteroid 433 Eros, the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid.
2005 - Najai Turpin committed suicide while sitting in a car with his girlfriend and 2-year-old daughter. Contestant on reality TV show The Contender.
2010 - Received Fijian Kava piper (heart-shaped leaves)
2011 - sun unleashed its strongest solar flare in four years
www.nasa.gov/mission_pag...-xclass.html
www.space.com/10862-sun-e...r-flare.html
www.space.com/11538-post-...r-flare.html
daytime fireball seen over NYC and Philly, reports from my area of MA & RI as well (Reports of the fireball went in to the American Meteor Society from Raynham, Bourne, & Deerfield, MA, and Portsmouth, West Warwick, & Kingston, RI. amsmeteors)
www.amsmeteors.org/fireball2/public.php
www.mikesastrophotos.com/comet...02-14/
www.space.com/10873-dayti...-states.html
www.philly.com/philly/new...nesses.html
rare mag. 4.2 quake in Germany
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...01dv9.php
NASA spacecraft rendevous with Comet Tempel 1


2/15
1858 - William H. Pickering born



2/16 ast usgs 2010 2011
1222 – Nichiren Daishonin born, Japanese founder of Nichiren Buddhism
1514 - Georg Joachim von Lauchen, also known as Rheticus, born; He is perhaps best known for his trigonometric tables and for being Nicolaus Copernicus' sole pupil, who facilitated the publication of Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres).
1609 - David Fabricius discovered the first known periodic variable star (as opposed to cataclysmic variables, such as novas and supernovas), Mira, beginning with observations on August 3, 1596. Observing the planet Mercury, he needed a reference star for comparing positions and picked a previously unremarked third-magnitude star nearby. By August 21, however, it had increased in brightness by one magnitude, then by October had faded from view. Fabricius assumed it was a nova, but then saw it again on February 16, 1609.
1812 – Henry Wilson born, American politician 18th Vice President of the United States
1826 – Julia Grant born, First Lady of the United States
Danish chemist Julius Thomsen, who tabulated the amount of heat released or absorbed in 3,500 chemical reactions, is born
1859 – The French Government passes a law to set the A-note above middle C to a frequency of 435 Hz, in an attempt to standardize the pitch.
1909 – Richard McDonald born, American fast food entrepreneur "McDonald's"
1948 - Miranda, the innermost moon of Uranus, is discovered by Gerard Kuiper at McDonald Observatory in Texas.
Eckhart Tolle born, German writer and motivational speaker
1949 - The 1st recorded man-made object to reach extraterrestrial space was launched from White Sands Proving Grounds, NM
1964 – Christopher Eccleston born, English actor *Portrayed John Lennon in last night's PBS premiere of "Lennon Naked"
2001 – William Masters died, American gynecologist and sexologist



2/17
1723: Astronomer Johann Mayer, who developed lunar tables that greatly assisted navigators in determining longitude at sea, is born
1740 - John Sullivan born
1950 - Asteroid 1719 Jens discovered by K. Reinmuth at Heidelberg. Recent WISE infrared photograph of Tadpole nebula looks like crocodile. 1719 Jens is in the photo streaking across the nebula.
ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi
www.space.com/scienceastr...-100513.html
2004 - Mike Brown & Co discovered 2004 DW, aka 90482 Orcus, in the Kuiper Belt.
2010 (2/17 + 18) - Vesta at opposition dawn-aop.astro.umd.edu/calendar.shtml
www.astronomy.com/en/News-O...ruary.aspx


2/18 ast usgs ire 2010 2011
1546 – Martin Luther died, German religious reformer (b. 1483)
1564 – Michelangelo Buonarroti died, Italian artist and sculptor
1745 - The city of Surakarta, Central Java is founded on the banks of Bengawan Solo River, and becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Surakarta.
Alessandro Volta born, Italian physicist invented the electric battery
1790 - English physiologist Marshall Hall, who was the 1st to advance a scientific explanation of reflex action, is born
1832 - U.S. aeronaut Octave Chanute, whose work & interests profoundly influenced Orville & Wilbur Wright, is born
1838 – Ernst Mach born, Austrian physicist
1845 – Johnny Appleseed died, American environmentalist
1856 – The Know-Nothings convene in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to nominate their first Presidential candidate, former President Millard Fillmore.
1906 - Hans Asperger born
1911 - mag. 7.4 earthquake, Russia. 90 dead.
1930 - Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto on photographic plates taken on January 23 and January 29 of that year. *double check plates data
1933 - Jim Corbett died. B. 9/1.
1955 – Operation Teapot: Teapot test shot "Wasp" is successfully detonated at the Nevada Test Site with a yield of 1.2 kilotons. Wasp is the first of fourteen shots of the Teapot series.
1957 – Henry Norris Russell died, American astronomer
1960 – Andy Moog born, Canadian ice hockey player
1967 – J. Robert Oppenheimer died, American physicist
1969 – Hawthorne Nevada Airlines Flight 708 crashes into Mount Whitney, the tallest mountain in the contiguous US, killing all 35 on board.
Tomaž Humar born, Slovenian mountaineer (d. 2009)
1970 - Louis Henyey died. The Henyey track is a path taken by pre–main sequence stars.
1974 – Julia Butterfly Hill born, American environmental activist
1979 – Snow falls in the Sahara Desert in southern Algeria for the only time in recorded history.
1991 – The IRA explodes bombs in the early morning at Paddington station and Victoria station in London.
2003 – Comet C/2002 V1 (NEAT) makes perihelion, seen by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. As of April 2011, NEAT's the 8th brightest comet of the last 75 years. www.space.com/spacewatch/..._030131.html
www.aerith.net/comet/cata...T.html#2003 www.cometography.com/lcomets/2002v1.html
2004 – Up to 295 people, including nearly 200 rescue workers, die near Neyshabur in Iran when a run-away freight train carrying sulfur, petrol and fertilizer catches fire and explodes.
2010 (2/17 + 18) - Vesta at opposition dawn-aop.astro.umd.edu/calendar.shtml
www.astronomy.com/en/News-O...ruary.aspx
2011 - Full Snow Moon


2/19
1473 - Astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus born in Thorn, Poland.
1859 - Svante Arrhenius born; early supporter of panspermia theory
1948 - Paddy Monaghan born; bare knuckle boxing world middleweight champ
www.paddy-monaghan.com/paddy.html
2009 - Gas explosion killed Rosemarie Rebello in her New York Ave, Somerset home




2/20
1846 - Francesco De Vico discovered Comet 122P/de Vico
1951 - an L3-6 polymict brecciated chondrite fell from space at about 2:00 in the afternoon because it hit a tree. The single 1.9kg stone was recovered after burying itself “several feet” in the ground in Dubrovnik, Croatia. Dubrovnik means 'oak forests'.
www.meteorite-times.com/accret...orests/
1962 - John Glenn became the 5th person in space and first American to orbit Earth, aboard Friendship 7.
2002 - lunar occultation of Saturn
science.nasa.gov/science-n...onesaturn/



2/21 ast usgs 2010 2011
1788 – Johann Georg Palitzsch died, German astronomer. Comet Halley December 25, 1758.
1791: English chemist John Mercer, who invented the mercerization process for treating cotton which is still in use today, is born
1878 – The Mother born, Indian spiritual leader
1885 – The newly completed Washington Monument is dedicated.
1892: U.S. psychiatrist Harry Sullivan, who developed a theory of psychiatry based on interpersonal relationships, is born
1893 - Karl Gunnar Malmquist born. Swedish astronomer… interested in Schmidt telescopes and took the initiative, together with Åke Wallenquist, to get a large Schmidt telescope installed at Uppsala University's Kvistabergs Observatorium(Kvistaberg Observatory, 1964), at the time one of the largest Schmidt telescopes in the world with a mirror of 135 cm and acorrector plate of 100 cm. He also arranged for the university to construct a Schmidt telescope and build a dome at Mount Stromlo in Australia in 1956, "The Uppsala Southern Station".
1895 – Henrik Dam born, Danish biochemist, Nobel laureate. Discovered vitamin K and its role in human physiology.
1902: Dr. Harvey Cushing, the 1st U.S. brain surgeon, performed his 1st brain operation
1906 - discovery of asteroid Sheila by A. Kopff at Heidelberg
www.universetoday.com/81576/a...nd-coma/
1916 - The largest historical earthquake in North Carolina.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1918 – The last Carolina Parakeet dies in captivity at the Cincinnati Zoo.
1920 – Jacinta Marto died, witness of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Fatima (b. 1910)
1938 – George Ellery Hale died, American astronomer
1947 - Edwin H. Land 1st demonstrated his Polaroid Land camera, the 1st use of self-developing film
1951 - Vince Welnick born (The Grateful Dead)
1953: Francis Crick & James Watson reached their conclusion about the double helix structure of the DNA molecule
1955 – Kelsey Grammer born
1958 – The Peace symbol, commissioned by Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in protest against the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, is designed and completed by Gerald Holtom.
1964 – Jane Tomlinson born, British cancer campaigner (d. 2007)
1965 – Malcolm X is assassinated
1968 - Howard Walter Florey died, Australian-born pharmacologist. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Sir Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the extraction of penicillin.
1971 - Tim Sypko
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is signed at Vienna.
1972 – The Soviet unmanned spaceship Luna 20 lands on the Moon.
1979 – Jennifer Love Hewitt born
1991 - 2 earthquakes, Bering Sea. Two events about 3.7 seconds apart. Believed to be the largest earthquake ever located in this area.
1993 - Inge Lehmann died, Danish seismologist. Argued that the Earth's core is not one single molten sphere, but that an inner core exists which has physical properties that are different from those of the outer core. She was the first to interpret P wave arrivals which inexplicably appeared in the P wave shadow of the Earth's core as reflexions at an inner core. This interpretation was adopted within two to three years by other leading seismologists of the time, such as Beno Gutenberg, Charles Richter, and Harold Jeffreys. Lehmann moved to the USA for several years and collaborated with Maurice Ewing and Frank Press on investigations of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. During this work, she discovered another seismic discontinuity, which lies at depths between 190 and 250 km and is usually referred to as "Lehmann discontinuity" in honor of its discoverer.
1994: The Whirlpool Corporation began production of an energy efficient refrigerator that did not use freon
1995 – Steve Fossett lands in Leader, Saskatchewan, Canada becoming the first person to make a solo flight across the Pacific Ocean in a balloon.
1996 - mag. 7.5 quake, Peru. Four fishermen killed.
2011 - Mount Bulusan on Luzon in the Philippines erupted, sent thousands fleeing



2/22 ast
1512 – Amerigo Vespucci died
www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile
1627 - Olivier van Noort died; first Dutchman to circumnavigate the world
1632 – Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published.
1732 - George Washington born
1819 – By the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain sells Florida to the United States for five million U.S. dollars.
1824 -Pierre Janssen born; French astronomer who, along with the English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gas helium. On 18 August 1868, while observing an eclipse of the Sun in India, he noticed a bright yellow line with a wavelength of 587.49 nm in the spectrum of the chromosphere of the Sun. This was the first observation of this particular spectral line, and one possible source for it was an element not yet discovered on the earth. Janssen was at first ridiculed since no element had ever been detected in space before being found on Earth.On 20 October of the same year, Joseph Norman Lockyer also observed the same yellow line in the solar spectrum and concluded that it was caused by an unknown element, after unsuccessfully testing to see if it were some new type of hydrogen. This was the first time a chemical element was discovered on an extraterrestrial world before being found on the earth. Lockyer and the English chemist Edward Frankland named the element with the Greek word for the Sun, helios. devised a method for observing solar prominences without an eclipse,
1857 – Heinrich Hertz born, German physicist who clarified and expanded the electromagnetic theory of light that had been put forth byMaxwell. He was the first to satisfactorily demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus to produce and detect VHF or UHF radio waves. the 1st to broadcast & receive radio waves
1880 - moderate earthquake in Japan led John Milne to initiate the founding of the first seismological society in the world, the Seismological Society of Japan. Milne obtained a short seismogram, three seconds in length, of this earthquake. He recorded the motion of a long common pendulum on a moving plate.
www.cpgs.org.uk/ www.kabrna.com/cpgs/publications/pub.htm
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
content.cdlib.org/view
books.google.com/books
1889 – President Grover Cleveland signs a bill admitting North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Washington as U.S. states.
1900 - Sean O'Faolain born; he is best known for his short stories, collected in such volumes as Midsummer Night Madness, The Man Who Invented Sin, The Heat of the Sun, and The Talking Trees (1971). Among his novels are A Nest of Simple Folk and Come Back to Erin
Paul Kollsman born, invented the world's 1st accurate barometric altimeter that became vital to aviation safety
1902: Friedrich Strassmann born, co-discovered neutron-induced nuclear fission in uranium
1918 – Robert Wadlow born, American tallest ever-human
1924 – U.S. President Calvin Coolidge becomes the first President to deliver a radio broadcast from the White House.
1932 - Ted Kennedy born
1969 - Hans Klok born; magician
1972 – The Official Irish Republican Army detonates a car bomb at Aldershot barracks, killing seven and injuring nineteen others.
1974 – Samuel Byck tries and fails to assassinate U.S. President Richard Nixon.
1982 - Jenna Haze born; porn
2005 - More than 600 people are killed and over 1,000 injured, after entire villages are flattened in an earthquake (6.4 on the Richter scale) in the Zarand region of Kerman province in southern Iran *Same province as Bam. www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/m...ke/index.html
Hunter S. Thompson suicide




2/23 ast
1848 – John Quincy Adams died
1855 - Carl Friedrich Gauss died, German mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. After it had disappeared in the Sun, Gauss predicted a position for Ceres in December 1801—just about a year after its first sighting—and this turned out to be accurate within a half-degree when it was rediscovered by Franz Xaver von Zach on 31 December in Gotha, and one day later by Heinrich Olbers in Bremen.
1861 – President-elect Abraham Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington, D.C., after the thwarting of an alleged assassination plot in Baltimore, Maryland.
1886 – Charles Martin Hall produced the first samples of man-made aluminum, after several years of intensive work. He was assisted in this project by his older sister Julia Brainerd Hall.
1887 – The French Riviera is hit by a large earthquake, killing around 2,000.
1915 – Paul Tibbets born, US Air Force retired Brigadier General and pilot of B-29 "Enola Gay" over Hiroshima
1925 - Joel Hastings Metcalf died; discovered asteroid 747 Winchester in Winchester, MA.
1927 – The Federal Radio Commission (later renamed the Federal Communications Commission) begins to regulate the use of radiofrequencies in the United States.
1928 – Vasili Lazarev born, cosmonaut
1941 – Plutonium is first produced and isolated by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg.
1954 – The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine begins in Pittsburgh.
1965 – Michael Dell born, American computer manufacturer
1970 – Niecy Nash born, American actress
1980 – The United States Men's Olympic hockey team defeats the Swedish team to claim gold.
1987 - Ian Shelton, in Chile, discovered Supernova 1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
heritage.stsci.edu/1999/04/...ntal.html www.sciencedaily.com/release...2212.htm
astrophysics.gsfc.nasa.gov/conf...987a/
www.wired.com/thisdayinte...n-the-scene/
apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap060510.html
docs.google.com/viewer (bottom)
1991 – Gulf War: Ground troops cross the Saudi Arabian border and enter Iraq, thus beginning the ground phase of the war.
1997 – A small fire occurs in the Russian Space station, Mir.
1998 – In the United States, tornadoes in central Florida destroy or damage 2,600 structures and kill 42.



2/24
1697: Anatomist Bernard Albinus, who was the 1st to show the connection of the vascular systems of the mother & fetus, is born
1804: Physicist Heinrich Lenz, who worked on electrical conduction & electromagnetism & developed Lenz's Law, is born
1871: Charles Darwin's Descent of Man was published in London
1938: DuPont began commercial production of nylon toothbrush bristles for the so-called "Miracle Tuft Toothbrush."
1968: Nature carried the announcement of the discovery of pulsars (pulsating radio sources)


2/25 ast usgs 2010 2011
1866 – Miners in Calaveras County, California, discover what is now called the Calaveras Skull, human remains that supposedly indicated that man, mastodons, and elephants had co-existed.
1894 – Meher Baba born, Indian spiritual figure (d. 1969)
1943 – George Harrison born
1971 – The first unit of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, the first commercial nuclear power station in Canada, goes online.
1976 - Comet West perihelion
1999 – Glenn T. Seaborg died, American chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1912)



2/26
1842: b. Astronomer & author Camille Flammarion, studied double & multiple stars, wrote 'Popular Astronomy'




2/27 ast usgs
1807 – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow born, American poet
1826 - First recorded observation of Comet Biela, by Jacques Leibax Montaigne, on 3/8/1772. Wilhelm von Biela discovered it again on 2/27/1826 and calculated its orbit. cometography.com/pcomets/003d.html
1843 - Great Comet of 1843 perihelion; this comet inspired Alvan Clark's interest in astronomy
ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/
www.nga.gov/cgi-bin/tbio cometography.com/lcomets/1843d1.html
1860 – Abraham Lincoln makes a speech at Cooper Union in the city of New York that is largely responsible for his election to the presidency.
1878 - Alvan T. Fuller born, 50th Governor of Massachusetts
1897 - Bernard Lyot born; French astronomer; Throughout the 1930s, he labored to perfect the coronagraph, which he invented to observe the corona without having to wait for a solar eclipse. In 1938, he showed a movie of the corona in action to the International Astronomical Union.
1905 - George S. Boutwell died, 20th Governor of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Treasury under President Ulysses S. Grant, Senator and Representative from Massachusetts and the first Commissioner of Internal Revenue under President Abraham Lincoln. In 1868, as a congressman, he served as one of the special prosecutors in the impeachment trials of President Andrew Johnson. He opposed the acquisition by the United States of the Philippines, became president of the American Anti-Imperialist League.
bioguide.congress.gov/scripts...splay.pl
1906 – Samuel Pierpont Langley died, American astronomer, physicist, and aeronautics pioneer. Born in Roxbury, MA.
1910 – Clarence "Kelly" Johnson born, American aircraft engineer (Lockheed Skunk Works)
1917 – John Connally born, American politician (d. 1993)
1921 – Theodore Van Kirk born, American navigator of the Enola Gay
1926 – David H. Hubel born, Canadian neuroscientist, Nobel Prize laureate co-recipient with Torsten Wiesel of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system
1936 - Ivan Pavlov died
1951 – The Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, limiting Presidents to two terms, is ratified.
1971 – "Chilli" Thomas born, American singer (TLC) www.chilli-online.net/rozonda...aphy.htm
Derren Brown born, British magician
1975 – Shelby Walker born, American mixed martial artist; Walker owns the record for the fastest KO in the history of women's MMA being a 5 second KO against Angela Wilson at Ring Of Fury 3 in Boston, Massachusetts.
1979 - Joe Arruda born www.facebook.com/jmarruda
1997 - mag. 7.1 earthquake, Pakistan; 60 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
2010 - magnitude 8.8 earthquake, Chile. equal magnitude with 1/31/1906 Ecuador quake. earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua.../#summary
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...world.php
Jonathan Nieves shot to death, his brother wounded on Charles Street, Sunset Hill, Fall River. Errol Powell, 21, of Fifth St, charged. Police call it gang feud; prosecutor Stephen Nadeau says Nieves not in gang; probable mistaken id?
www.heraldnews.com/news/x19...ry-murder
Asteroid 532 Herculina Occults HIP 60599 (6.2 Magnitude Star) in constellation Coma Berenices
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/....html#1002 asteroidoccultation.com/2010_0...651.htm




2/28 ast ire usgs 2010 2011
1670 – Benjamin Wadsworth born, American President of Harvard University
1788 - Thomas Cushing died, American Continental Congressman and Governor of Massachusetts
1797 - Mary Lyon born, Buckland, MA. 11/8/1837 (Halley's birthday) – Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which later becomes Mount Holyoke College, in South Hadley, MA, where Phoebe Prince hung herself on the anniversary of Edmond Halley's death. www.mtholyoke.edu/inaugurat...y_mhc.html
www.mtholyoke.edu/marylyon/
1830 - Whitley Stokes, Celtic scholar, is born in Dublin. James F. Kenney described Stokes as "the greatest scholar in philology that Ireland has produced, and the only one that may be ranked with the most famous of continental savants"
1851 – Samuel W. McCall born, 47th Governor of Massachusetts
1884 - Seán MacDiarmada born in Kiltycolgher, Co. Leitrim; one of the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising
1901 - Percy Molesworth discovered Jupiter's South Tropical Disturbance
1925 – The 6.2 Charlevoix-Kamouraska earthquake strikes northeastern North America.
earthquakescanada.nrcan.gc.ca/his....php
1928 – C.V. Raman discovered Raman effect.
1939 – Chögyam Trungpa born, Tibetan Buddhist meditation master
1953 – James D. Watson and Francis Crick announce to friends that they have determined the chemical structure of DNA; the formal announcement takes place on April 25 following publication in April Nature (pub. April 2).
1958 – Ginette Harrison born, British mountaineer; climbed Everest
1961 - Barry McGuigan born, Irish boxer world featherweight champion.
1985 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army carries out a mortar attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary police station at Newry, killing nine officers in the highest loss of life for the RUC on a single day.
1986 – Olof Palme, Prime Minister of Sweden, is assassinated in Stockholm.
1991 – The first Gulf War ends.
1997 - GRB 970228, a highly luminous flash of gamma rays, strikes the Earth for 80 seconds, providing early evidence that gamma-ray bursts occur well beyond the Milky Way. First GRB discovered with an optical afterglow. swift.sonoma.edu/about_swift/grbs.html
www.ing.iac.es/PR/newslet.../gamma.html www.nature.com/nature/jou...7783a0.html
earthquake, northwest iran, 1,000 dead
2001 - The Nisqually Earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter Scale hits the Nisqually Valley and the Seattle, Tacoma, and Olympia area of the U.S. state of Washington. 400 injured
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
2007 – Jupiter flyby of the New Horizons Pluto-observer spacecraft.
2010 - Astrophysicist Chushiro Hayashi died. Created models for stars of mass between 0.01 & 100x the Sun.
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html







JANUARY

1/1 ast ire usgs
1801 - Giuseppe Piazzi discovered Ceres
The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1804 – French rule ends in Haiti. Haiti becomes the first black republic and second independent country on the American Continent after the U.S.
1878 - Agner Krarup Erlang born; Danish mathematician, statistician and engineer, who invented the fields of traffic engineering and queueing theory. Erlang created the field of telephone networks analysis. His early work in scrutinizing the use of local, exchange and trunk telephone line usage in a small community, to understand the theoretical requirements of an efficient network led to the creation of the Erlang formula, which became a foundational element of present day telecommunication network studies.
1894 – Heinrich Hertz died, German physicist who clarified and expanded the electromagnetic theory of light that had been put forth by Maxwell. He was the first to satisfactorily demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus to produce and detect VHF or UHF radio waves.
Satyendra Nath Bose born; He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for Bose-Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose-Einstein condensate. He is honored as the namesake of the boson.
1914 - Takeo Hatanaka born; Japanese astronomer. He is known for his theory of the Bowen mechanism in planetary nebulae and the thermo-nuclear basis of stellar evolution
1919 - Rocky Graziano born
www.nytimes.com/learning/g...100101.html www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi
1925 – Edwin Hubble announces the discovery of galaxies outside the Milky Way.
1931 - Martinus Willem Beijerinck died; Dutch microbiologist and botanist. He is most famous as the founder of virology. He discovered viruses (after Dimitri_Ivanovski in 1892), by proving in filtration experiments that the tobacco mosaic disease is caused by something smaller than a bacterium. He named that new pathogen virus.
1951 - Frank Scott Hogg died; Canadian astronomer. Hogg received the second doctorate in astronomy awarded at Harvard University in 1929 where he pioneered in the study of spectrophotometry of stars and of spectra of comets
1957 – An Irish Republican Army (IRA) unit attacks Brookeborough RUC barracks in one of the most famous incidents of the IRA's Operation Harvest. Seán South and Fergal O'Hanlon are killed.
1995 - An article was published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters about the most distant galaxy yet discovered, named 8C 1435+63. It was estimated to be 15,000 million light-years away and appeared soon after the birth of the universe.
2006 - Charles Steen died; American geologist; The Uranium King





1/2 ast ire usgs 2010 2011
533 – Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first pope to adopt a new name upon elevation to the papacy
1788 – Georgia becomes the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution
1886 - Florence Lawrence born; referred to as "The First Movie Star." Lawrence appeared in more than 270 films for various motion picture companies.
1892 - George Airy died, British Astronomer Royal (b. 1801); His many achievements include work on planetary orbits, measuring the mean density of the Earth, a method of solution of two-dimensional problems in solid mechanics and, in his role as Astronomer Royal, establishing Greenwich at the location of the prime meridian. His reputation has been tarnished by allegations that, through his inaction, Britain lost the opportunity of priority in the discovery of Neptune.
1902 – Dan Keating born, Irish republican
1905 - Charles Dillon Perrine shot first discovery photo of Jovian moon, Elara, member of the Himalia group.
adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
1909 - Riccardo Cassin born, Italian mountaineer; In 1961, Cassin was both leader and a successful ascentionist on the expedition that made the first ascent of the eponymous Cassin Ridge on Mount McKinley in Alaska
1913 - Léon Teisserenc de Bort died; French meteorologist who became famous for his discovery of the stratosphere.
1919 - Calvin Coolidge became MA governor
www.nga.org/portal/site/...beeb501010a0/
1920 - George Herbig born, American astronomer at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. He is perhaps best known for the discovery of Herbig-Haro objects. A class of pre–main sequence stars are named Herbig Ae/Be stars after him
1959 – Luna 1, the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and to orbit the Sun, is launched by the U.S.S.R.
1962 - Margaret Emmeline Conway Dobbs, Irish historian, language activist, and defender of Roger Casement, dies
1964 - Pernell Whitaker born; WBA World Light Middleweight champion, WBC World Welterweight champion, the IBF World Light Welterweight Champion, the WBC World Lightweight Champion, the WBA World Lightweight Champion, the IBF World Lightweight Champion
1968 - Cuba Gooding, Jr. born
1969 – Glen Johnson born, Jamaican boxer; IBF light heavyweight champ
Tommy Morrison born; World Boxing Organization heavyweight champion
1980 – Mac Danzig born, American Mixed martial arts combatant
1990 – Alan Hale Jr. died
2000 - A bronze life size statue of Fungi, the Dingle dolphin is unveiled in a special millennium ceremony
2004 – Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that are returned to Earth.
2007 - Irish Becomes The 23rd Official Language Of the EU.
2002 / 2005 / 2013 / 2016 - Earth at perihelion
www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astr...th-seasons
2011 - Kathryn Aurora Gray, age 10, discovered supernova 2010lt, in the galaxy UGC 3378 in the constellation Camelopardalis.
www.astronomy.com/en/News-O...0star.aspx




1/3 ast usgs 2010 2011
1543 – Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo died, Portuguese explorer; Cabrillo was the first European explorer to navigate the coast of present day California in the United States. He helped found the city of Oaxaca, in Mexico
1641 – Jeremiah Horrocks died; English astronomer who was the only person to predict, and one of only two people to observe and record, the transit of Venus of December 4, 1639.
www.transit-of-venus.org.uk/history.htm www.westminster-abbey.org/our-h...rrocks
1760 – John Storm born, American Revolutionary soldier
1777 – American general George Washington defeats British general Charles Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton.
1793 – Lucretia Coffin Mott born, Nantucket; American Quaker,abolitionist, social reformer, and proponent of women's rights. She is credited as the first American "feminist" in the early 19th century but was, more accurately, the initiator of women's political rights.
1818 - Venus transited/occulted Jupiter. It is the last occultation of a planet by another planet before November 22, 2065.
www.bogan.ca/astro/occul.../1818occ.htm
www.iiap.res.in/events/moon_eclipse
climate.gi.alaska.edu/Curtis/astro4.html
1819 – Charles Piazzi Smyth born, Astronomer Royal for Scotland; godson of Giuseppe Piazzi. At age sixteen he became an assistant to Sir Thomas Maclear at the Cape of Good Hope, where he observed Halley's comet and the Great Comet of 1843.
1879 – Grace Coolidge born, First Lady of the United States
1888 – First Light at Lick Observatory: The refracting telescope at the Lick Observatory, measuring 91 cm in diameter, is used for the first time. It was the largest telescope in the world at the time. In April, 1888, the observatory became the first permanently occupied mountain-top observatory in the world. Edward Singleton Holden was the first director.
www.aip.org/history/cosm...efractors.htm mentions Alvan Clark
1892 – J. R. R. Tolkien born
1911 - mag. 7.8 earthquake, Russia; 450 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1945 – Edgar Cayce died
Stephen Stills born; "If you can't be with the one you love, love the one you're with."
1946 - Carl Gustav Witt died; discovered the first Near-Earth asteroid, 433 Eros
1959 – Alaska is admitted as the 49th U.S. State.
1986 - Stephen Synnott discovered Uranus's moons Juliet & Portia
1999 – The Mars Polar Lander is launched.
2007 - Earth at perihelion
www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astr...th-seasons
2008 - Earth at perihelion
Yo-Sam Choi died after boxing match; light flyweight world boxing champion
2010 - Earth at perihelion
2011 - Earth at perihelion
2018 - Earth at perihelion
2019 - Earth at perihelion



1/4 ast usgs 2010 2011
1643 – Isaac Newton born
1785 – Jacob Grimm born, German philologist and folklorist (one of the Brothers Grimm) *Just last night I'd thought of the Universe as a place of stepping stones, milestones, or signposts and pictured the bread crumbs from the Grimms' 'Hansel and Gretel'.
1842 – Frederic T. Greenhalge born, American politician and 38th Governor of Massachusetts
1854 – The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.
1866 - Joel Hastings Metcalf born; discovered asteroid 747 Winchester in Winchester, MA.
1882 - John William Draper died. He was the first person to take an astrophotograph; he took the first photo of the Moon which showed any lunar features in 1840. Then in 1843 he made daguerreotypes which showed new features on the moon in the visible spectrum. He developed the proposition in 1842 that only light rays that are absorbed can produce chemical change. It came to be known as the Grotthuss–Draper law when his name was teamed with a prior but apparently unknown promulgator Theodor Grotthuss of the same idea in 1817. In 1847 he published the observation that all solids glow red at about the same temperature, about 977˚ F (798 K), which has come to be known as the Draper point. B. 5/5/1811.
1896 – Utah is admitted as the 45th U.S. state.
1959 – Luna 1 becomes the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon.
1970 - mag. 7.5 quake, China. 10,000 dead.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...eaths.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...php#china
1971 - Arthur Ford died, American clairaudient
1976 – The Reavey and O'Dowd killings take place (part of The Troubles in Northern Ireland)
1980 – Bobbi Eden born, Dutch pornostar
1989 - Christian Pollas discovered asteroid 4179 Toutatis
impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm
www.universetoday.com/32997/a...outatis/
2003 - Earth at perihelion
www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astr...th-seasons
2004 - Earth at perihelion
Spirit, a NASA Mars Rover, lands successfully on Mars at 04:35 UTC.
2006 - Earth at perihelion
2009 - Earth at perihelion
2010 – The Burj Khalifa, the world's tallest building is officially opened.
2011 - partial solar eclipse. Greatest eclipse occurred at 08:51 UTC in northern Sweden. This was the first of four partial solar eclipses in 2011, with the others occurring on June 1, 2011, July 1, 2011, and November 25, 2011. eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/solar.html
2014 - Earth at perihelion



1/5 ast ire
1759 – George Washington and Martha Dandridge Custis marry.
1796 - Samuel Huntington died, American statesman, signer of the Declaration of Independence, 3rd Governor of Connecticut and 7th President of the Continental Congress
1843 - A strong earthquake in the New Madrid area. This earthquake, mag. 6.3, was the strongest to occur in the region since the 1811-12 sequence. Damage was severe at Memphis, Tennessee, where walls cracked, windows broke, and one building collapsed. The earth sank in places near New Madrid, Missouri.
1865 – Julio Garavito Armero born, Colombian astronomer
1871 - 33 Fenian prisoners, including Devoy, Rossa, O'Leary and Luby, are released by the British in a general amnesty
1874 - Charlestown (deathplace of John Harvard) was annexed by Boston
1885 - Hugh O'Brien is sworn in as Boston's first Irish mayor
1900 – Irish leader John Edward Redmond calls for a revolt against British rule.
1904 – Jeane Dixon born, American psychic
1905 - William Claflin died, Newton, MA; MA governor
bioguide.congress.gov/scripts...splay.pl
1922 – Ernest Shackleton died, Irish explorer
1933 - President Calvin Coolidge died, Northampton, MA. *birthplace of MA gov. Caleb Strong
1941 - Jennie Wyse Power, Irish patriot and women's rights activist dies
1942 - Charlie Rose born
1950 – Krzysztof Wielicki born, Polish mountaineer He is the fifth man to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders. On three of them: Mount Everest, Kangchenjunga and Lhotse, he climbed as the first man ever to do so in winter. Reached Everest's summit on 2/17/80.
1956 - Tim Macartney-Snape born, to an Irish mother and English father in Tanzania; Australian mountaineer; On October 3, 1984 Macartney-Snape and Greg Mortimer were the first Australians to reach the summit of Mount Everest. They reached the summit, without oxygen, via a new route on the North Face (North Face to Norton Couloir). In 1990, Macartney-Snape became the first person to walk and climb from Sea Level to the top of Mount Everest which he writes about in his book Everest: From Sea to Summit.
1968 - Andrew Golota born; Polish heavyweight boxer; He is the former IBF North American and WBA Fedelatin heavyweight champion.
1976 – John A. Costello died, Taoiseach of Ireland
The Republican Action Force, a cover name for the IRA, admits to the brutal murder of ten Protestant workmen in what becomes known as the Kingsmill Massacre
1981 - Harold Urey died; American physical chemist whose pioneering work on isotopes earned him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934 and later led him to theories of planetary evolution.
1994 - Tip O'Neill died
2005 – Eris, the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system, is discovered by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz using images originally taken on October 21, 2003, at the Palomar Observatory. www.mikebrownsplanets.com/
2011 - Koichi Itagaki discovered Supernova 2011B in NGC 2655
www.rochesterastronomy.org/sn20....html



1/8 ast
1324 – Marco Polo died, Italian explorer
1642 – Galileo Galilei died
1789 – Jack Broughton died, English boxer
1790 – George Washington delivers the first State of the Union Address in New York City.
1815 – War of 1812: Battle of New Orleans – Andrew Jackson leads American forces in victory over the British.
1879 - Emory Land born, Canon City, CO, where meteorite landed on 10/27/1973.
1896 – Arthur Ford born, American medium
1918 - Frank John Kerr born; Australian astronomer and physicist who made contributions to human understanding of the galactic structure of the Milky Way.
1931 – Bill Graham born, German-born American music promoter
1935 – Elvis Presley born
1942 – Stephen Hawking born
1959 – Duk Koo Kim born, Korean boxer
1968 – Keith Mullings born, American boxer; WBC Light Middleweight champ
1973 – Soviet space mission Luna 21 is launched.
1994 – Russian cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov on Soyuz TM-18 leaves for Mir. He would stay on the space station until March 22, 1995, for a record 437 days in space.
1995 – Carlos Monzon died, Argentinian boxer
1996 – An Antonov 32 cargo turboprop powered plane crashes into the central market in Kinshasa, Zaire killing more than 350 people.



1/9 ast usgs
1745 - Caleb Strong born, Northampton, MA; MA gov.
1788 – Connecticut becomes the fifth state to be admitted to the United States.
1822 – The Portuguese prince Pedro I of Brazil decides to stay in Brazil against the orders of the Portuguese king João VI, starting the Brazilian independence process.
1848 – Caroline Herschel died; discovered several comets, inc. the periodic comet 35P/Herschel-Rigollet. She discovered M110, a dwarf elliptical galaxy that is a satellite of the Andromeda Galaxy, independently of Messier on 8/27/1783. M110 contains some dust and hints of recent star formation, which is unusual for dwarf elliptical galaxies in general.
astronomycompendium.wikispaces.com/Herschel,+Caroline+Lucretia
1857 – The Fort Tejon earthquake of California occurs, registering an estimated magnitude of 7.9.
1858 – Anson Jones, the last President of the Republic of Texas, commits suicide.
1861 – American Civil War: The "Star of the West" incident occurs near Charleston, South Carolina. It is considered by some historians to be the "First Shots of the American Civil War".
1880 – The Great Gale of 1880 devastates parts of Oregon and Washington with high wind and heavy snow.
1881 – Edouard Beaupré born, horse lifter
1897 - Thomas Gwyn Elger died; A lunar mapper and the first director of the Lunar Section of the British Astronomical Association (BAA). He is known as a careful and indefatigable selenographer. He is most remembered for his book The Moon: A full Description and Map of its Principal Physical Features.Published in 1895, its maps are still highly regarded by lunar observers due to their uncluttered nature.
1913 – Richard Nixon born
1920 – Chan Canasta born, Polish-British magician. *He and Richard Nixon had the same birthday and deathday.
1929 - Brian Friel born, Co. Tyrone, N. Ireland; wrote Dancing at Lughnasa about the Mundy family
1935 – Bob Denver born
1941 – Joan Baez born
1951 – The United Nations headquarters officially opens in New York City.
1952 – Michael Capuano born; US rep from MA
1958 – Mehmet Ali Ağca born, Turkish attempted assassin of Pope John Paul II
1967 – Dave Matthews born
2005 - Chris Robinson murdered stepfather Neil Olson in Lanesborough, MA
2008 – Liam Quinn died, Provisional IRA member


1/10 ast usgs 2010 2011
1573 – Simon Marius born, German astronomer; named some Jovian moons
1776 – Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense.
1778 – Carolus Linnaeus died, Swedish botanist
1810 - Jeremiah Sullivan Black born; US Sec of State
1922 – Arthur Griffith is elected President of the Irish Free State.
1936 – Robert Woodrow Wilson born; American astronomer, 1978 Nobel laureate in physics, who with Arno Allan Penzias discovered in 1964 the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB).
Al Goldstein born, American publisher and pornographer founder of Screw magazine
1946 – The United States Army Signal Corps successfully conducts Project Diana, bouncing radio waves off the moon and receiving the reflected signals.
1949 – Linda Lovelace born, American pornographic actress
1960 – Brian Cowen born, Taoiseach of Ireland
1998 - mag. 5.7 quake, China, 70 dead
2007 – Bradford Washburn died, American explorer, cartographer of Everest and McKinley
2008 - Detection of Supernova 2008am - brightest supernova yet discovered
www.discoveryon.info/2011/03...red.html
www.astrosurf.com/snweb2/20...amHome.htm



1/11
1787 - William Herschel discovered Uranus's first moons, Titania and Oberon.



1/12 ast ire usgs
Nan
1737 (O.S.) - John Hancock born
1792 – Johan August Arfwedson born; Swedish chemist who discovered the chemical element lithium in 1817 by isolating it as a salt. D. 10/28/1841.(see Georges Carpentier below)
1857 - Knut Johan Angstrom born; (d. March 4, 1910) Swedish physicist, son of Anders Angstrom, who invented an electric compensation pyrheliometer and other devices for infra-red photography. With these, he studied the sun's heat radiation.
1885 - Thomas Ashe, patriot and nationalist revolutionary, is born in Lispole, Co. Kerry. Founding member of the Irish Volunteers. Ashe took part in the Easter Rising of 1916.
1894 – Georges Carpentier born, French boxer welterweight champion of France and of Europe in 1911, middleweight champion of Europe in 1912, and light heavyweight champion of Europe in 1913. On June 1, 1913, he beat "Bombardier" Billy Wells in Ghent, Belgium to become heavyweight champion of Europe. He defended his title in December against Wells, in January 1914 against Pat O'Keefe and in London on July 16 he beat Ed "Gunboat" Smith to add the "White Heavyweight Championship of the World" to his European title. Carpentier's one attempt at the heavyweight Championship of the world came on July 2, 1921, when he faced Jack Dempsey and was knocked out. D. 10/28/75.(see Arfwedson above)
1899 - Hiram Walker died; founded Canadian Club whiskey. B. 7/4/1816, East Douglas, MA.
1907 – Sergei Korolev born, Russian rocket scientist
1915 - Richard Evans Schultes born, Boston. Married Dorothy and lived in Melrose.
The Rocky Mountain National Park is formed by an act of U.S. Congress.
Joseph-Aurèle Plourde born, Catholic archbishop of Ottawa
1929 - Vic Toweel born; South African boxer and former undisputed world bantamweight boxing champion
*data inconsistent
1944 - Joe Frazier born; Beaufort, SC
1958 - Sergei Vladimirovich Orlov died; Soviet astronomer. He perfected the mechanical theory of cometary forms and produced the only theory of comets which connects their mechanical and physical properties.
1970 - Zack de la Rocha born
1983 - Rebop Kwaku Baah died, Nigerian percussionist; Reebop died of a cerebral hemorrhage during a performance in Stockholm, Sweden
1986 - Ludwig Franz Benedikt Biermann died; German astronomer. He made important contributions to astrophysics and plasma physics. He predicted the existence of the solar wind.
1997 – Charles B. Huggins died, Canadian-born cancer researcher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1901)
2000 - Despite the controversy over the book, Limerick people turnout in huge numbers to attend the sell out film premiere of Angela’s Ashes.
2001 – William Hewlett died; engineer and the co-founder, with David Packard, of the Hewlett-Packard Company (HP)
2002 – Cyrus Vance died, 57th U.S. Secretary of State
2005 – Deep Impact launches from Cape Canaveral on a Delta 2 rocket. It was designed to study the composition of the comet interior of 9P/Tempel, by releasing an impactor into the comet. On July 4, 2005, the impactor successfully collided with the comet's nucleus.
spaceflightnow.com/delta/d3...sion.html
2007 - Comet McNaught perihelion; became brightest comet in 40 years.
www.space.com/scienceastr...-100412.html
2010 - Haiti earthquake; 230,000 dead
2011 - Mount Etna volcano erupted
www.ct.ingv.it/index.php



1/13
1934 - Paul Villard died; discovered gamma rays




1/14 ast ire usgs
Uncle Dan
1742 - Edmond Halley died
1753 – George Berkeley died, Irish theologian
1851 - Ernst Hartwig born; discovered SN 1885 in Andromeda Galaxy (M31), one day after Isaac Ward discovered it in Belfast. first supernova discovered beyond our Milky Way galaxy
adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
www.google.com/#hl=en&saf...8bcb6a5307c
(scroll to "books.google…" Observing and Cataloguing Nebulae and Star Clusters: From Herschel ... by Wolfgang Steinicke)
1871 - Alexander Sullivan, barrister and last King's Serjeant of Ireland, is born in Dublin. Lead counsel for the defence in the 1916 treason trial of Roger Casement. His opposition to Sinn Féin republicanism and his prominent role in conducting prosecutions on behalf of the Crown during the Troubles led to at least one attempt on his life. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._M...n_(lawyer)
1907 – An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000.
1937 - De Valera's new constitution, with its assertions of Ireland as a sovereign 32-county state
1961 - Rob Hall born; head guide of a 1996 Mount Everest expedition in which he, a fellow guide, and two clients perished. At the time of his death, Hall had ascended Everest more times than any other non-Sherpa mountaineer.
1966 – Sergei Korolev died, Russian rocket scientist
1968 – Veikka Gustafsson born; first Finnish person to have reached the top of Mount Everest.
1969 – Dave Grohl born
2000 - Unionist politicians are furious after Sinn Féin president Gerry Adams claims that there could be a united Ireland by the year 2016, the centenary of the Easter Rising
2005 – Landing of the Huygens probe on Saturn's moon Titan.
2006 - Krista Lucciano of Swansea murdered in FR. *See Ginger and Andrew Lucciano, found murdered in their Sunset Hill, FR home on 3/25/10.
www.obitservices.com/obits.php
2010 - Phoebe Prince, an Irish immigrant, committed suicide in her South Hadley, MA, home after bullying.
www.boston.com/news/educa...t_bullying/
obits.masslive.com/obituari...uary.aspx



1/15
2011 - Comet C/2011 A3 (Gibbs) was discovered on Jan. 15. during the course of the Catalina Sky Survey



1/16
2009 - Asteroid 2009 BD discovered. Will pass Earth within lunar orbit on 6/2/2011.
lunarscience.arc.nasa.gov/artic...d-pass



1/17 ast usgs ire 2010 2011
1706 - Ben Franklin born
1718 – Captain Benjamin Church died, Plymouth Colony settler and military leader
1773 – Captain James Cook and his crew become the first Europeans to sail below the Antarctic Circle.
1786 - Pierre Mechain discovered Comet Encke
1856 - Joseph Hayden, Irish journalist, dictionary compiler and author of Dictionary of Dates, dies
1860 – Douglas Hyde born, first president of Eire
1866 - Death of George Petrie, folk music collector who is credited with preserving many of Ireland’s irreplaceable harp tunes
1887 - Harvey Harlow Nininger born; Meteorite hunter. Founder and curator of the 'American Meteorite Museum' (10/1946 - 9/1953), the first meteorite museum in the world. The museum was located within sight of Meteor Crater in Arizona.
1893 – President Rutherford B. Hayes died
1899 – The United States takes possession of Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean.
1908 – Cus D'Amato born, American boxing manager
1912 – Sir Robert Falcon Scott reaches the South Pole, one month after Roald Amundsen.
1917 – The United States pays Denmark $25 million for the Virgin Islands.
1921 - Bengt Westerlund born; astronomer discovered Westerlund 1
1922 - Betty White born
1927 - Eartha Kitt born
1938 - William H Pickering died
1942 - Muhammad Ali born
1969 – Tijs Verwest born, (DJ Tiësto) Dutch DJ
1971 – Ann Wolfe born; boxer who held world titles in four different weight classes simultaneously. Wolfe is regarded by many within the sport as the hardest puncher in the history of women's boxing.
1977 – Dougal Haston died, Scottish mountaineer; In 1970, with Don Whillans, Haston was the first to climb the south face of Annapurna on an expedition led by Chris Bonington and in 1975, with Doug Scott, he was the first to climb Mount Everest by the south-west face, also on an expedition led by Bonington.
1992 - Seven Protestant constructions workers at a security base in Co. Tyrone are killed by an IRA bomb. The driver of their bus also dies
1994 – 1994 Northridge Earthquake: A magnitude 6.7 earthquake hits Northridge, California. 60 dead; 7,000 injured
1995 – The Great Hanshin earthquake: A magnitude 7.3 earthquake hits near Kobe, Japan, causing extensive property damage and killing 6,434 people. Japan's worst earthquake since the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923, which claimed 140,000 lives.
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...01_16.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...php#japan
1997 - Clyde Tombaugh died
2002 – Mount Nyiragongo erupts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, displacing an estimated 400,000 people.
2006 – Pierre Grondin died, French Canadian cardiac surgeon, early pioneer in heart transplants



1/18 ast usgs
1535 – Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro founded Lima, the capital of Peru.
1779 – Peter Mark Roget born, British lexicographer
1782 – Daniel Webster born, American statesman
1862 - President John Tyler died
1916 – A 611 gram chondrite type meteorite strikes a house near the village of Baxter in Stone County, Missouri.
1937 – John Hume born, Northern Irish politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1998
1956 – Sharon Mitchell born, American porn actress; currently the Director of the Adult Industry Medical Health Care Foundation, which she established in 1998.
1978 – The European Court of Human Rights finds the United Kingdom government guilty of mistreating prisoners in Northern Ireland, but not guilty of torture.
1982 - mag. 7.0 quake, Aegean Sea. Felt strongly throughout Greece.
1984 – Seung-Hui Cho born, American spree killer
Michael Kearney born, American child prodigy
1994 – The Cando event, a possible bolide impact in Cando, Spain. Witnesses claim to have seen a fireball in the sky lasting for almost one minute.
1997 - Paul Tsongas died, cancer, Lowell, MA; U.S. Senator from (Massachusetts) and one-time candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination (b. 2/14/1941)
2000 - The Tagish Lake meteorite impacts the Earth.



1/19 ast ire usgs
5-MeO-DMT officially became a Schedule I substance in the United States, making it illegal to manufacture, buy, possess, or distribute (sell, trade or give) without a DEA license.
1747 - Johann Elert Bode born; German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularization of the Titius-Bode law. Bode determined the orbit of Uranus and suggested the planet's name. The Titius–Bode law (sometimes termed just Bode's law) is a hypothesis that the bodies in some orbital systems, including the Sun's, orbit at semi-major axes in an exponential function of planetary sequence. The hypothesis correctly predicted the orbits of Ceres and Uranus, but failed as a predictor of Neptune's orbit. He published the Uranographia in 1801. He is credited with the discovery of Bode's Galaxy (M81). Died 11.23.1826
1840 – Captain Charles Wilkes circumnavigates Antarctica, claiming what became known as Wilkes Land for the United States.
1851 - Jacobus Kapteyn born; discovered star streaming, now known to be the observed effect of the rotation of our Milky Way. www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~heijd...io.html
1920 - IRA attacks Drombrane barracks, Co. Tipperary
1990 - Osho died
1998 - The Northern peace process are close to collapse after 52-year-old Catholic taxi driver Larry Brennan is killed in an attack which bears all the hallmarks of the UDA/UFF
2006 – The New Horizons probe is launched by NASA on the first mission to Pluto.
2011 - Gramps died, 4:10pm.
Full Moon


1/21
1979 - Neptune became the outermost planet as Pluto moved on its highly elliptical orbit closer to the sun than Neptune's orbit



1/22 ast usgs
1592 - Pierre Gassendi born; On 11/7/1631 Pierre Gassendi views Mercury transit which Kepler had predicted
1779 - Jeremiah Dixon died. English surveyor and astronomer who is perhaps best known for his work withCharles Mason, from 1763 to 1767, in determining what was later called the Mason-Dixon line. Dixon served as assistant to Charles Mason in 1761 when the Royal Society selected Mason to observe the transit of Venus from Sumatra. However, their passage to Sumatra was delayed, and they landed instead at the Cape of Good Hope where the transit was observed on June 6, 1761. Dixon sailed to Norway in 1769 with William Bayly to observe another transit of Venus.
1835 - Rodolphe Radau born; French astronomer; Radau won the Prix Damoiseau of the French Academy of Sciences in 1892 working on planetary perturbations in the motion of the Moon.
1909 – U Thant born, Burmese 3rd United Nations Secretary General
1923 - mag. 7.2 quake, Northern CA, zero dead
1950 – Alan Hale, Sr. died, American actor
1952 – The first Jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet, enters service for BOAC.
1953 – Jim Jarmusch born
1964 - Nigel Benn born; British former boxer who held world titles at both middleweight and super middleweight. He was in the British Army, where he served in The Troubles for 18 months.
1968 – Apollo 5 lifts off carrying the first Lunar module into space.
1973 - Lyndon Johnson died; As a senator, Johnson advocated an aggressive US space programme when President Dwight D. Eisenhower was sceptical of the need for a large American push into space
The Supreme Court of the United States delivers its decision in Roe v. Wade, legalizing elective abortion in all fifty states.
A chartered Boeing 707 explodes in flames upon landing at Kano Airport, Nigeria killing 176.
1989 - mag. 5.3 quake, Tajikistan, 274 dead
1995 – Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy died
1997 - American Lottie Williams was reportedly the first human to be struck by a remnant of a space vehicle after re-entering the earth's atmosphere. At 3 a.m., while walking in a park in Tulsa, Oklahoma, she saw a light pass over her head. "It looked like a meteor," she said. Minutes later, she was hit on the shoulder by a six-inch piece of blackened metallic material. The debris that struck Ms. Williams has not been examined to confirm its origin, but a used Delta II rocket, launched nine months earlier, had crashed into the Earth's atmosphere half an hour earlier. NASA scientists believe that Williams was hit by a part of it, making her the only person in the world known to have been hit by man-made space debris.
2003 - Last successful contact with the spacecraft Pioneer 10, one of the most distant man-made objects.
2011 - Lunar perigee - January 22 at 00:11 UTC *From Louis Suarato on twitter
Asteroid Thalia is at opposition 10h UT (5 a.m. EST)



1/23 ast
1556 – The deadliest earthquake in history, the Shaanxi earthquake, hits Shaanxi province, China. The death toll may have been as high as 830,000.
1622 – William Baffin died, English explorer
1737 - John Hancock born
1803 – Arthur Guinness died, Irish brewer
1857 - Andrija Mohorovičić born; seismologist; An earthquake in the Zagreb area of Croatia on 10/8/1909 led Andrija Mohorovičić to identify the Mohorovičić discontinuity. The Mohorovičić discontinuity, usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle.
1897 – Elva Zona Heaster is found dead in Greenbrier County, West Virginia. The resulting murder trial of her husband is perhaps the only case in United States history where the alleged testimony of a ghost helped secure a conviction.
1920 – Walter Frederick Morrison born; American inventor and entrepreneur, best known as the inventor of the Frisbee. D. 2/9/2010.
1973 – A volcanic eruption devastates Heimaey in the Vestmannaeyjar chain of islands off the south coast of Iceland.
1975 - Tito Ortiz born; UFC Light Heavyweight Champion
1999 - most powerful cosmic explosion ever recorded
www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblo...ever.html
2004 - Jay McNeil discovered McNeil's Nebula
www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx



1/24
1882: Astronomer Harold Babcock, who invented the solar magnetograph for detailed observation of the Sun's magnetic field, is born
1925: A motion picture of a solar eclipse was taken by the U.S. Navy from the dirigible Los Angeles
1950: The original microwave oven patent was issued to its inventor Percy LeBaron Spencer (U.S. No. 2,495,429)
1972 - Allison Dubois born
1986: Voyager II space probe made closest approach--within 81,500-km (50,600 miles)--to Uranus




1/26 ast
1531 – Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake. 30,000 die.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1700 – The magnitude 9 Cascadia Earthquake takes place off the west coast of the North America, as evidenced by Japanese records.
1837 – Michigan is admitted as the 26th U.S. state.
1857 – Trinley Gyatso born, Tibetan, The 12th Dalai Lama. *The Dalai Lama is on PBS RIGHT NOW - "Buddha". Tibet, like Ireland, holding the horns of the colonialist bull.
1904 - Sean MacBride born; Chief of Staff of the IRA and Nobel Peace Prize recipient
www.pittsburghirish.org/AOHDiv...ide.htm
1911 – Glenn H. Curtiss flies the first successful American seaplane.
1913 - Leo Goldberg born; president of the International Astronomical Union (1971-76)
1934 - Joe Erskine born, Wales; heavyweight boxing champ (in Britain only)
1946 – Adriaan van Maanen died, Dutch-American astronomer
1958 – Ellen DeGeneres born
1959 – Salvador Sánchez born, Mexican boxer; world featherweight champ
1962 – Lucky Luciano died, American mobster
1978 – The Great Blizzard of 1978, a rare severe blizzard with the lowest non-tropical atmospheric pressure ever recorded in the US, strikes the Ohio – Great Lakes region with heavy snow and winds up to 100 mph (161 km/h).
1979 – Nelson Rockefeller died, 41st Vice President of the United States
1997 – Jeane Dixon (Lydia Pinckert) died, American astrologer; apparently told Parade Magazine a Democrat would win '60 election and be assassinated or die in office.
2001 - earthquake, Gujarat, India; 20,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
2011 - Shinmoe-dake, a volcanic crater in Japan’s Kirishima volcanic field, continued to erupt several days after coming to life on January 26, 2011. By Friday, January 28 a lava dome began to fill the crater.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Natur...ew.php



1/27
1951 - as Air Force bomber dropped a 1KT atomic bomb on Frenchman Flats, inaugurating an era of above-ground testing in Nevada. (AP)




1/28 usgs ast
1611 – Johannes Hevelius born, Polish-born astronomer; "the founder of lunar topography"; described ten new constellations, seven of which are still recognized by astronomers: Canes Venatici, Lacerta, Leo Minor, Lynx, Scutum, Sextans, and Vulpecula.
www.obliquity.com/skyeye/88const/
1687 - Johannes Hevelius died, Polish-born astronomer; "the founder of lunar topography"; described ten new constellations, seven of which are still recognized by astronomers: Canes Venatici, Lacerta, Leo Minor, Lynx, Scutum, Sextans, and Vulpecula.
1754 – Horace Walpole coins the word serendipity in a letter to Horace Mann.
1818 – George S. Boutwell born, 20th Governor of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Treasury under President Ulysses S. Grant, Senator and Representative from Massachusetts and the first Commissioner of Internal Revenue under President Abraham Lincoln. In 1868, as a congressman, he served as one of the special prosecutors in the impeachment trials of President Andrew Johnson. He opposed the acquisition by the United States of the Philippines, became president of the American Anti-Imperialist League.
1820 – A Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarevdiscovers the Antarctic continent approaching the Antarctic coast.
1838 - J.C. Watson born; Canadian-American astronomer. He discovered 22 asteroids, beginning with 79 Eurynome on 9/14/1863. One of his asteroid discoveries, 139 Juewa was made in Beijing when Watson was there to observe the 1874 transit of Venus
1858 - Dutch anatomist & geologist Eugène Dubois, who discovered the remains of Java man, the 1st known Homo erectus fossil, is born
1872 - mag. 5.7 earthquake, Russia, 200 dead
1933 – The name Pakistan is coined by Choudhary Rehmat Ali Khan and is accepted by the Indian Muslims who then thereby adopted it further for the Pakistan Movement seeking independence.
1960 - 1st wire photograph transmitted by radio waves bounced off the moon was sent between Hawaii and Washington, D.C.
1985 – Supergroup USA for Africa (United Support of Artists for Africa) records the hit single We Are the World, to help raise funds for Ethiopian famine relief. *25 minutes ago, I saw the video on Cool TV; first time in probably decades.
1996 – Jerry Siegel died, American cartoonist "Superman"



1/29 usgs ast
1737 (O.S.) – Thomas Paine born
1754 – Moses Cleaveland born, founder of Cleveland
1761 – Albert Gallatin born, Swiss-American United States Secretary of the Treasury
1843 - William McKinley born
1845 – "The Raven" is published in the New York Evening Mirror, the first publication with the name of the author, Edgar Allan Poe
1859 - William Cranch Bond died; American astronomer and the first director of Harvard College Observatory. In 1806, when he was seventeen years old, Bond saw a solar eclipse. Soon thereafter, he became an avid amateur astronomer. In 1843, a sun-grazing comet aroused enough public interest in astronomy that Harvard was able to raise $25,730 towards the construction of a state-of-the-art observatory. Bond designed the building and the observing chair (both of which are still in working order today), and Harvard bought a fifteen-inch German-built refracting telescope, equal in size to the largest in the world at the time. The telescope was first put to use on June 24, 1847, when it was pointed to the Moon. Bond independently discovered the Great Comet of 1811 and he and his son, George Phillips Bond, discovered Saturn's moon Hyperion; it was independently co-discovered at the same time by William Lassell in Britain, and both are given credit. Father and son were the first to observe the then innermost ring of Saturn, termed the Crepe ring when they pointed Harvard’s telescope towards Saturn in 1850. Working with John Adams Whipple, the Bonds pioneered astrophotography, taking the first daguerreotype image of a star (Vega, in 1850) ever taken from America. A region on Hyperion is called the "Bond-Lassel Dorsum"
1861 – Kansas is admitted as the 34th U.S. state.
1901 – Allen B. DuMont born; inventor best known for improvements to the cathode ray tube in 1931 for use in television receivers.
1939 – Germaine Greer born
1941 - Robin Morgan born; American feminist who I see organized 9/7/1968 protest of Miss America pageant.
1954 – Oprah Winfrey born
1970 - Basil Liddell Hart died, British military historian
1975 – Sara Gilbert born, American actress
1982 - Adam Lambert born *Adam's Apple Ug Uruguay
1985 – Final recording session of We Are The World, by the supergroup USA for Africa.
1998 – In Birmingham, Alabama, a bomb explodes at an abortion clinic, killing one and severely wounding another. Serial bomber Eric Robert Rudolph is suspected as the culprit. *Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer was on CBS earlier tonight.
2002 – In his State of the Union Address, President George W. Bush describes "regimes that sponsor terror" as an Axis of Evil, in which he includes Iraq, Iran and North Korea.
2008 – Margaret Truman died, American writer, daughter of Harry S. Truman
2009 – Hélio Gracie died; Brazilian martial artist who, together with his brother Carlos Gracie, founded the martial art of Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, known internationally as Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ)
2010 - Mars at opposition (occurs every 26 mos.) and largest, brightest full moon of 2010



1/30 ast ire usgs
1661 – Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England is ritually executed two years after his death, on the anniversary of the execution of the monarch he himself deposed.
1816 – Nathaniel Prentice Banks born, 24th Governor of Massachusetts
1820 – Edward Bransfield sights the Trinity Peninsula and claims the discovery of Antarctica.
1835 – In the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States, Richard Lawrence attempts to shoot president Andrew Jackson, but fails and is subdued by a crowd, including several congressmen.
1836 – Betsy Ross died
1882 - Franklin Roosevelt born
1913 – The United Kingdom's House of Lords rejects the Irish Home Rule Bill.
1920 - Tomás MacCurtain is elected Lord Mayor of Cork for Sinn Féin
1927 – Olof Palme born, Prime Minister of Sweden
1930 – Samuel J. Byck born, American attempted assassin of Richard Nixon
1948 – Paul Magee born, Provisional Irish Republican Army member
Indian pacifist and leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist.
Orville Wright died
1959 – Jody Watley born
1969 – The Beatles' last public performance, on the roof of Apple Records in London. The impromptu concert is broken up by the police.
1972 – In what is to become known as Bloody Sunday, the British Army kills 13 civil rights demonstrators in the Bogside district of Londonderry. A 14th marcher later dies of his injuries
1973 - mag. 7.5 earthquake, Mexico; 50 dead
1984 – Luke Kelly died, Irish singer (The Dubliners)
1996 - Comet Hyakutake, the Great Comet of 1996, discovered www2.jpl.nasa.gov/comet/hya...index.html
Gino Gallagher, the suspected leader of the Irish National Liberation Army, is killed while waiting in line for his unemployment benefit.
2009 – Ingemar Johansson died, Swedish heavyweight professional boxing champion of the world



1/31 ast usgs 2010 2011
1605 - mag. 7.5 earthquake, Japan; 5,000 dead
1783 - William Herschel was first to discover a white dwarf star, 40 Eridani B
books.google.com/books
www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definitions/white%20dwarf
1820 – William B. Washburn born, 28th Governor of Massachusetts
1846 – After the Milwaukee Bridge War, Juneautown and Kilbourntown unified as the City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
1862 – Alvan Graham Clark discovers the white dwarf star Sirius B, a companion of Sirius, through an 18.5-inch telescope now located at Northwestern University.
www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definitions/white%20dwarf
1864 - Mathilda Knowles born, Co. Antrim, Ireland; botanist
www.irishcultureandcustoms.com/02...tml
books.google.com/books
1868 – Theodore William Richards born, American chemist; first American scientist to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, earning the award "in recognition of his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements.
1881 - Irving Langmuir born, American chemist, Nobel laureate; His most noted publication was the famous 1919 article "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules" in which, building on Gilbert N. Lewis's cubical atom theory and Walther Kossel's chemical bonding theory, he outlined his "concentric theory of atomic structure".
1905 - Eva Hart born, British survivor of RMS Titanic. D. 2/14/96
1906 - magnitude 8.8 earthquake in Ecuador. equal in magnitude to 2/27/2010 Chile quake.
1913 - The Ulster Volunteer Force is founded by the Unionist Council, posing a threat to the legitimate government
1914 - Jersey Joe Walcott born; became world heavyweight champ on 7/18/51
www.njboxinghof.org/cgi-bin/...seehof.pl
query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html
1919 – The Battle of George Square takes place in Glasgow, Scotland.
1930 – 3M begins marketing Scotch Tape. *I used Scotch tape yesterday to seal my 2010 US Census form becuz the return envelope had been sealed by rain in my mailbox.
1950 – President Harry S. Truman announces a program to develop the hydrogen bomb.
1954 – Edwin Howard Armstrong died, American electrical engineer and inventor of the FM radio
1958 – Explorer program: Explorer 1 – The first successful launch of an American satellite into orbit.
James Van Allen discovers the Van Allen radiation belt.
1961 – Project Mercury: Mercury-Redstone 2 – Ham the Chimp travels into outer space.
1966 – The Soviet Union launches the unmanned Luna 9 spacecraft as part of the Luna program.
1966 - Dirk Brouwer died, New Haven, CT; astronomer; In 1951, he became one of the first to use electronic computers for astronomical computations. With this innovation, he calculated the orbits of the first artificial satellites, and from them, obtained increased knowledge of the shape of the earth, and re-determined astronomical constants. While still a student he determined the mass of Titan from its influence on other Saturnian moons.
www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/Bruce...x.html
1971 – Apollo program: Apollo 14 Mission – Astronauts Alan Shepard, Stuart Roosa, and Edgar Mitchell, aboard a Saturn V, lift off for a mission to the Fra Mauro Highlands on the Moon.
1977 – Kerry Washington born, American actress
Bobby Moynihan born, American comedian (Saturday Night Live)
1979 - Daniel Tammet born
1986 - mag. 5.0 earthquake, Ohio; 20 people had minor injuries
1987 - Kenny McKinley born
1991 - mag. 6.9 earthquake, northeast Afghanistan; 200-400 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
1996 - Comet Hyakutake discovered by Yuji Hyakutake; Great Comet of 1996
www.eso.org/public/news/eso9613/
2000 – Alaska Airlines flight 261 MD-83, experiencing horizontal stabilizer problems, crashes in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Point Mugu, California, killing all 88 persons aboard.
2010 - Howard Lotsof died, liver cancer; champion of Iboga bush
www.nytimes.com/2010/02/17...lotsof.html
2012 - Asteroid 433 Eros will pass by Earth at @ 70x lunar distance



Wed, June 22, 2011 - 2:58 PM — permalink - 2 comments - add a comment

1911 2011 1986 1922 1904 1995 1928 1974 1998

1911
Augustus Love won the Adams Prize -- named in honor of John Couch Adams -- for his work "Some Problems of Geodynamics" in which he explained Love waves.
www.egu.eu/awards-medal...tus-love.html
www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Bio...html
projecteuclid.org/DPubS
www.ams.org/journals/bul...4-02529-7.pdf
2/6 - Ronald Reagan born
2/12 - Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh born; Irish president
5/21 - Williamina Fleming died, Scottish-born astronomer
12/25 - Louise Bourgeois born; artist. "Art is a guarantee of sanity. That is the most important thing I have said."



2011
1/1 - Stephen Homol drunken driving wreck at Reed and Wood streets, Swansea. Passenger Jason Levesque killed.
www.heraldnews.com/news/x56...ms-1-life
1/2 - Kathryn Aurora Gray, age 10, discovered supernova 2010lt, in the galaxy UGC 3378 in the constellation Camelopardalis.
www.astronomy.com/en/News-O...0star.aspx
1/4 - partial solar eclipse. Greatest eclipse occurred at 08:51 UTC in northern Sweden
1/5 - Koichi Itagaki discovered Supernova 2011B in NGC 2655, a nuclear ring galaxy in constellation Camelopardalis
www.rochesterastronomy.org/sn20....html
1/8 - Venus is at greatest western elongation (47°)
www.astronomy.com/Home/News...20sky.aspx
1/9 - Mercury is at greatest western elongation (23°)
www.astronomy.com/Home/News...20sky.aspx
1/11 - greenish meteor streaked across sky near Poteau, OK. Also seen over MS and FL panhandle
www.todaysthv.com/news/local/story.aspx
1/12 - Mount Etna volcano erupted
www.ct.ingv.it/index.php
1/15 - Comet C/2011 A3 (Gibbs) was discovered on Jan. 15. during the course of the Catalina Sky Survey
1/20 - outburst of Comet 29P
www.faulkes-telescope.com/news/2348
1/22 - Lunar perigee - January 22 at 00:11 UTC *From Louis Suarato on twitter
Asteroid Thalia is at opposition 10h UT (5 a.m. EST)
1/24 - Asteroid Iris is at opposition, 8h UT (3 a.m. EST)
1/25 - Minor planet 144 Vibilia occulted star TYC 1228-00368-1
www.astrode.de/vibilia.htm
1/26 - Mount Shinmoe-dake in Japan began erupting; first there since 1959.
www.dailymail.co.uk/news/art...ears.html
1/27 - Saturn retrograde earthsky.org/tonight
magnitude 6.0 quake, Southeast Iran
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...019jy.php
1/29 - The Pan-STARRS PS1 telescope on Haleakala, Maui, discovered 19 near-Earth asteroids, the most asteroids discovered by one telescope on a single night.
www.hawaii.edu/news/article.php www.ifa.hawaii.edu/info/pre...steroids/
2/1 - Mount Shinmoedake in Japan largest eruption yet felled trees, sent boulders hurtling on to roads and smashed hundreds of windows in hotels and offices five miles (8km) away. Local media said one woman had been cut by shattered glass, but there were no reports of serious injuries. www.guardian.co.uk/world/20...acuations
2/2 - Quaoar occulted star 2UCAC 26029329. Seen in Europe.
www.iota-es.de/prediction...110202.html
2/4 - Near-Earth asteroid 2011 CQ1, made a record close Earth approach at 5480 km
neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news170.html
news.discovery.com/space/wa...bent.html
remanzacco.blogspot.com/2011/0...ch.html
2/9 - asteroid 2011 CA7 - about the size of a car - will fly within 64,300 miles (103,480 kilometers) of Earth
www.space.com/10800-car-s...g-earth.html
2/11 - mag. 6.9 quake, Chile. First of 4 pretty big quakes in 4 days.
theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com/2011/02/14/6-6-maule-fourth-major-quake-rattles-chile-in-four-days/
2/12 - M6.6 solar flare captured on Solar Dynamics Observatory camera. Solar Observatory launched one year ago.
www.aviationweek.com/aw/blog...ndex.jsp
2/14 - sun unleashed its strongest solar flare in four years
www.space.com/10862-sun-e...r-flare.html
www.space.com/11538-post-...r-flare.html
daytime fireball seen over NYC and Philly
www.mikesastrophotos.com/comet...02-14/
www.space.com/10873-dayti...-states.html
www.philly.com/philly/new...nesses.html
rare mag. 4.2 quake in Germany
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...01dv9.php
NASA spacecraft rendevous with Comet Tempel 1
2/18 - Full Snow Moon
2/21 - Mount Bulusan in the Philippines erupted, sent thousands fleeing
2/22 - mag. 6.3 quake killed 70 in Christchurch, NZ
3/3 - Jim Elliot died, cancer; MIT prof. Part of the team that discovered that Uranus's rings. In 1988, he flew to a remote section of the Pacific Ocean to observe a celestial phenomenon known as occultation and discovered evidence that Pluto has an atmosphere.
www.boston.com/yourtown/c..._potential/
3/7 - A coronal mass ejection (CME) exploded from the vicinity of sunspot 1164 during the late hours of March 7th. It lept away from the sun traveling some 2200 km/s, making it the fastest CME since Sept. 2005. source: spaceweather.com/
3/10 - mag 5.8 quake, China, 22 dead
3/11 - mag. 9.0 quake and tsunami, Japan
3/12 - Asteroid Juno is at opposition, 10h UT (5 a.m. EST)
3/13 - Owsley "The Bear" Stanley died
arts.nationalpost.com/2011/03...stralia/
Mount Shinmoedake in Japan largest eruption in 52 years
3/14 - Asteroid Massalia is at opposition, 22h UT (6 p.m. EDT)
3/16 - asteroid (2011 EB74) missed earth by 0.9 lunar distances: diameter ~18 m, velocity 7.69 km/s, energy ~65 kilotons. It was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey a day earlier on 3/15.
www.msnbc.msn.com/id/421191...nce-space/
www.space.com/11145-small...g-earth.html
3/17 - Jupiter at perihelion. 12-year orbit. earthsky.org/astronomy-e...nets-tonight
www.space.com/11043-jupit...g-skies.html
3/19 - "moon will be closer to Earth than it's been since 1992."
www.popsci.com/science/ar...al-disaster
darkskydiary.wordpress.com/2011...ense/
3/22 + 23 - Mercury reaches greatest eastern elongation, 9 p.m. 3/22 EDT (1h UT Mar. 23)
3/24 - mag. 7.0 quake, Myanmar, 100 dead
3/26 - Venus passes 0.2° south of Neptune, 9 p.m. EDT (1h UT March 27)
3/27 - Nova Saggitarii 2011 #2
www.universetoday.com/84520/o...-2011-2/
3/28 - Jupiter & Saturn are at mutual opposition today, 180° apart. The 2 won't be this far apart again until 2029. (Abrams) LouisS twitter
NASA’s Swift satellite caught a flash of high-energy X-rays pouring in from deep space. The event was labeled GRB 110328A –a gamma-ray burst. GRB 110328A is nearly four billion light years away, and the ferocity of its final moments is not to be underestimated: it peaked at a solid one trillion times the Sun’s brightness! Astronomers think the GRB resulted from a star being torn apart by a black hole.
blogs.discovermagazine.com/bada...hole/
www.nasa.gov/topics/univ...gration.html
blogs.discovermagazine.com/bada...ture/
www.nasa.gov/topics/univ...engines.html
www.nasa.gov/topics/univ...gration.html
arxiv.org/abs/1104.2528
4/3 - Saturn at opposition and reaches its peak visibility for 2011.
www.steamboatpilot.com/news/2...vents-/
www.astronomy.com/News-Obse...APR03.aspx
4/5 - Robert McNaught discovered asteroid 2011 GM44, a PHA (Potentially Hazardous Asteroid). It's close approach to Earth occurred 4 days earlier on 4/1/11.
remanzacco.blogspot.com/2011/0...44.html
4/6 - Newly-discovered asteroid 2011 GW9 flew within 48,000 miles of Earth this morning at 12:53 am EDT, according to the Jet Propulsion Lab’s Small Body Database. A second space rock, 2011 GP28, will slip within 120,000 miles of Earth at about 3:36 pm. GW9 is 20 to 46 feet across and GP28 is between 12 and 26 feet across, making both bodies two to three times smaller than the object that slammed into a region near the Tunguska River in Russia in 1908.
www.wired.com/wiredscienc...e-asteroids/
Tennessee Fireball: meteor brighter than the crescent Moon
lunarmeteoritehunters.blogspot.com/2011/04/dyersburg-tennessee-meteor-6apr2011.html
www.spacedaily.com/reports/..._999.html
4/8+9 - new Aten asteroid officially designated 2011 GP59 discovered. Close approach to Earth on 4/15/11.
www.universetoday.com/84830/a...g-alert/
remanzacco.blogspot.com/2011/0...ch.html
britastro.org/blog/
4/9 - Mercury is at inferior conjunction
www.pa.msu.edu/abrams/nightskynotes/
dcsymbols.com/future/2011almanac.htm
Fireball seen from St. Louis, Missouri to Ontario, Canada
www.universetoday.com/84886/a...ireball/
4/11 - "Welcome back Uranus to the north celestial hemisphere - first time this has happened since 1969 August 2, almost 42 years ago!" Richard Miles on Twitter 4/11/11. twitter.com/#!/astromiles
Lunar occultation of Zeta Geminorum for the US East Coast: +4.0 magnitude, Moon illumation 45%
www.youtube.com/watch
www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...7.htm
docs.google.com/viewer 3-4 pgs down
4/12 - powerful gamma-ray burst detected in the Crab Nebula
www.bbc.co.uk/news/scienc...ent-13362958
4/13 - Spica, the brightest star in Virgo and 15th brightest star in the nighttime sky is at opposition and visible all night
4/14 - The recurrent nova T Pyxidis was discovered in outburst. It was detected by M. Linnolt (Hawaii, United States) at a visual magnitude of 13.0. This is the first outburst of T Pyx since December 7, 1966, nearly 45 years.
www.aavso.org/aavso-alert-notice-436
4/15 - Close approach to Earth Aten asteroid 2011 GP59 at 1.39 LD
www.universetoday.com/84830/a...g-alert/
remanzacco.blogspot.com/2011/0...ch.html
britastro.org/blog/
4/17 - lunar perigee early, Full Pink Moon late
4/18 - Mars & Saturn are 180° apart.
Comet C/2011 C1 McNaught perihelion. On 4/4/11, it was announced this comet was brightest comet in the sky.
4/19 - Mercury and Mars close encounter before dawn on East horizon
4/25 - Tungurahua erupted in Ecuador sending ash 3 miles high
Kelly Torres and the victim were arguing in the driveway of the Torres' residence when Jose Torres struck the 41-year-old man and ran from the scene in Fall River.
www.heraldnews.com/news/x63...ng-police
4/26 - Type 1a supernova detected in NGC 3972. SN 2011by is currently at mag. +14.2.
www.xjltp.com/XOSS/XM20ZJ/XM20ZJ.htm
4/27 - Tornadoes rip through South killing scores
4/29 - A fireball brighter than the light of the full moon over Southeast US, northern Florida, Georgia, the Carolinas, and Alabama.
lunarmeteoritehunters.blogspot.com/2011/04/florida-georgia-alabama-large-meteor.html
lists.meteorobs.org/pipermai...3360.html
4/30 - Occultation of +10mag star by 7 Iris early Saturday AM from Washington to Virgina
asteroidoccultation.com/2011_0...pNA.gif
Meteorite caused damage to barn roof in Poland
www.thenews.pl/national/a...poland.html
astroguyz.com/2011/05/19/...polish-town/
On the last day of April and first five days of May, dozens of tiny earthquakes caused Maine’s eastern coast to tremble.
www.wired.com/wiredscienc...earthquakes/
5/3 - unique partial solar eclipse from space viewed NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory
3d-sun.org/news/newsitem_211.html
Swift detection of GRB 110503A, a burst with a bright optical counterpart
gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/gcn3/11991.gcn3
5/6 - Eta Aquarid meteor shower, spawned by Halley's Comet, peaked
5/10 - Asteroid occultation of 10mag star by 349 Dembowska. Crosses SW US Central Florida May 10th 10:02-09UT.
asteroidoccultation.com/2011_0...pNA.gif
5/11 - New Comet reported; C/2011 H1 (Lemmon). Currently very faint at a discovery magnitude of +19.7.
mag. 5.1 quake, Spain. 8 dead.
The Jupiter-Venus conjunction reaches a minimum separation of 0.5deg in the dawn skies.
5/12 - Mount Etna erupted for 1st time since 1/13/2011
5/13 - Asteroid 10 Hygiea opposition
astroguyz.com/2011/05/02/...d-%E2%80%9D/
5/15 - earthquake occurred about 8:30pm, Buzzards Bay, Cape Cod
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...01256.php
5/17? - asteroid (2002 CQ11) missed earth by 35 lunar distances: diameter ~455 m, velocity 10.75 km/s, energy ~2 gigatons
ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi
5/19 - Mercury passes 2° south of Mars, 9 p.m. EDT (1h UT May 20) *AstronomyMagazine
Two bright star lunar occultation (4.8 mag) for North America on the 19th early AM: 1st 4.2 mag 44 Ophiuchus and 51 Ophiuchus.
www.lunar-occultations.com/iota...3.htm
5/20 - Fireball, maybe from Comet Halley, over Georgia. Captured by NASA video. "The meteor was caused by a human-size chunk of an unknown comet (6-foot-wide (1.8-meter)) . It was the brightest meteor yet recorded by NASA's fireball-observing network — based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. — in its nearly three years of operation, officials said." space.com
www.space.com/11759-halle...ireball.html
5/22 - A tornado killed 130 people in the small Missouri town of Joplin
Pluto occults a 15mag star for North America Sunday morning at 622UT
www.asteroidoccultation.com/obse...5.jpg
5/26 - Lunar occultation of the +5 magnitude star Kappa Piscium
5/27 - first warm day. around 75 degrees.
5/28 - I found Luzon, the Philippines - tied to Bulusan volcanic eruption - Luzon embodies a deer
mag. 5.1 quake, Loyalty Islands
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...03swl.php
5/29 - Occultation of a +7mag star by asteroid 217 Eudora Sunday AM over US
asteroidoccultation.com/2011_0...pNA.gif
5/31 - two French backyard astronomers independently managed to snag digital images of a supernova explosion caught in the act – with all the action occurring within the Whirlpool galaxy 31 million light years away.
newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2...y/
6/1 - partial solar eclipse for northern Norway, Sweden and Finland
science.nasa.gov/science-n...dnightsun/
Tornadoes in Springfield, MA, and other areas. 4 dead.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Natur...ew.php
Nova Scorpii 2011 in Scorpius
www.aavso.org/aavso-alert-notice-442
An asteroid the size of a small motorhome zoomed near Earth. The 23-foot-long (7-meter) space rock, named 2009 BD, came within 215,000 miles (346,000 kilometers) of Earth at around 8:51 p.m. EDT (0051 GMT on June 2). The moon's average distance from us is about 239,000 miles (385,000 km)
lunarscience.arc.nasa.gov/artic...d-pass
6/2 - Cosmos4u tweeted pict which "confirms a new stellar object in galaxy M 51, in all likelyhood a fresh supernova."
6/3 - stellar occultation: of Tyco 5696-016 80-1 by asteroid 1166 Sakuntala
6/4 - eruption of Puyehue Volcano in Chile's South
6/12 - Mercury is at superior conjunction. Mercury will join the evening sky in the last 2 weeks of June. Saturn ends retrograde motion. (Abrams)
6/15 - total lunar eclipse. longest in 11 yrs
6/28 - Pluto at opposition
www.rasnz.org.nz/index.htm
7/1 - partial solar eclipse
7/12 - Neptune year www.skyandtelescope.com/news/9...09.html
www.sydneyobservatory.com.au/201...sky/
7/27 - lunar occultation of Mars. Last one happened 12/6/2010.
transit.savage-garden.org/en/oc...tions/
8/10 - Moon will cover the 2.9-magnitude star Pi Sagittarii for the eastern half of North America.
www.skyandtelescope.com/commun...34.html
8/15 - Comet 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova makes an earth close approach
8/22 - Neptune's opposition www.telescopes.net/doc/3020
9/10 - Comet Elenin at perihelion
9/25 - Uranus's opposition www.telescopes.net/doc/3020
10/13 - The 32,000-meter asteroid 1036 Ganymed will pass by Earth
io9.com/5671675/
10/28 - Jupiter's opposition www.telescopes.net/doc/3020
11/8 - 2005 YU55, about a quarter-mile wide and on Lincoln Laboratory's list of potentially dangerous Near-Earth asteroids, will pass by Earth. Asteroid 2005 YU55 will pass by Earth at a distance of 98,000 miles, well within lunar orbit.
11/25 - partial solar eclipse
12/22 - transit of (650) Amalasuntha over Jupiter.
tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/m...ge/24994 software "Solex" of Dr. Aldo Vitagliano



1986
1/12 - Ludwig Franz Benedikt Biermann died; German astronomer. He made important contributions to astrophysics and plasma physics. He predicted the existence of the solar wind.
2/9 - Comet Halley perihelion
2/28 - Olof Palme, Prime Minister of Sweden, is assassinated in Stockholm.
3/15 - Malcolm Hartley discovered Comet 103P/Hartley 2
cometography.com/pcomets/103p.html ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi
www.skyandtelescope.com/observ...69.html
5/9 - Tenzing Norgay died
11/22 - Mike Tyson defeats Trevor Berbick to become youngest Heavyweight champion in boxing history.



1922
1/5 – Ernest Shackleton died, Irish explorer
1/7 – Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64–57 votes.
1/10 – Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann.
1/12 – The British government releases the remaining Irish prisoners captured in the War of Independence.
1/15 – Michael Collins becomes Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government.
February – Ring Magazine is first published.
3/12 - Jack Kerouac born
3/28 - Joey Maxim born; light heavyweight champion of the world.
5/12 – A 20-ton meteorite lands near Blackstone, Virginia, USA.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/192....33..502O (says May 11th)
5/28 – Lou Duva born, American boxing trainer
5/30 – In Washington, D.C., the Lincoln Memorial is dedicated.
6/1 - The Royal Ulster Constabulary is officially founded.
6/10 – Judy Garland born
6/18 – Jacobus Kapteyn died, Dutch astronomer
6/22 - Two London based volunteers of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), Reginald Dunne and Joseph O'Sullivan, shot and killed British field marshal Henry Hughes Wilson.
6/28 – The Irish Civil War begins.
8/2 – Alexander Graham Bell died
8/5 – Harry Boland died, Irish republican
8/12 – Arthur Griffith died, President of Ireland
8/22 – General Michael Collins is assassinated in West Cork. (Today's 8/22.)
9/13 – 15 – Fire, probably started by Turkish troops, destroys most of Smyrna, killing an estimated 100,000.
10/25 – The Third Dáil enacts the Constitution of the Irish Free State.
11/8 – Christiaan Barnard born, South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first successful human-to-human heart transplant.
11/11 - earthquake, Atacama, Chile, mag. 8.5. tsunami caused damage in Hilo, Hawaii
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...11_11.php earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...world.php
11/24 – Popular author and Irish Republican Army member Robert Erskine Childers is executed by an Irish Free State firing squad for illegally carrying a revolver.
12/6 – The Irish Free State officially comes into existence. George V becomes the Free State's monarch. Tim Healy is appointed first Governor-General of the Irish Free State and W. T. Cosgrave becomes President of the Executive Council.



1904
1/26 - Seán MacBride born in Paris; Irish government minister, prominent international politician, Chief of Staff of the IRA, and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. His father, John, was executed after the Easter Rising. Seán joined the Irish Volunteers in 1919 when aged 15, and was an active member during the Irish War of Independence. He opposed the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty and was imprisoned by the Irish Free State during the Civil War.
3/4 - George Gamow born, Ukrainian-born theoretical physicist and cosmologist. He discovered alpha decay via quantum tunneling and worked on radioactive decay of the atomic nucleus, star formation, stellar nucleosynthesis, big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background, nucleocosmogenesis and genetics.
4/20 - Max Wolf discovered asteroid 532 Herculina. 20th largest asteroid. *Asteroid 532 Herculina Occults HIP 60599 (6.2 Magnitude Star) in constellation Coma Berenices on 2/27/10.
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/....html#1002 asteroidoccultation.com/2010_0...651.htm
4/22 – J. Robert Oppenheimer born, American physicist
11/8 - Teddy Roosevelt elected president
12/3 – Discovery photographs of Jupiter's largest irregular satellite, Himalia, are shot by Charles Dillon Perrine and team at Lick Observatory. adsabs.harvard.edu//full/se....000.html
12/28 - Alphonse Borrelly discovered Comet Borrelly
12/30 – The East Boston Tunnel opens.



1995
1/1 - The Draupner wave in the North Sea in Norway is detected, confirming the existence of freak waves.
1/9 – Valeri Polyakov completes 366 days in space while aboard the Mir space station, breaking a duration record.
1/17 – A magnitude 6.8 earthquake called the "Great Hanshin earthquake" occurs near Kobe, Japan, causing great property damage and killing 6,434 people.
2/9 – STS-63: Dr. Bernard A. Harris, Jr. and Michael Foale became the first African American and Briton, respectively, to walk in space.
3/14 - William Alfred Fowler died, American physicist; Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983 for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe (shared with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar).
3/22 – Cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov returns after setting a record for 438 days in outer space.
3/24 – For the first time in 26 years, no British soldiers patrol the streets of Belfast, Northern Ireland.
5/14 – The Dalai Lama proclaims 6-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as the 11th reincarnation of the Panchen Lama.
5/28 – A 7.6 magnitude earthquake in Neftegorsk, Russia kills at least 2,000.
6/1 – The busiest hurricane season in 62 years begins.
6/6 – U.S. astronaut Norman Thagard breaks NASA's space endurance record of 14 days, 1 hour and 16 minutes, aboard the Russian space station Mir.
6/23 – Jonas Salk died
7/18 - On the Caribbean island of Montserrat, the Soufriere Hills volcano erupts. Over the course of several years, it devastates the island, destroying the capital and forcing most of the population to flee.
hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowat..._07_28.html
7/23 - Comet Hale-Bopp discovered by Thomas Bopp and Alan Hale
8/9 - Jerry Garcia died
8/14 – An avalanche buries Alison Hargreaves, the first woman to climb Mt. Everest without oxygen; she is reported dead.
8/21 – Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar died; He was a Nobel laureate in physics along with William Alfred Fowler for their work in the theoretical structure and evolution of stars
10/6 – Michael Mayor and Didier Queloz announce the discovery of 51 Pegasi b, the first confirmed extrasolar planet.
10/24 – A total solar eclipse is visible from Iran, India, Thailand, and Southeast Asia.
11/7 – Typhoon Angela leaves the Philippines and Vietnam devastated, with 882 deaths. The typhoon was the strongest to strike the Philippines in 25 years, with wind speeds of 130 mph and gusts of 180 mph.
11/21 – The Dayton Agreement to end the Bosnian War is reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio (signed December 14).
11/22 – Egypt, Eilat, Israel, and much of the North African Mediterranean is struck by the strongest earthquake (7.2 Mw) along the Dead Sea Transform in a century; 8 are killed.
12/7 – NASA's Galileo probe reenters over Jupiter.
12/8 – 6-year-old Gyaincain Norbu is enthroned as the 11th reincarnation of the Panchen Lama at Tashilhunpo Monastery.



1928
2/4 - Hendrik Lorentz died, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize laureate derived the transformation equations subsequently used by Albert Einstein to describe space and time. In 1892, with the attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, Lorentz proposed that moving bodies contract in the direction of motion. Lorentz introduced the term local time, which expresses the relativity of simultaneity between reference frames in relative motion.
3/10 – James Earl Ray born
3/23 - John Oke born; astronomer and professor of astronomy at Caltech. He worked in astronomical photometry and spectroscopy and is well known for creating instruments for the detection and measurement of cosmic phenomena. His instruments were use on the 200 inches (5.1 m) Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar, California and the Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. His work and instruments lead to the spectacular 1963 discovery that quasar 3C 273 was receding from Earth at one sixth the speed of light.
3/25 – Jim Lovell born; Lovell was also the command module pilot of Apollo 8, the first Apollo mission to enter lunar orbit. Commander of failed Apollo 13.
He is one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon, the first of only three people to fly to the Moon twice, and the only one to do so without making a landing. Lovell was also the first American to fly in space four times.
4/6 – James D. Watson born; DNA
4/28 - Eugene Merle Shoemaker born, American astronomer
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/news82.html www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/news81.html
6/18 – Roald Amundsen died, Norwegian explorer
7/6 – The world's largest hailstone falls in Potter, Nebraska.
7/11 - Bobo Olson born; He was the world middleweight champion between October 21, 1953 and December 1955, the longest reign of any champion in that division during the 1950s, although he is probably best remembered for his three knockout losses against Sugar Ray Robinson
9/16 – The 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane kills at least 2,500 people in Florida.
www.sun-sentinel.com/news/na...60.story
www.palmbeachpost.com/storm/c...ane.html
11/6 - Herbert Hoover becomes president
12/23 - Michael Philip Candy born; British astronomer who discovered Comet Candy 1960N on 12/26/1960. This was the first time an astronomer had discovered and calculated the orbit of a comet. During the 1960’s he expanded his astronomical expertise by work at the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO). Here he observed double stars and calculated proper motions and parallaxes. He also assisted development of this type of work at various observatories, notably with visits to Egypt during 1965 and Spain in 1968. Michael Philip Candy joined the Perth Observatory in 1969 and was Director 1984-93. Much of his work has been on comets and minor planets. One of his career highlights was calculating positions for Halley's comet in 1986, with 10% of all Earth-based positions of the comet being made from Perth under his supervision.
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/199...105...56.
www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~jds/history.htm
books.google.com/books
www.eoas.info/biogs/P001984b.htm



1974
5/10 - mag. 6.8 quake, China. 20,000 dead
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...eaths.php
6/5 - An IRA sniper shot dead a patroling British soldier on Irish Street in Dungannon
August 8 – U.S. President Richard Nixon announces his resignation (effective August 9).
August 9 – Vice President Gerald Rudolph Ford succeeds Richard Milhous Nixon as the 38th President of the United States of America.
10/13 - Ed Sullivan died, American television host
November 16 – The Arecibo radio telescope sends an interstellar radio message towards the M13 Great Globular Cluster. The message will reach its destination around the year 27,000.
November 17 – Erskine Hamilton Childers died, 4th President of Ireland
November 24 – A skeleton from the hominid species Australopithecus afarensis is discovered and named Lucy.
December 24–December 25 – Darwin, Australia is almost completely destroyed by Cyclone Tracy.
12/28 - earthquake, Pakistan; 5,300 dead.
earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/to...index.php
earthquake.usgs.gov/earthqua...12_28.php



1998
1/6 – The Lunar Prospector spacecraft is launched into orbit around the Moon, and later finds evidence for frozen water, in soil in permanently shadowed craters near the Moon's poles.
1/8 – Cosmologists announce that the universe's expansion rate is increasing.
1/14 – Researchers in Dallas, Texas present findings about an enzyme that slows aging and cell death (apoptosis).
2/4 – An earthquake measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale in northeast Afghanistan kills 3,500 people.
news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/...2534279.stm
2/23 – Florida El Niño Outbreak: Tornadoes in central Florida destroy or damage 2,600 structures and kill 42.
3/2 – Data sent from the Galileo probe indicates that Jupiter's moon Europa has a liquid ocean under a thick crust of ice.
3/5 – NASA announces that the Clementine probe orbiting the Moon has found enough water in polar craters to support a human colony and rocket fueling station.
4/8 – April 1998 Birmingham tornado: An F5 tornado strikes the western portion of the Birmingham, Alabama area, killing 32 people.
4/15 - Pol Pot died
4/16 – An F3 tornado passes through downtown Nashville, Tennessee, the first significant tornado in 11 years to directly hit a major city. An F5 tornado travels through rural portions south of Nashville (see 1998 Nashville tornado outbreak).
4/23 - rare lunar occultation of Venus and Jupiter
antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap980513.html
4/27 – Carlos Castaneda died, Peruvian-born American anthropologist and author. B. 12/25/25
5/11 – India conducts 3 underground nuclear tests in Pokhran, including 1 thermonuclear device.
5/26 – Bear Grylls, 23, becomes the youngest British climber to scale Mount Everest
5/28 – Phil Hartman murdered
5/30 – A 6.6 magnitude earthquake hits northern Afghanistan, killing 4,000 in the same area of NW Afghanistan as the 2/4/98 earthquake.
6/23 – Maureen O'Sullivan died; Irish actress who was considered Ireland's first film star.
7/5 – Japan launches a probe to Mars, joining the United States and Russia as an outer space-exploring nation.
7/17 – A tsunami triggered by an undersea earthquake destroys 10 villages in Papua New Guinea, killing an estimated 1,500, leaving 2,000 more unaccounted for and thousands more homeless.
7/21 – Alan Shepard died, American astronaut
8/2 – Second Congo War begins. 3,900,000 people are killed before it ends in 2003, making it the bloodiest war, to date, since World War Two.
8/15 – Omagh bombing: The Real IRA detonates a car bomb in Omagh, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland, killing 29 and injuring over 200 (the greatest loss of life in a single incident of The Troubles).
8/27 - An intense gamma-ray burst from SGR 1900+14 was detected. SGR 1900+14 is located in the constellation of Aquila about 45,000 light-years away. It is an example of an intensely magnetic star, known as a magnetar, which is thought to arise from a fairly recent supernova explosion; only four are known to exist for certain within our Milky Way Galaxy.
9/4 – Google, Inc. is founded in Menlo Park, California, by Stanford University Ph.d.candidates Larry Page and Sergey Brin
10/29 – Hurricane Mitch makes landfall in Central America, killing an estimated 18,000 people.
11/8 - John Hunt died
11/17 – Kenneth McDuff executed, American serial killer
12/9 - Archie Moore died










1999 1988 1990 1993 1931

1999
1/23 - most powerful cosmic explosion ever recorded
www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblo...ever.html
11/28 - Leighlinbridge Meteorite County Carlow, Ireland




1988
The U.S. Drought of 1988 causes big crop damage in many states, impacts many portions of the United States and causes around $60 billion in damage. Multiple regions suffer in the conditions. Heat waves cause 4,800 to 17,000 deaths while scorching many areas of the United States during 1988.
January 15 – Seán MacBride died, Irish Republican Army leader, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
2/20 - Rihanna
March 7 – Operation Flavius: The Special Air Service fatally shoots 3 unarmed Provisional Irish Republican Army members in Gibraltar.
3/13 - John Holmes died, American pornographic actor
3/16 - Milltown Cemetery Attack: During the funeral of three Provisional IRA volunteers in Milltown Cemetery in Belfast,Northern Ireland, Ulster Defence Association (UDA) member Michael Stone attacked the crowd with grenades and pistols, killing three and wounding over sixty. They were murdered because they were likely to be Catholic.
March 19 – Corporals killings: In Belfast, Northern Ireland, British Army Corporals Woods and Howes were attacked after driving straight into a funeral for the victims of the Milltown Cemetery Attack just three days earlier, after they were mistakenly thought to be carrying out a similar attack to the one by Ulster Defence Association (UDA) member Michael Stone, in which he killed three Catholics attending the funeral.
4/12 - Harry McShane died, Scottish socialist
5/10 - Ciaran Bourke died. one of the original founding members of theIrish folk band The Dubliners.
June 5 – The first National Cancer Survivors Day is held.
June 25 – Hillel Slovak died,